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San Francisco, California 


A Guide to the Golden State 



Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers' Project 

of the Works Progress Administration 

for the State of California 


Sponsored by Mabel R. Gillis, California State Librarian 




F. C. HARRINGTON, Administrator 

FLORENCE S. KERR, Assistant Administrator 

HENRY G. ALSBERG, Director of the Federal Writers' Project 


All rights are reserved, including the rights to reproduce this book or parts 

thereof in any form. 



California has so great a diversity of places and people and things 
that the problem of getting it between the covers of a single book 
seemed almost unsolvable. The final preparation of this guide has 
involved the difficult task of choosing between what to put in and 
what to leave out. The staff of the Federal Writers' Project in Cali- 
fornia knows that its own trials in gathering, checking and rechecking, 
assembling, and selecting the thousands of items that go into the making 
of a guide book have been shared by the editors of the forty-seven other 
State books in the American Guide Series. But in the course of elimi- 
nating more words than there are in these pages, the California staff 
has sometimes wished that its State were just a little smaller, so that it 
might be described in more detail. 

And yet there is more in this book than the editors thought it 
could possibly include; for, although the distance between the borders 
of Oregon and Mexico is more miles than they like to think about, 
they have covered every mile. The book, moreover, has been written 
to be read, not only by those to whom California is still an unseen and 
fabulous land of sunshine and oranges, but also by those who will look 
in these pages for something new and little-known about the everyday 
California in which they live and work. For readers of both kinds, 
visitors and residents, the editors have tried to make this book a true 
mirror of the State and its people. Romance has been kept in its place 
Joaquin Murrieta does not jump out from behind every tree or 
boulder in California to hold up travelers, and yet he does pop up 
often enough that the observant reader will have little trouble finding 

The editors wish to acknowledge their indebtedness to the work of 
others who have preceded them in describing California, and especially 
to California, an Intimate Guide by Aubrey Drury, Rider's California; 
A Guidebook for Travelers by Fremont Rider, and Historic Spots in 
California by H. E. and E. G. Rensch and Mildred Brooke Hoover. 

The California staff gratefully acknowledges the aid of Federal, 
State, and local governmental agencies, and of commercial and civic 
associations and automobile clubs. Particular appreciation is due the 
staffs of the Bancroft and State Libraries, for their cooperation. 


Among the many individuals to whom the editors wish to express 
their gratitude for generous aid in special fields are : Herbert E. Bolton, 
Will G. Corlett, Richard Down, Alfred Frankenstein, Louis J. Gill, 
Florence Hagee, Norman E. A. Hinds, Paul Robinson Hunter, Rupert 
Hughes, Olaf Jenkins, William Templeton Johnson, Idwal Jones, 
William Knowles, R. B. Koeber, A. L. Kroeber, Grace L. McCann 
Morely, Richard S. Requa, C. J. Ryland, Carl Sauer, Windsor Soule, 
W. L. Stephenson, George R. Stewart, Jr., Hilmuth Ulmer, T. K. 
Whipple, Lloyd Yoder, and finally the sponsor, Mabel R. Gillis, State 
Librarian, for her interest and gracious advice. 

Field supervision from the Washington office of the Federal Writers* 
Project was done by Clair Laning, Assistant National Director. 

JAMES HOPPER, State Director for Northern California 
LEON DORAIS, State Director for Southern California 

Editorial Staff 


PAUL C. JOHNSON, Assistant State Director 

WALTER MCLROY, State Editorial Supervisor 

MARGARET WILKINS, State Editorial Supervisor 







KENNETH BOLLEY, Editorial Supervisor 

ROBERT C. BROWNELL, Editorial Supervisor 




Acknowledgments are also due to the many other persons on the 
Federal Writers' Project who faithfully aided in the gathering and 
preparation of material for this book. 









Part I. California: From Past to Present 














Part II. Signposts to City Scenes 





Los ANGELES 206 












Part III. Up and Down the State 

TOUR 1 Westport San Francisco Monterey Las Cruces [State i] 317 

Section a. Westport to San Francisco 318 

Section b. San Francisco to Monterey ..... 328 

Section c. Monterey to Las Cruces 340 

TOUR 2 (Brookings, Ore.) San Francisco Los Angeles (Tijuana, 

Mexico) [US 101] 348 

Section a. Oregon Line to San Francisco .... 348 

Section b. San Francisco to San Luis Obispo . . . 368 

Section c. San Luis Obispo to Los Angeles. . . . 391 

Section d. Los Angeles to Mexican Border .... 398 

TOUR 2A Junction with US 101 Lakeport St. Helena NapaVal- 

lejo Junction with US 40 [State 20-29] .... 409 

TOUR 2B Junction with US 101 Long Beach Doheny Park [US 101 

Alt.] 415 

TOUR 2C Wilmington Santa Catalina Island (By Boat) . . . 423 

TOUR 3 (Ashland, Ore.) Sacramento Los Angeles (Mexicali, 

Mexico) [US 99 and 99 W] 4^7 

Section a. Oregon Line to Sacramento 4^7 

Section b. Sacramento to Bakersfield ..... 44 

Section c. Bakersfield to Los Angeles 45^ 

Section d. Pomona to Beaumont 455 

Section e. Indio to Mexican Border 457 

TOUR 3A (Klamath Falls, Ore.) Weed [US 97] 463 

TOUR 3B Red Bluff Marysville Roseville [US 99E] .... 464 

TOUR 3C Greenfield Maricopa Ventura [US 399] 4^9 

TOUR 4 Chilcoot El Dorado Sonora Mariposa [State 49] . . 47 2 

Section a. Chilcoot to El Dorado 475 

Section b. El Dorado to Mariposa 


TOUR 5 Junction with US 99 Lassen Volcanic National Park 
Quincy Truckee [State 89] ....... 

Section a. Junction with US 99 to Morgan Springs . . 5OI 

Section b. Junction with State 36 to Truckee . . . 506 

TOUR 6 (Lakeview, Ore.) Alturas (Reno, Nev.) Bishop San 

Bernardino San Diego [US 395] ...... 507 

Section a. Oregon Line to Nevada Line ..... $08 

Section b. Nevada Line to Bishop ...... S 1 ^ 

Section c. Bishop to Brown ........ 5 J 7 

Section d. Brown to Junction with US 66 . . . . 521 

Section e. San Bernardino to San Diego .... $22 

TOUR 6A Junction with US 395 Susanville Chester Red Bluff 

[State 36] ............ 528 

TOUR 6B Junction with US 395 Portola Quincy Oroville Marys- 
ville Knights Landing Woodland Sacramento [State 

24] ............. 533 

TOUR 6C Junction with US 395 Warner Hot Springs Julian Junc- 

tion with US 80 [State 79] ....... 539 

TOUR 7 (Tonopah, Nev.) Bishop Brown Mojave Palmdale 

Los Angeles Long Beach [US 6] ...... 542 

Section a. Nevada Line to Bishop ..'.... 543 

Section b. Brown to Long Beach ...... 544 

TOUR 8 Alturas Redding Junction with US 101 [US 299] . . 54$ 

Section a. Alturas to Redding ....... 54$ 

Section b. Redding to Junction with US 101 55 2 

TOUR 8A Canby Lava Beds National Monument Bartle . . . 558 

TOUR 9 (Reno, Nev.) Sacramento San Francisco [US 40] . . 5^2 

Section a. Nevada Line to Sacramento ..... 5^2 

Section b. Sacramento to San Francisco ..... 57O 

TOUR 9A Sacramento Rio Vista Antioch Concord Oakland [State 

24] ............. 580 

TOUR 10 (Carson City, Nev.) Sacramento San Francisco [US 50] 587 

Section a. Nevada Line to Sacramento ..... 587 

Section b. Stockton to San Francisco ..... 595 

TOUR 11 (Las Vegas, Nev.) Baker Barstow Bakersfield Morro 

Bay [US 91-466] .......... 602 

Section a. Nevada Line to Barstow ...... 602 

Section b. Barstow to Morro Bay ...... 605 


TOUR 12 (Kingman, Ariz.) Needles San Bernardino Santa 

Monica [US 66] 608 

Section a. Arizona Line to Barstow 609 

Section b. Barstow to San Bernardino . . . . . 6l2 

Section c. San Bernardino to Santa Monica. . . . 6l8 

TOUR 13 (Quartzite, Ariz.) Blythe Indio Beaumont Riverside 

Los Angeles [US 60-70] 624 

Section a. Arizona Line to Indio 625 

Section b. Indio to Los Angeles 627 

TOUR 14 (Yuma, Ariz.) El Centro San Diego [US 80] ... 635 

Section a. Arizona Line to El Centro 636 

Section b. El Centro to San Diego 640 


Park Tour i Western Entrance at Towne's Pass to 

Eastern Entrance in Furnace Creek Wash. [State 190] 649 

Park Tour 2 Furnace Creek Junction Badwater 

Saratoga Springs Junction. [East Highway] . . . 653 


Sequoia Park Tour 66l 

General Grant Park Tour ........ 665 


Tour i Arch Rock Entrance Station to Old Village [All- 

Year Highway, El Capitan Rd.] 671 

Tour 2 South Entrance Gate Mariposa Big Tree Grove 

Junction with Pohono Bridge Rd. 674 

Tour 3 Junction with Big Oak Flat Rd. Aspen Valley 
Entrance Station Tuolumne Meadows Tioga Pass 

Junction with US 395 [State 120] 675 

Yosemite Park Trails 678 


Part IV. Appendices 



INDEX 699 




Vineyard, Livermore Valley 

Orange Grove, Los Angeles 

Date Palms, near Indio 

Orchard Scene in Napa County 

Figs in the Dry Yard 
Horace Bristol 

Harvesting Tomatoes in Sacra- 
mento Valley 

Migratory Workers Weighing 


University of California, Berkeley 
Class in Gardening, Los Angeles 

Public School 

High School Students, Los Angeles 
Doheny Library, University of 
Southern California, Los An- 

Aviation Students, Los Angeles 
Lick Observatory, near San Jose 


Airview, San Francisco-Oakland 

Bay Bridge 
Golden Gate Bridge 
San Francisco Skyline 
In the Harbor, San Francisco 
Devastated Area San Francisco 
Fire and Earthquake (1906) 
Southern Pacific Historical Col- 

California Street from Nob Hill 
(1900) San Francisco 
Southern Pacific Historical Col- 


City Hall, Los Angeles 
Wilshire Boulevard, Los Angeles 
Airview, Long Beach 
Watson Airfotos 

Between 62 and 63 
Young Cotton Picker 
Mural in Post Office, Whitter 
Wine Stored for Aging, Napa 


Bed of Ail-American Canal 
Construction Work on Imperial 

Early Spanish Water Wheel, 

near Lone Pine 
Drought Refugees from Texas 

encamped near Exeter 

Between 124 and 125 
Mt. Wilson Observatory 
Henry E. Huntington Library, 

Arcades, Stanford University, Palo 

Easter Sunrise Service, Hollywood 


Race Track, Santa Anita 
Along the Beach, Santa Catalina 

Between 186 and 187 
Golden Gate International Ex- 

Dr. Sun Yat Sen Memorial, San 

Sculpture by Beniamino Bufano 
Photograph by Theodore Baron 
Chinese Quarter, San Francisco 
Airview, the Capitol, Sacramento 
Sutler's Fort, Sacramento 
Residential Section, Fresno 
Old Whaling Station, Monterey 

Between 280 and 281 
Old Spanish Lighthouse, San 

Court House, Santa Barbara 



CITIES II. continued 
Cabrillo Beach, San Pedro 
Rose Bowl, Pasadena 
Los Angeles Tennis Club 
Tournament of Roses, Pasadena 
Real Estate Office, Los Angeles 

Horace Bristol 
Los Angeles Restaurant 

Horace Bristol 


Map of California, Drawn in 

Bancroft Library 

A View of Sutler's Mill and Cul- 
loma Valley 

Behrman Collection 
Working at Sutter's Mill (1850), 
twenty-five feet from where 
gold was discovered 
Behrman Collection 
Russian Church, Fort Ross (1812) 
San Francisco in 1849 

Bancroft Library U. of C. 


Mineral Soda Works, Indepen- 

Warner Bros. Studios, Burbank 

China Clipper Passing San Fran- 
Clyde Sunderland 

Planes on Assembly Line, Santa 
Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc. 

Unloading Steel for Bay Bridges, 
San Francisco 


Public Library, Los Angeles 


Palace of Fine Arts, San Fran- 

Theodore Baron 
Carson House, Eureka 
Court Hollyhock, Barnsdall Park, 

Los Angeles 
Healthhouse, Los Angeles 


Interior, Mission San Miguel 

Angelus Temple, Los Angeles 
Yacht Race in Alamitos Bay, 

Long Beach 
Grauman's Chinese Theater, 

Tortilla Maker, Olvera Street, 

Los Angeles 

Between 374 and 375 
Prairie Schooner, brought to 
Yolo County by John Bemmerly 
from Ohio in 1849 
Mary E. and Agnes H. Bem- 
merly, and the Woodland 
C. of C. 
On to the Gold Fields 


Lynch Law (1856) 
Stage Coach and Train, Cisco 

Southern Pacific Railroad 
Pony Express; Highwaymen in 
Behrman Collection 


Between 468 and 469 
Modern Studio Set during Film- 

Caterpillar Truck with Wheeler 
Grapes into Wine 
Inspecting Peaches at Cannery 


Oil Wells Along Huntington 


Oil Tanks 


Between 562 and 563 
Mission San Carlos Borromeo, 

near Carmel 
Mission Santa Barbara 
Los Angeles County Hospital 


Tower of California Building, 
Balboa Park, San Diego 

C. M. Johnson 
450 Sutter, San Francisco 



Yosemite Falls, Yosemite Na- 
tional Park 
Mt. Shasta 

Owens Lake from Cerro Gordo 
Sand Dunes 

Bret Weston 

Sierras from Owens Valley 
Pedro Point, Gulf of Farralon 
Standard Oil Company of Cali- 

Mt. Whitney from Whitney 

Between 624 and 625 
Donner Lake, from Donner Pass 
Dante's View, Death Valley 
Indian Pictograph in California 


U. S. Army Air Corps 
Along the Merced River in the 

Yosemite Valley 
Deer, Sequoia National Park 
Lumbering A Redwood i8-feet 

in Diameter 



STATE MAP back pocket 

TRANSPORTATION MAP insert on State map 

TOUR MAP front end paper 

Los ANGELES reverse of State map 

DOWNTOWN Los ANGELES reverse of State map 

SAN FRANCISCO reverse of State map 












General Information 

Railroads: Southern Pacific Lines (SP), Western Pacific R.R. 
(Feather River Route), Northwestern Pacific R.R., Great Northern 
Ry., Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. (Santa Fe), Sacramento North- 
ern Ry., Union Pacific R.R. (overland Route). 

Highways: Network of State highways and good country roads cover 
the State. Highway patrol to safeguard traffic and enforce regulations. 
Inspection at State Lines. 

Bus Lines: Burlington Lines, Greyhound Lines, Santa Fe Trailways, 
Union Pacific Stages, Inland Stages, and Feather River Stages. 

Air Lines: American Airlines, Inc., Pan American Airways Co., 
Transcontinental & Western Air Inc. (TWA), United Air Lines, 
Western Air Express. Los Angeles and San Francisco are terminals 
for transcontinental lines, San Francisco (Alameda Field) for the Pan 
American Airways service to Hawaii and the Philippines. 

Waterways: Scheduled services to Alaska and Mexico, from San 
Francisco to Oregon and Washington, and from San Francisco to 

Trails: The Pacific Crest Trail traverses the main divides of the 
highest mountain ranges in the three Pacific states. There are five 
sections of this trail in California: Lava Crest Trail, 330 miles; Tahoe 
Yosemite Trail, 260 miles; John Muir Trail, 185 miles; Sierra Trail, 
1 60 miles; and Desert Crest Trail, 475 miles. All trails are open 
in July and Aug.; the southern trails from May through November. 
For information address Clinton C. Clark, President of the Pacific 
Crest Trail System Conference, 125 S. Grand Ave., Pasadena, Calif. 

Traffic Regulations: Speed: 15 miles per hour at grade crossings, 
road intersections, and curves where the driver's view is obstructed; 
15 miles per hour in passing schools where persons are entering or 


leaving; 20 miles per hour in business districts; 25 miles per hour in 
residential districts; 45 miles per hour under all other conditions. 

Lights: Spotlights allowed. Headlights to be deflected or dimmed 
when passing other cars on the open road. 

Licenses: Nonresidents must have operator's license from their home 
States and must obtain visitors' permits for their vehicles within 5 days. 
Licenses issued to adults, no fee; to minors 16 to 21 yrs. of age, with 
parental liability. 

Required: Hand signals must be used. All accidents must be re- 
ported to some civic authority (police department in cities and towns). 
On narrow mountain roads the upgrade vehicle has the right-of-way. 
Prohibited: Coasting in neutral, parking on highways, passing street- 
cars on left (in cities and towns), passing on curves or at crests of 

Trailers: All highways in State suitable for house and camp trailers, 
except steep and unimproved mountain roads. State and National 
parks, and trailer parks in some towns, have special facilities for trailers. 
Trailers are licensed according to weight. (For city ordinance govern- 
ing trailers see Cities.) 

Border Rules (digest) : All persons returning to the United States 
from Mexico must make a declaration to the customs officers covering 
all goods and merchandise purchased in Mexico. Articles for personal 
or household use, up to the value of $100, are exempt from import 
duty. Exemption is allowed each person not more often than every 
30 days. Cigars, cigarettes, tobacco, and foodstuffs may be included 
in the exemption, but the quantities are limited. American citizens 
wishing to visit any place farther south than Ensenada, or in the 
interior of Mexico, must obtain a tourist card (cost $1.01 in U. S. 
currency) from the nearest Mexican consul, or from the Mexican 
Immigration Office at the port of entry. 

Accommodations: State is well provided with hotels, lodges, motor 
courts, housekeeping cabins, and campgrounds, both public and private. 
Recreation areas have large resort hotels, swimming pools, golf courses, 
tennis courts, and well-equipped campgrounds. State and National 
park campgrounds are equipped with necessary conveniences. 

Regulations in Parks and Monuments: U. S. Forest Service offices in 
the parks or in cities and towns furnish maps and special information. 


Campfires, including fires in wood or oil stoves, are illegal without a 
permit, which will be issued free by the nearest forest officer. All 
camping parties in national forests must be equipped with a shovel 
(over-all length at least 26 in., head weight not less than 2 Ibs.). 
During fire season (indicated by signposts) smoking is prohibited except 
in camps, at places of habitation, in special posted areas, and above 
7,000 ft. elevation. Be careful to extinguish lighted matches, cigars, 
cigarettes, and pipe heels. Observe carefully all posted signs, particu- 
larly the "No Smoking" and the "Closed Area" signs. Build small 
fires. Clear an area of not less than 10 feet in diameter down to 
mineral soil, extinguish all fires with plenty of water. If garbage 
pits or incinerators are not provided, burn or bury all refuse. Do 
not pollute springs, streams, or lakes by unsanitary acts. Observe the 
fish and game laws. Drive carefully on mountain roads. 

Wild Flower Regulations: No wild flowers may be picked at any 

Hunting and Fishing: Because of the complexity of the State laws, it 
is advisable to write for the Abstract of California Sporting Fish and 
Game Laws. Detailed information may be secured by writing the 
State Division of Fish and Game. 

Climate and Equipment: State has a mild climate with no snow in 
winter except at high altitudes. Visitors should be prepared for warm 
weather in summer, but carry sweaters or light coats for cool evenings 
and sudden changes in temperature. In general there is no rain during 
the three summer months. Special equipment for winter sports and 
mountain climbing may be rented in resort areas. Hikers and riders in 
high mountain regions should have hats with brims at least three inches 
wide, stout leakproof shoes or boots, woolen hose, denim jeans, warm 
sweater or jacket, and raincoat or poncho (preferably on U. S. Army 

Poisonous Plants and Reptiles: Poison-oak grows throughout State 
except in higher altitudes. It has crinkly edged, shiny leaves; is found 
at the edge of highways, in wooded areas, and in fields. Rattlesnakes 
exist, but are not numerous, being found in rocky regions below the 
3,000 ft. level; will not strike unless disturbed. Black widow spiders 
are rare. 


Calendar of Events 

Note: "nfd" means no fixed dale 


ist wk 
4th wk 


Feb. ist wk 
3rd wk 

San Francisco 
San Diego 

San Francisco 

Big Pines 
San Bernardino 
San Francisco 
and Los Angeles 

Tournament of Roses 
Rose Bowl Football Game 
East- West Football Classic 
New Year Regatta 
Invitational Figure-Skating 

California Dog Show 

Annual Snow Pageant 
National Orange Show 

Chinese New Year 

Mar. ist wk 
ist wk 


Apr. ist wk 
3rd wk 
4th wk 

May ist wk 
2nd wk 
3rd Sunday 

June ist wk 

3rd wk 

place chosen each 

place chosen each 



San Francisco 
Santa Clara 

Mendocino Coast 


Mt. Tamalpais 

Angels Camp 

Los Angeles 


San Juan Bautista 
Long Beach 

Kennel Club Show 
Spring Flower Show 
California Ski Championship 

Pacific Coast Championship 

Polo Games 

Spring Garden Show 
Ramona Pageant 
Rowing Regatta 
Mission Play 

Rhododendron Festival 
Mother Lode Rodeo 
Mountain Theater Play 
Jumping Frog Jubilee 
Festival of Allied Arts 

Auburn Fair and Gold Rush 


Mission Pageant 
Water Sports Carnival 


July 4 

ist wk 

July 4th wk 


Aug. ist wk 
2nd wk 
3rd wk 
4th wk 


Sept. ist wk 
2nd wk 


Oct. ist wk 

4th wk 

Nov. nfd 

Dec. 3rd wk 
4th wk 

Santa Barbara 

Santa Barbara 




Santa Barbara 
Sutter Creek 
Newport Beach 

place chosen each 

San Gabriel 
Los Angeles 


Mare Island, 
San Diego, 
San Pedro, 
San Francisco 

Berkeley of 
Palo Alto 

Los Angeles 
Los Angeles 

Motorboat Regatta 
Semana Nautica (marine 

National Horse Show 

Bach Festival 

Hollywood Bowl Symphony 


Pilgrimage Play 
California Rodeo 

Serra Pageant 

Old Spanish Days 

Gold Rush Fete 

Race Week and Yachting 

California Amateur Golf 


State Fair 

Mission Festival 

Pacific and Southwest Tennis 

Pacific Coast Tennis Cham- 

Frontier Days 

Navy Day 

University of California 
Stanford University "Big 

Great Western Livestock and 

Poultry Show 
Book Fair 


A Guide to Recreation 


Aquariums, Marine Museums, and Submarine Gardens: Submarine 
gardens, marine museum and aquarium at Avalon, Santa Catalina 
Island. Aquarium and marine museum, Scripps Institute of Oceanog- 
raphy at La Jolla. Submarine gardens, Municipal Museum, Hopkins 
Marine Biological Laboratory at Pacific Grove. Stillwater Cove sub- 
marine gardens at Pebble Beach. Steinhart Aquarium in Golden Gate 
Park at San Francisco, Cabrillo Beach Marine Museum at San Pedro. 
Aquarium at Venice. 

Art Collections: Carmel Art Association at Carmel. The Artists' 
Barn at Fillmore. Laguna Beach Art Association at Laguna Beach. 
Los Angeles County Museum of History, Science and Art, Southwest 
Museum, and Los Angeles Art Association at Los Angeles. Keith 
Memorial Gallery in St. Mary's College at Moraga. Oakland Art 
Gallery and Mills College Art Gallery at Oakland. Museum of 
Fine Arts and Thomas Welton Stanford Art Gallery in Stanford 
University at Palo Alto. Pasadena Art Institute at Pasadena. Mis- 
sion Inn at Riverside. E. B. Crocker Art Gallery at Sacramento. 
Fine Arts Gallery in Balboa Park at San Diego. San Francisco Mu- 
seum of Art, San Francisco Art Association, California Palace of the 
Legion of Honor, and M. H. de Young Memorial Museum at San 
Francisco. Huntington Library and Art Gallery at San Marino. 
Faulkner Memorial Art Gallery at Santa Barbara. Museo (museum) 
in Mission Santa Ynez at Solvang. Louis Terah Haggin Memorial 
Galleries in Victory Park at Stockton. 

Aviaries: Santa Catalina Island Aviaries at Avalon. Roeding Park 
at Fresno. Griffith Park Bird Sanctuary and Cawston Ostrich Farm 
at Los Angeles. Bird Shelter at Lake Merritt in Oakland. Balboa 
Park at San Diego. Golden Gate Park and Fleishhacker Playfield 
and Zoo at San Francisco. 

Museums: Pony Express Museum at Arcadia. Herbarium and Mu- 
seums of Anthropology, Geology, Paleontology, and Vertebrate Zool- 


ogy, University of California at Berkeley. Naval Museum at Mare 
Island. Los Angeles Museum of History, Science, and Art, and 
Southwest Museum at Los Angeles. Municipal Museum and Snow 
Museum at Oakland. Municipal Museum at Pacific Grove. Leland 
Stanford Jr. Memorial Museum and Jordan Hall natural history 
collections, Stanford University, at Palo Alto. Palace of Science, 
Museum of Anthropology, and Natural History Museum in Balboa 
Park and Junipero Serra Museum at San Diego. M. H. de Young 
Memorial Museum and California Academy of Sciences Museum in 
Golden Gate Park at San Francisco. Museum of Natural History 
at Santa Barbara. Museum in Victory Park at Stockton. Collec- 
tions of pioneer relics at Columbia ; Downieville ; Fort Humboldt, 
Eureka; Independence; Customs House, and First Theater, Mon- 
terey; William B. Ide Memorial Museum, Red Bluff; Mission Inn, 
Riverside; State Capitol and Sutter's Fort, Sacramento; Estudillo 
House, San Diego; Shasta; Mission San Francisco Solano and Vallejo 
Home, Sonoma; and Ventura. Small natural history collections at 
Mae Loomis Memorial Museum, Lassen Volcanic National Park; 
Government Center and Mariposa Grove, Yosemite National Park. 
Mineralogical collection at State Division of Mines museum, Ferry 
Building, San Francisco. 

National Parks and Monuments: Death Valley National Monu- 
ment, Devil Postfile National Monument, General Grant National 
Park, Joshua Tree National Monument, Lassen Volcanic National 
Park, Lava Beds National Monument, Muir Woods National Mon- 
ument, Palm Canyon National Monument, Pinnacles National Monu- 
ment, Sequoia National Park, Yosemite National Park. 

Observatories: Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton near San Jose, 
Mount Wilson Observatory near Pasadena, Chabot Observatory at 
Oakland, California Institute of Technology Observatory on Palomar 
Mountain (under construction). Planetarium at Griffith Park, Los 

Zoological Gardens: Gay's Lion Farm at El Monte. Deer en- 
closure, aviary, and duck ponds in Roeding Park at Fresno. Cali- 
fornia Zoological Society Gardens, Cawston Ostrich Farm, and alli- 
gator farm near Lincoln Park, and Bird Sanctuary and Zoo in Griffith 
Park at Los Angeles. Oakland Zoo in Sequoia Park at Oakland. 
William Land Park Zoo at Sacramento. Zoological Society of San 
Diego Gardens in Balboa Park at San Diego. Aviary, deer park, and 
bison and elk paddocks in Golden Gate Park and Fleishhacker Play- 
field and Zoo at San Francisco. 



Athletic Stadiums: California Memorial Stadium, University of 
California at Berkeley. Marine Stadium at Long Beach. Coliseum 
in Exposition Park at Los Angeles. Stanford University Stadium at 
Palo Alto. Rose Bowl at Pasadena. Balboa Park stadium at San 
Diego. Kezar Stadium in Golden Gate Park at San Francisco. 

Baseball: Played year round throughout the State. Leading pro- 
fessional circuit, Pacific Coast League, has ball parks in Los Angeles, 
Oakland, Sacramento, San Diego, and San Francisco. 

Football: Played during fall and winter months throughout State 
by teams from universities, colleges, high schools, and independent 
clubs. Chief intercollegiate games are New Year's Day East-West 
games at Rose Bowl in Pasadena and Kezar Stadium in San Francisco. 

Golf: Played year round throughout State at more than 200 
country club courses and many municipal links, including those in 
Griffith Park at Los Angeles, Lincoln and Harding Memorial Parks 
at San Francisco, and Balboa Park at San Diego. 

Horse Racing: Continuous from fall until spring, with season di- 
vided among various tracks. Pari-mutuel betting at Bay Meadows and 
Tanforan, south of San Francisco ; Santa Anita, near Arcadia ; Holly- 
wood Racetrack, Inglewood ; and Del Mar, north of San Diego. Other 
tracks at Los Angeles County Fair Grounds in Pomona, State Fair 
Grounds in Sacramento, and various county fair grounds, operating 
during fairs. 

Polo: Played chiefly during first four months of year at Coro- 
nado, Burlingame, Del Monte, Santa Barbara, San Mateo, and Santa 


Boating: Favorite yachting centers include San Francisco Bay, with 
yacht harbors at Black Point and San Francisco and clubhouses at 
Alameda, Alviso, Belvedere, Richmond, and Sausalito; Monterey Bay; 
Stillwater Cove yacht harbor at Pebble Beach; Santa Barbara yacht 
harbor in Santa Barbara; Terminal Island in Los Angeles Harbor; 
Alamitos Bay at Long Beach; Newport Bay; Coronado and San Diego. 
Accommodations for pleasure craft of other kinds at these and other 
seaside cities. Sailing in launches and sloops on lower Sacramento and 
San Joaquin and other rivers; canoeing, motor-boating, rowing on Rus- 


sian River and other streams and lagoons. Boating of all kinds on 
Big Bear Lake, Clear Lake, Lake Arrowhead, and Lake Tahoe. 
Motorboat races on Lake Elsinore, Lake Merritt in Oakland, Alamitos 
Bay, Newport Bay, and Salton Sea. 

Camping: Campgrounds, trailer camps, cabins, auto courts, "motels," 
and "tent cities" at mountain, forest, desert, lake, river, and seaside 
resorts' throughout State. Summer homesites in National forests for 
rent from U. S. Forest Service at $5 per year up. Camping 50^ per 
car per night in State parks. 

Fishing: Trout fishing throughout the Sierra Nevada in Lake Tahoe, 
glacial lakes and their tributaries, and headwaters of Kern and Kings 
Rivers; in the north, upper Sacramento River and its tributaries, 
Klamath River, and streams of the Coast Range ; in southern Cali- 
fornia, streams of the Sierra Madre and San Bernardino Mountains. 
Native varieties include rainbow (known as steelhead after going to 
sea), cutthroat, Dolly Varden, golden, and Tahoe; imported varieties, 
Loch Leven, Eastern brook, European brown. Lake shallows and 
riffles stocked with millions of trout fry from fish-hatcheries yearly. 
Other game fish imported from East include: black bass, found in 
Clear Lake, northern rivers, and lagoons south of Los Angeles ; striped 
bass, in Suisun and San Pablo Bays ; sunfish ; and yellow perch. Giant 
king salmon caught in Monterey Bay in June, July, and August and 
in San Francisco Bay in August; quinnat and dog salmon caught off 
northern coast and during spawning season, in Klamath River and 
rivers of Coast Range. Best ocean fishing in Monterey Bay, where 
species from both northern and southern waters are found, and off 
southern California coast. South of Point Concepcion, most common 
ocean fish are albacore, barracuda, black sea bass, bonito, leaping tuna, 
sheepshead, swordfish, yellow-fin tuna; peculiar to southern California 
waters are corbina, croaker, flatfish, roncador and yellowfin. Piers 
for surf fishing at Long Beach, Ocean Park, Redondo, and Santa Mon- 
ica. Best deep-sea fishing off Portuguese Bend, Redondo, and Coro- 
nado, Santa Catalina, San Clemente, and Santa Barbara Islands. Santa 
Catalina Island waters especially noted for sport with albacore, broad- 
bill swordfish, dolphin, giant bass, leaping tuna, marlin swordfish, 
white sea bass, and yellowtail. Shellfish, especially abalone, clams, and 
mussels, are dug at many points along coast. 

Hiking: Well-marked trails lead through national parks and for- 
ests and radiate from resorts in Sierra Nevada, Coast Range, and 
southern California ranges. Horses, pack animals, and guides avail- 
able at mountain resorts throughout State. Camps and lodges make 


wilder mountainous regions accessible to skilled mountaineers. All 
trails open in July and August ; southern trails from May to Novem- 
ber. Easy trails lead into Sierra Madre Mountains from Big Pines, 
Camp Baldy, Crystal Lake, and Mount Wilson; into San Bernardino 
Mountains from Big Bear Lake and Lake Arrowhead; San Jacinto 
Mountains from Idyllwild and Kenn Camp; Santa Ynez Mountains 
from Santa Barbara; Mount Hamilton Range from Alum Rock Park 
near San Jose ; Santa Cruz Mountains from California Redwoods State 
Park ; Berkeley Hills from Berkeley ; Mount Diablo Range from Dan- 
ville or Walnut Creek; Mount Tamalpais region from Mill Valley; 
Bear Valley forest and Tomales Ridge from Inverness, Olema, or 
Point Reyes; Castle Crags State Park from Castella; and into red- 
wood groves from resorts along Redwood Highway. Short trails to 
points of interest in General Grant, Lassen Volcanic, Sequoia, and 
Yosemite National Parks are well marked. Among peaks easily climbed 
by amateur hikers are Mount San Antonio, Mount Wilson, Mount 
Lowe, Mount Diablo, Mount Tamalpais, and Lassen Peak. Mount 
Shasta is climbed from late June until early October. Trails into 
Trinity-Salmon Alps lead from Cecilville and Trinity Center, into 
Marble Mountain primitive area from camps along State 96. For 
skilled mountaineers, trails radiate into High Sierra from Lake Tahoe, 
Tuolumne Meadows, Yosemite Valley, General Grant and Sequoia 
National Parks, Kings River Camp in Kings River Canyon, Hunting- 
ton Lake, and Bishop, Lone Pine, and Independence in Owens Valley. 
Pacific Crest Trail, traversing main divides of highest ranges in Pacific 
Coast States, has five sections in California: Lava Crest Trail, 330 
miles; Tahoe Yosemite Trail, 260 miles; John Muir Trail, 185 miles; 
Sierra Trail, 160 miles; and Desert Crest Trail, 475 miles. For 
information address Clinton C. Clark, President Pacific Crest Trail 
System Conference, 125 S. Grand Ave., Pasadena, California. 

Hunting: Deer, most common large game animal, are of three varie- 
ties: blacktail, mule, and white-tail. Found in Sierra Nevada north 
of Lake Tahoe, in northeast above Alturas, and in coast Range from 
Oregon to Mexican border. Open season varies according to region, 
beginning August I in Coast Range and ending October 15 in Sierra 
Nevada. Bears hunted with aid of guides and trained dogs in Sierra 
Nevada, parts of Coast Range, and San Bernardino Mountains. 
Cougars, fair game at any season (bounty on scalps), hunted with 
dogs in regions where deer are found. Foxes common, especially in 
Coast Range; gray wolf and wildcat (red lynx) sometimes hunted. 
Smaller game animals include badgers, cottontails and jackrabbits, gray 
and Douglas squirrels, porcupines, raccoons, and woodchucks. Most 
hunted game fowl are wild ducks, including bluebill, canvasback, gad- 


wall, mallard, ruddy, spoonbill, sprig (pintail), teal, and widgeon. 
Open season usually October 15 to January 31. Chief duck hunting 
grounds are Suisun marshes to north and Alviso marshes to south of 
San Francisco Bay; "tule lands" along Sacramento, San Joaquin, and 
other rivers of Central Valley; marshlands back of beaches at Alamitos 
Bay, Newport Bay, and lagoons in southern California; and scattered 
regions in Imperial Valley, around Monterey Bay, and in Klamath 
River country. Characteristic method is shooting in marshes from 
"tule splitter" boats, but bay blinds and baited ponds are also em- 
ployed. Wild geese and brant are fair game in duck season. Also 
hunted in autumn and winter are mountain quail, chiefly in higher 
Sierra and counties north of San Francisco Bay, and valley quail, in 
lowlands and foothills. Blue grouse, sage-fowl, and Wilson snipe are 
hunted frequently; also avocet, band-tailed pigeon, golden and upland 
plover, ruffed grouse, sandhill crane, and wild dove. 

Motoringr: Among favorite scenic drives for automobilists are Red- 
wood Highway through redwood groves of Humboldt County (see 
Tour la), Victory Highway over Donner Pass and down Yuba 
Bottoms (see Tour 9a), Feather River Highway through gorge of 
Feather River (see Tour 6B), Skyline Boulevard along crest of the 
Sierra Moreno south of San Francisco (see Tour Ib), Seventeen- 
Mile Drive around Monterey Peninsula (see Tour Ic), Carmel- 
San Simeon Highway along coast (see Tour Ic), and Rim-of-the- 
World Drive through San Bernardino Mountains (see Tour 12b). 
Good highways scale Sierra Nevada, Coast Range, and southern Cali- 
fornia Mountains. Among peaks climbed to summit by highways are 
Mount Wilson, from Pasadena; Mount Hamilton, from San Jose; 
Mount Diablo, from Danville ; Mount Tamalpais, from Mill Valley. 

Ocean Bathing: Sheltered bathing beaches along coast from Trinidad 
to San Diego and at Avalon, Santa Catalina Island. Among favored 
beaches in north are Neptune Beach at Alameda, Ocean Beach at San 
Francisco, and the beach at Santa Cruz; in south, beaches at Malibu, 
Santa Monica, Ocean Park, Venice, Redondo Beach, San Pedro, Long 
Beach, Seal Beach, Newport, and San Diego. Favorite season for 
bathing extends from June to September, but hardy swimmers take dips 
the year around. Amusement zones at Neptune Beach, Ocean Beach, 
Santa Cruz, Ocean Park, Venice, Redondo, Long Beach, and Seal 

Riding: Scenic equestrian trails in foothill, mountain, and desert 
regions throughout State, especially in Griffith Park, Los Angeles, and 
Golden Gate Park, San Francisco; Del Monte Forest; and foothills 


back of Santa Barbara, Beverly Hills, and Pasadena. Horses trained 
for mountain trails available at most resorts in Sierra Nevada. 

Winter Sports: Favorite spots for tobogganing, snowshoeing, ski- 
running, sleighing, and ice-skating include national parks; Mount 
Shasta; Quincy and Portola in Feather River Country; Downieville, 
Grass Valley and Nevada City, Placerville, and Longbarn above 
Sonora in Mother Lode country; Alta, Cisco, Emigrant Gap, Norden, 
Tahoe City, and Truckee in central Sierra; Huntington Lake and 
Shaver Lake Heights in southern Sierra; Big Pines, Camp Baldy, 
Mount Wilson, and Wrightwood in Sierra Madre Mountains; Big 
Bear Lake and Lake Arrowhead in San Bernardino Mountains; and 
resorts in San Jacinto Mountains. 


California: From Past to Present 


El Dorado Up to Date 

THE FIRST to come were explorers by sea, venturing uneasily 
northward along the shores in pygmy galleons on the lookout 
for fabled El Dorado, a vaguely imagined treasure trove of 
gold and spices somewhere near the Indies. Finding no riches, they 
returned disappointed. But the legend of El Dorado lingered, even 
when men driving their cattle in the dusty march from the south 
searched in vain for hidden wealth. At least the new country was a 
land of rich soil and gentle climate, and the newcomers stayed to grow 
rich from the herds they pastured, the fields and orchards they planted. 
Who could foresee that the legend would prove to be true almost as 
soon as the province had passed into the hands of the next comers from 
the East? Once more the old fable illumined California, more reful- 
gent than before, as gold-seekers thronged westward by land and sea, 
risking hardship in the hope of ease. After a few years it faded. And 
yet people still came, tempted by the picture of rich acres, unbelievably 
fertile. California became that legendary land of perpetual summer, 
of orange groves in sight of snowy peaks, of oil wells spouting wealth, 
of real estate promising fortunes, of cinema stars and bathing beauties. 
It seemed to promise a new start, a kinder providence, a rebirth of 
soul and body. The aura faded again, slowly. And yet people came 
in rickety automobiles piled high with all their belongings, people 
asking nothing but a chance to work in a country where the weather 
might be gentle enough to let them live. 

"All the passengers . . . thronged with shining eyes upon the plat- 
form," exulted Robert Louis Stevenson as the train that had carried 


him across the continent headed down the western slope of the Sierra 
Nevada. "At every turn we could look further into the land of our 
happy future. At every turn the cocks were tossing their clear notes 
into the golden air and crowing for the new day and the new country. 
For this indeed was our destination this was 'the good country' we 
have been going to so long." 

It required little literary artifice to spin legends of an earthly 
Utopia so real that men would risk toil, hunger, and even death to 
seek it in the West. The diarists of the early expeditions, the newly 
settled immigrants who wrote back home, the enthusiastic globe- 
trotters who recorded their travels all extolled the virtues of El 
Dorado, and after them a growing throng of professional boosters 
newspaper lyricists, real-estate promoters, chamber-of-commerce press 
agents swelled the chorus. 

"I love you, California, you're the greatest State of all," begins 
the semiofficial State song; it closes with the solemn declaration: 

"And I know when I die I shall breathe my last sigh 
For my sunny California." 

When the first white men came by foot into California in 1769, 
they failed to recognize the Bay of Monterey, so overenthusiastically 
described by the chronicler of Sebastian Vizcaino's expedition, and 
passed by. Since their time, similar panegyrics have misled others, for 
California is both more and less than its eulogists have claimed it to 
be. There is something more to it than sunshine and vineyards and 
orange orchards, bathing beaches and redwood trees and movie studios 
more than the hurried visitor to a few chosen showplaces may glimpse. 
For California, in more than one sense, is all things to all men. The 
ballyhooers have called it a sun-kissed garden spot cooled by gentle 
zephyrs from the sea. The description is appropriate enough for the 
sloping valley plains along the coast. They might also call it a sun- 
scorched waste of boulder-scarred mountains and desert plains, or a 
rain-drenched highland of timbered gorges and snow-capped granite 
peaks. Or they might describe the vast spreading plains of its Central 
Valley, or the smooth-worn brown slopes of its undulating oak-dotted 
foothills, or the lava crags and juniper forests of its volcanic plateaus. 
Its seashore has stretches of smoothly curving sandy beach and of saw- 
toothed, rock-strewn coast; its plains are checkered with fertile fields 
and pastures, and desolate with crags and alkali; its rivers brim with 
water between fringes of greenery and lose their flow underground in 
sandy washes. California's contrasts are extreme. It has fierce heat 
and bitter cold, some of the country's wettest regions and some of its 
driest, the continent's lowest point and the country's second highest. 
Its landscape is so variegated that when the Californian goes traveling, 


he is apt to say to himself as he looks at parts of the rest of the coun- 
try: "I have seen all this before." 

The people are as diverse as their environment. The tide of new- 
comers who arrived on foot, in prairie schooners, on clipper ships when 
California became American territory were from every corner of the 
land: New England farm boys, Irish-Americans from the streets of 
New York, younger sons of southern slave-owning families, and mid- 
westerners imitating their fathers' trek from still farther east. Before 
this onrush of men with the "California fever," the leisure-loving pas- 
toral civilization of the Spanish-Californians was swept into oblivion. 
It disappeared as fast as the way of life of the short, dark aborigines 
had disappeared three-quarters of a century before. The Yankee con- 
querors, all citizens of the same Nation, were still "of every possible 
variety," as traveler Bayard Taylor wrote in 1849. They differed 
individually from each other almost as much as they differed collectively 
from their predecessors. 

People from nearly every nation of the earth still mingle in a poly- 
glot conglomeration. In the dark and grotesque alleyways of China- 
towns in San Francisco, Los Angeles, and smaller cities live the Chinese, 
descendants of pioneers who came in the Gold Rush. The Japanese 
are found in Los Angeles' "Little Tokyo," and in small towns and 
farms in southern California. In Imperial Valley, in Los Angeles and 
its suburbs thousands of Mexican field workers live in rude shacks. 
The short brown men of the Philippine Islands gather in employment 
agencies and shabby roominghouses of the big cities. The vineyards 
around Santa Rosa and Napa, the fishing fleets of the seaports, the 
shops of San Francisco's North Beach give employment to the Italians. 
On the dairy farms of Alameda County live the Portuguese; in the 
lumber towns of the northern coast, the Scandinavians. In the big 
cities are colonies of Russians, Germans, French, and people of every 
other nation in Europe. Negroes live in the Central Avenue District 
of Los Angeles and the West End of Oakland railroad porters and 
waiters, domestics and bootblacks, entertainers, and businessmen. 

The people differ in more than their place of origin. Their lives 
have been shaped by the parts of the State in which they have settled. 
The sawmill workers of the bleak mountain shack towns of Weed and 
Westwood are a world removed from the orange growers of garden- 
surrounded Whittier and Pomona. It is a far cry from the tough- 
skinned, wizened old-timers of the Mother Lode ghost towns to the 
comfortable, retired midwestern farmers and storekeepers of Long 
Beach and San Diego, and a farther cry from the cowboys and sheep- 
herders of Susanville and Alturas to the cameramen and movie extras 
of Hollywood. The vineyardgrowers of the sun-warmed Napa and 
Sonoma valleys, the grease-stained oil workers of the torrid Kettleman 


Hills, the wandering pea-and-cotton-pickers of the San Joaquin Valley's 
river-bottom camps all are strangers to each other. 

The Union's second largest State in area might well have been 
christened by its discoverers Las California*, for there are several 
Californias. Of all the many rivalries that make the life of the State 
an exciting clash of opposites, the chief has always been the rivalry 
between San Francisco and its neighbor cities and Los Angeles and 
its neighbor cities. Northern California was peopled with Americans 
during the Gold Rush, four decades before real estate booms brought 
settlers to southern California. Los Angeles remained a lazy village 
long after San Francisco had grown into a thriving city. San Fran- 
cisco, with its more deeply rooted population, has the charm and con- 
servatism of an older town, holding still to some of the traditions of 
gold rush days. In the interior towns of the north, more character- 
istically rural than those of the south, are the old-fashioned houses and 
quiet, tree-lined streets of a country village "back East" especially in 
the towns of the mining country, where descendants of forty-niners 
live in almost clannish isolation from the State's more up-and-coming 
sections. In rural southern California, on the other hand, the inhabit- 
ants are more likely to be recent immigrants from the Middle West, 
and their towns have the neon lights, the stucco "Spanish" bungalows, 
and the chromium-trimmed cocktail bars of their big-city neighbors. 
The southlanders, for the most part, have had only a short time to get 
used to what is still a strange wondrous land which accounts, per- 
haps, for their famed susceptibility to unorthodox religions, architec- 
tures, and political movements frowned upon by northerners. The 
inter-sectional rivalry has often prompted demands for the division of 
the State; yet despite the geographical, temperamental and commercial 
differences, the sentiment for divorce has never grown very strong. 

No matter how fervent his local patriotism, the Californian will 
stop arguing the claims of rival regions when faced with the challenge 
of an out-of-State visitor. At once he becomes a citizen of "the greatest 
State of all," just as the caballeros of pre-American days haughtily set 
themselves up as California*, a race apart. Whether northerner or 
southerner, native son or transplanted lowan, the true Californian de- 
velops a proprietary interest that prompts him to tell the world about 
his State. So fond is he of bragging about it that he is always ready 
to "sell" California to whoever will lend an ear. Few joys in life 
so please him as an opportunity to declare with pride and perhaps 
even on occasion with justification that it has the tallest trees, the 
highest mountains, the biggest bridges, the fastest-growing population 
in fact, the best, the most, or the greatest of whatever is being dis- 
cussed at the moment. 

The Californian may possibly be pardoned his pride in the exten- 


sion, by three or four generations of human effort, of the bounties of 
nature. The aggressive energy of the Yankees, against which the 
leisure-loving ways of the easy-going Calif omios could not prevail (with 
some few exceptions in the south) still moves a people who have built 
aqueducts from faraway mountains to reclaim whole deserts, strung 
power lines from mighty dams across inaccessible wilderness to distant 
cities, dredged one of the Nation's great harbors from mud flats and 
flung the world's biggest bridges across a bay. The wild wastes of a 
century ago are dotted now with lumber mills, mine shafts and smelters, 
power plants and factories. The valleys are squared off in grain field 
and pasture, vegetable patch, vineyard and fruit orchard, watered with 
a labyrinth of irrigation ditches and criss-crossed with highways and 
railroads. Mountain streams have been dammed for electric power; 
plains and slopes drilled for oil. Under the earth extends a network 
of pipelines for oil and natural gas and above it, a network of high- 
tension wires for electric current. The canneries and packing houses, 
oil refineries, aircraft factories and movie studios ship their products 
to every corner of the Nation and beyond. The Californian of today 
feels a personal pride in the State's gargantuan public works: high- 
ways, bridges, dams, and aqueducts. And most of all, of course, he 
exults in the region's "happy future." 

The days when the American people finally reached land's end on 
the Pacific are almost within the memory of living men. If Californi- 
ans seem to display the brash boastfulness of adolescents, perhaps they 
deserve charitable forgiveness; for after all, they are citizens of a 
young State. And boastfulness is not the only telltale sign of its youth. 
The restlessness of the men who made the westward trek persists in 
the unquenchable wanderlust with which their descendants have taken 
to the automobile, thronging the highways with never-ending streams 
of traffic bound for seashore, deserts, forests and mountains. And the 
sturdy instinct for independence that inspired the rough-and-ready de- 
mocracy of the mining camps and towns has lasted too; quiescent at 
intervals, it has always revived in time to save Californians from unpro- 
testing resignation to hardship. They hope, perhaps, that the stubborn 
search for a better land that brought their grandfathers here to the 
shores of the Pacific has not spent itself. They hope, in fact, that they 
can yet make of El Dorado the promised land that has fired men's 
imaginations for four hundred years. 

Natural Setting and Conservation 

IF CALIFORNIA lies beyond those mountains we shall never be 
able to reach it," wrote John Bidwell, leader of the first overland 
emigrant train, in his journal on October 29, 1841. But on the 
next day he set down: "We had gone about three miles this morning, 
when lo! to our great delight we beheld a wide valley. . . . Rivers 
evidently meandered through it, for timber was seen in long extended 
lines as far as the eye could reach." The day after he continued: 
"Joyful sight to us poor, famished wretches! Hundreds of antelope 
in view ! Elk tracks, thousands ! The valley of the river was very 
fertile, and the young, tender grass covered it like a field of wheat in 

Thousands of later emigrants who struggled to the crest of the 
Sierra Nevada, towering like a massive wall along the State's eastern 
border, were equally overjoyed at their first glimpse of El Dorado. As 
they stood at the summit, the dry wilderness of the Great Basin lay 
behind them. To north and south rose the rock-ribbed flanks of the 
huge Sierra Nevada, about 385 miles long and with an average width 
of about 80 miles. Westward they looked toward the Great Valley 
of California, a vast elliptical bowl averaging 50 miles in width and 
more than 400 miles long, larger in area than Vermont and New 
Hampshire combined. Beyond the valley stood the dim blue peaks 
of the Coast Range, skirting the ocean and parallel to the Sierra in 
chains from 20 to 40 miles wide and 500 miles long. Far to the 
north, beyond their vision, the rugged Cascade Range and Klamath 
Mountains closed in on the valley's northern rim; and far to the south, 


the Tehachapi Mountains thrust their barrier from east to west across 
its southern end. 

California, with a total area of 158,297 square miles, is the Union's 
second largest State. In the language of the geographer, its latitude 
extends from 32 30' to 42 N., and its longitude from 114 to 
124 29' W. Its medial line, from Oregon to the Mexican border, 
is 780 miles long. Its width varies from 150 to 350 miles. Its coast- 
line is approximately 1,200 miles somewhat less than one-tenth of 
the total coastline of the United States. So pronounced is the eastward 
curve of the State's southern coast that San Diego lies farther east 
than Reno in Nevada, although Eureka, a northern port, is the most 
westward city in the United States. On the east the State is bordered 
by Nevada and by the Colorado River, which separates its southeastern 
corner from Arizona. 

Beyond each end of the mountain-walled Great Valley, which is 
California's most distinctive topographic feature, the terrain is broken 
and rugged. Northward lie the Siskiyou Mountains, a natural barrier 
between California and Oregon. In the northwest, wild timbered 
slopes reach to the Pacific; in the northeast, mountain spurs hem in 
barren lava-bed plateaus. South of the Tehachapis' dividing line lies 
southern California comprising one-third of the State's area. Here 
the complex network of the Sierra Madre, the San Bernardino, and 
other ranges separates the so-called Valley of Southern California, a 
broad strip of broken country near the coast, from the arid wastes of 
the Mojave and Colorado Deserts in the hinterland. From Point 
Concepcion, where the Coast Range breaks into numerous ridges and 
the coast swings in sharply to the east, the Valley of Southern Cali- 
fornia, which includes the V-shaped coastal plain of the Los Angeles 
Basin, stretches southward to the Mexican border. 

These chief geographical districts the Sierra and Coast Range 
regions and the Central (Sacramento-San Joaquin) Valley in the north, 
the coastal lowlands, the mountains, and the desert country in the 
south present startling physiographic contrasts and extremes, from 
active volcano to glacier, from arctic flora on mountain tops to cotton 
plantations below sea level. From the peak of Mount Whitney, the 
highest point in the United States, it is but 60 miles to Death Valley, 
the continent's lowest area. Human activities range from fur-trapping 
in the snows of the Klamath region to prospecting for minerals in the 
furnace-like heat of the southeastern deserts. 

California's contour is marked by lofty mountain peaks towering 
above precipitous gorges and canyons. Of the 41 peaks that exceed 
10,000 feet in height, the tallest is Mount Whitney (14,496 alt.) in 
the southern Sierra. The Sierra's abrupt eastern slope has one of the 
steepest general gradients on the North American continent. Over a 


i6omile stretch the lowest pass is at an altitude of 9,000 feet, while 
Kearsage, the most frequently used pack horse pass on this stretch, is 
12,050 feet; in this area the peaks range from 13,000 to 14,000 feet in 
height. Although there is a gradual decline in altitude to the north, 
other isolated peaks of the Sierra rise above 14,000 feet. Northward the 
western slopes are gashed by river canyons sometimes half a mile deep. 

The Sierra's sculptured splendor is in part the work of glaciers 
which carved deep valleys, expanses of polished rock, and towering 
granite walls over which roar great waterfalls, glacial lakes and 
meadows. Most beautiful of the valleys is Yosemite, in the midsection 
of the Sierra; loveliest of the lakes is Tahoe (6,225 alt.), cupped be- 
tween the main Sierra and the basin ranges at the angle of the Nevada- 
California boundary. A few glaciers even now survive on the highest 
summits, the finest of them being a group of five supported by Mount 
Shasta (14,161 alt.). 

Dominating the northern end of the Sacramento Valley is Mount 
Shasta, the most striking of the many extinct or dormant volcanoes in 
the northern California mountains. Lassen Peak (10,435 alt.), 85 
miles southeast of Mount Shasta, is a mildly active volcano the only 
one in the United States that has had a generally observed eruption. 
Although traces of volcanic action are most abundant in the State's 
northeastern sector, where lava beds spread over vast tracts, there are 
also extinct or dormant volcanoes in Owens Valley and the Mojave 
Desert, and numerous hot springs in the Coast Range. 

The Coast Range, more complex than the Sierra, includes numer- 
ous indistinct chains from 2,000 to 7,000 feet high. Each chain is 
broken down into forested spurs and ridges enclosing small pleasant 
valleys and plains drained by rapid streams. 

The Santa Ynez, San Barnardino, and San Gabriel Mountains 
bound the lowland of southern California on the north and northeast, 
and subdivide it into more or less distinct valleys or basins. Farther 
south the coastal lowland is bounded by the Santa Ana and San Jacinto 
Ranges, an elevation that extends into Mexico. The southern Cali- 
fornia ranges are marked by the lofty peaks (more than 10,000 feet 
high) of San Bernardino, San Jacinto, and San Antonio and by the 
well-defined passes of Soledad, Cajon, and San Gorgonio. 

Among the mountain-walled valleys between the southern end of 
the Sierra and the border of Nevada is the long and narrow Owens 
Valley, bordered by granite walls. About 40 miles east of dry Owens 
Lake, along the California-Nevada border, lies Death Valley, its lowest 
point 276 feet below sea level. It stretches between the sheer rocky 
walls of the Panamint Range on the east and the Amargosa Range on 
the west 130 miles long and from 6 to 14 miles wide a region of 
stark simplicity, majestic silence, and spectacular desolation. South 


of Death Valley spread the Mojave and Colorado Deserts. The Mo- 
jave is an expanse of ancient dried lake bottoms, short rugged ranges, 
and immense sandy valleys. Parts of the Colorado Desert lie below 
sea level 250 feet below at its lowest point. In its southern end 
is the fertile Imperial Valley, largely reclaimed from the desert for 
agricultural use by irrigation, where the Salton Sea, formed when the 
Colorado River broke its banks in 1905, floods an ancient lake bottom. 

In addition to the Great Valley in the north and the coastal dis- 
trict (including the rich Los Angeles Basin and Santa Clara and San 
Fernando Valleys) in the south, cultivated lowlands occur elsewhere 
in the State. Below San Francisco Bay stretches another Santa Clara 
Valley; and southeast of Monterey Bay, between the Santa Lucia and 
Gabilan Ranges, lies the long Salinas Valley. North of San Fran- 
cisco in Sonoma, Mendocino, and Humboldt Counties are similar areas. 
The northeast corner of the State, hemmed in by steep ranges, is suitable 
for cattle raising and restricted agriculture despite its lava beds and 

In the whole 4OO-mile length of the Great Valley there is only 
one break in the mountain walls through which the waters of the 
interior can escape to the sea. Behind the Golden Gate at San Fran- 
cisco, cutting across the full width of the Coast Range, is a great gap 
through which passes almost the entire drainage of the Great Valley. 
Into Suisun Bay pour the waters of the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
Rivers; they empty through Carquinez Strait into San Pablo and San 
Francisco Bays, and through the Golden Gate into the Pacific Ocean. 

The scantily forested eastern flanks of the Coast Range contribute 
no stream lasting enough to reach either the Sacramento or the San 
Joaquin in the dry season; but down the western slopes of the Sierra, 
tributaries pour through precipitous canyons to the great rivers at each 
end of the valley. Fed by Mount Shasta's melting snows, the Sacra- 
mento, California's largest river, is joined by the Pit, McCloud, 
Feather, Indian, Yuba, and American Rivers as it flows southward 
350 miles to its confluence with the San Joaquin in the Delta region. 
The Sacramento's lower course is through a marshy plain partly inun- 
dated yearly. The San Joaquin, whose valley comprises more than 
three-fifths of the central basin, flows northward from its headwaters 
in the mountains of Fresno County. Into it drain the waters of the 
Fresno, Merced, Tuolumne, Stanislaus, Calaveras, Mokelumne, and 
Consumnes Rivers, together with many smaller streams. 

The seaward slopes of the Coast Range are drained by the Klamath 
(joined by the Scott and Trinity), Mad, Eel, and Russian Rivers north 
of San Francisco, and south of it by the Salinas, Santa Maria, Santa 
Ynez, Santa Clara and other secondary rivers, many of them inter- 
mittently dry. Southern California's so-called rivers the Ventura, Los 


Angeles, San Gabriel, Santa Ana, San Luis Rey, Santa Margarita, and 
San Diego are for the most part dry creek beds except during spring 

A peculiarity of the State's drainage system is its many river "sinks" 
where the waters either dry up from evaporation or, like the Amargosa 
River in Death Valley, disappear beneath the surface. Through Modoc 
and Lassen Counties, in the far northeast, stretches a chain of alkaline 
"lakes" Goose, Upper and Middle, and Honey Lakes. They are all 
without drainage to the sea, and the spring run-off rapidly evaporates. 
In the Central Valley, south of the area drained by the San Joaquin, 
the Kings, Kaweah, and Kern Rivers, fed by the melting snows of the 
high Sierra, formerly emptied into shallow marsh-girt lakes. But with 
the impounding of water for irrigation these lakes have dried up, and 
the old lake beds have become farm lands. The Mojave Desert, in 
whose sandy wastes the Mojave River is swallowed up, is dotted with 
glistening alkaline-incrusted dry lake beds. In Riverside, San Diego, 
and Imperial Counties, many creeks (so-called rivers whose beds are 
normally dry) run toward the desert sink of the Salton Sea region. 

California has two magnificent natural harbors, San Francisco and 
San Diego Bays, both landlocked; and one great artificially built har- 
bor, the port of Los Angeles. San Francisco Bay, entered through the 
Golden Gate, is among the world's finest; here, besides the port of 
San Francisco itself, are those of Oakland, Alameda, and Richmond. 
San Diego Bay, safe at all seasons, is sheltered from ocean winds by 
Point Loma, a promontory seven miles in length. The Los Angeles 
harbor, fronting on open San Pedro Bay, 20 miles from the city, is 
protected by a breakwater. California's best minor harbors are those 
of Monterey and Santa Cruz, on Monterey Bay, and Eureka, on Hum- 
boldt Bay, some 280 miles north of San Francisco. 

There are two groups of islands off the California coast. The 
Santa Barbara Islands, nine in number, lie between Point Concepcion 
and San Diego, 20 to 60 miles from the mainland. From San Miguel 
Island in the north to San Clemente Island in the south they are scat- 
tered over a distance of 155 miles. The best known island of the 
group is rugged Santa Catalina, 25 miles long with an average width 
of four miles, which stands 20 miles south of San Pedro. The Faral- 
lones, a group of six small rocky islands, lie about 28 miles west of 
the entrance to San Francisco Bay. 


The first American writer to describe California's natural features 
refrained from the rhapsody which has characterized most of the sub- 
sequent discussion of the State's far-famed weather. "The climate of 


California," wrote Captain William Shaler, "generally is dry and tem- 
perate, and remarkably healthy ; on the western coast the sky is generally 
obscured by fogs and haze, but on the opposite side it is constantly 
clear; not a cloud is to be seen, night or day. The northwest winds 
blow very strong eight months in the year, on the western coast, with 
very little interruption; the land breezes at that time are hardly per- 
ceptible; but in the winter months they are stronger and regular. In 
the months of January, February, and March there are at times very 
high gales from the southeast, which render most of the bays and 
harbours on the coast unsafe at that season." 

California's climate is characterized by certain peculiar features: 
the temperature of the entire Pacific Coast is milder and more uni- 
form than that of regions in corresponding latitudes east of the moun- 
tains; the year divides, in general, into two seasons wet and dry 
instead of into the usual four seasons; and where extreme summer heat 
occurs, its discomfort is lessened by the dryness of the air. 

Despite these general characteristics the State is a place of many 
climates, due to distance from the ocean, situation in reference to 
mountains, and, above all, altitude. Thus there are sharp climatic 
contrasts within a single limited area. One may go sleighing within 
sight of blossoming orchards, or view snow-clad peaks while bathing 
in the sea. A winter traveler in the high Sierra will be reminded of 
the Alps, while anyone venturing into the scorching inland valleys in 
midsummer will conclude that whoever labeled California "semitropi- 
cal" was a master of understatement. 

The term, however, is applied with good reason to the strip of 
land between the coastal mountains and the ocean. For those who 
have never visited this area the most restrained account of its climate is 
likely to seem hyperbole. The year-round weather is more equable 
than that of any other part of the United States; and from San Fran- 
cisco southward to Monterey, the difference between the average sum- 
mer and winter temperatures is seldom more than 10 degrees. In this 
coastal region frost heavy enough to halt the greening of the hills under 
winter rains is as rare as thunder and lightning; and always some 
flowers are in bloom. Sea breezes and fogs tend to stabilize the tem- 
perature without extremes of heat or cold. 

The annual mean temperature of San Francisco is 56 ; the summer 
mean is less than 60, the winter 51, and the lowest recorded tem- 
perature 27. In San Diego the winter mean temperature is 54, the 
summer 68. In Monterey the difference between January and August 
mean temperatures is from 10 to 14; in Los Angeles 14 to 16. 
Because of the California current and the marine air from the Pacific 
anticyclone, summer in San Francisco is actually cooler than fall. These 
same factors induce fogs, night and morning, in that region and all 


along the California coast during the greater part ^of the summer. So 
dense and persistent are these coastal fogs that great areas south of 
San Francisco devoted to truck gardening require no other moisture 
during the summer months. The Coast redwood, as well as the plants 
which grow beneath it, is watered by the fog that condenses on its 

In the southern part of the Central Valley, temperatures are often 
very high. Although the annual mean temperature of the inland is 
64, in Fresno and Bakersfield the mercury occasionally soars above 
110. The desert temperatures are still higher, the summer mean in 
Fort Yuma being 92. In Death Valley, the average daily minimum 
for July, the hottest month, is 87.6. But on July 10, 1913, it reached 
134, only slightly less than the highest natural air temperature hitherto 
accurately measured. In the mountain regions, on the other hand, sum- 
mer temperatures are much lower and the winters are very severe. At 
the top of Mount Lassen, in the winter of 1932-33, the mercury reg- 
istered 56 below zero. 

Annual rainfall in the State varies from about 80 inches at Crescent 
City in the extreme north to about 10 inches at San Diego in the 
extreme south. At San Francisco the annual average is about 22 inches ; 
at Los Angeles, 16 inches. The northern half of the Sierra and the 
northwest counties are covered by a heavy rain belt. In the high 
mountains precipitation, almost entirely in the form of snow, provides 
most of the run-off which supplies water for the cities and for irri- 
gation. In the high Sierra the average annual snowfall is from 300 
to 400 inches. At Tamarack in Alpine County the snowfall during 
the winter of 1906-7 was 844 inches, the greatest ever recorded for 
a single season anywhere in the United States. The belt of heavy rain 
shades off to a region of lighter rainfall which covers all the rest of 
the State except Inyo, Kern, San Bernardino, and Imperial Counties, 
and the eastern portion of Riverside County. The limits of this third 
region may, in dry years, include all of the State below Fresno and 
the entire Central Valley. 

In general, rains occur in California only in the months from Octo- 
ber to May. Even during this rainy season, the valley districts usually 
have no more than from 25 to 35 rainy days. Throughout the rest 
of the year excursions may be planned everywhere, except in some 
parts of the mountains, with considerable confidence that no rain will 
dampen the occasion. 


Every major division of geologic time is represented in California 
by marine sediments, and many of them by continental deposits as well. 


As the Pacific Ocean on the west and the ancient Great Basin Sea on 
the east alternately encroached on the California region, each supplied 
that part of the record which the other omitted. In formations of the 
last two periods, the Tertiary and the Quaternary, California is par- 
ticularly rich. 

Structurally the Sierra Nevada is a single colossal block of earth's 
crust lifted along its eastern edge to a height of more than 1 1 ,000 feet 
above the adjoining blocks, and gently tilted westward. The oldest 
known rocks making up these mountains are intrusions of molten rock 
(magma) and limestones, cherts, shales, and sandstones, all sedimentary, 
and nearly all changed into their metamorphic equivalents in the proc- 
ess of mountain building. These older sedimentary rocks were de- 
posited in ancient seas of shifting extent and depth, which during the 
second half of the Paleozoic and the first two periods of the Mesozoic 
era, covered now one part, now another, of the Pacific Coast. Toward 
the close of the Jurassic period, the lands that were eventually to be- 
come the ancestral Sierra Nevada, the Cascades, and the Klamath 
Mountains began to emerge from the sea. 

During the Cretaceous period the Sierra's whole block tilted west- 
ward. This process of tilting and folding wrenched open leaves of 
slates, once shales; heated mineral-bearing solutions escaped from the 
magma that was cooling and solidifying below and filled the slate 
openings with gold-bearing quartz. The Eocene epoch of the Tertiary 
period was comparatively quiet. The Sierra slowly underwent addi- 
tional elevations and subsidences accompanied by active erosion of the 
surface rocks. Meanwhile the rivers were cutting their channels down 
the western slope and carrying the products of erosion to the inland 
sea. There was further release of gold from the bedrock, and the 
formation of rich placers. In the Oligocene epoch following, there was 
volcanic activity, and the Sierra gold-bearing stream channels were 
dammed and filled with rhyolite ash. 

Volcanic activity continued during the Miocene age, and in addi- 
tion to lava there were extensive mud flows and tuffs. In the Pliocene 
epoch the volcanoes were far less active, and in the Pleistocene the 
volcanic cover was removed in part by erosion. The veins and buried 
stream channels were cut into, and gold-bearing gravels were washed 
from their ancient channels and redistributed along new streams. This 
is the origin of so-called free gold. The Sierra had been greatly worn 
down in late Tertiary times, but the Pleistocene epoch of the Quat- 
ernary period was an era of re-elevation. There was much faulting, 
and a new period of volcanic activity began which is not quite ended 

In the early Tertiary period the Sierra slopes were luxuriant with 
vegetation, but toward the end of that period the climate became much 


cooler. The slopes and summits were encased in thick ice and snow, 
which kept them captive. The glacial periods of the Pleistocene were 
relieved by intervals during which the ice fields retreated toward the 
crests, yielding to climates even milder than that of California today. 
But when the ice of the last glacial age had finally retreated (traces 
of this epoch still linger in various glaciers such as those on Shasta), 
the Sierra crest stood stripped of vegetation and soil, exposing those 
bare expanses of whitish granites and schists that now give it its daz- 
zling beauty. Yosemite and other extraordinary Sierra valleys and 
canyons are also glacial legacies, as are the numerous lakes in the high 
Sierra. Tahoe, lovely lake and the deepest in the United States, was 
made partially by glaciation and partly by faulting, erosion, and vol- 
canic damming. 

The volcanic activity of Miocene times was especially great in the 
Cascade Range, where a number of volcanic peaks rose in a compara- 
tively short time. Mount Shasta was one ; the still active Mount Las- 
sen was another, and the volcanic range extends north into Oregon 
and Washington. Eastward from the range extends one of the largest 
lava fields in the world, covering 200,000 square miles to depths of 
from 200 to 2,ooo feet. This lava plateau, generally decomposed on 
the surface, which stretches beyond California into Oregon and across 
into Idaho and Wyoming, did not for the most part erupt through 
typical volcanic vents, but flooded up through great cracks or fissures. 
The Pit River, flowing through the Cascades, has cut deep into the 
series of volcanic rocks (andesites) some 7,500 feet in thickness, and 
the thin but widespread basalts. Because of the depth of this cover- 
ing, the pre-Miocene history of the region is uncertain. 

The oldest of the accessible formations of the Klamath Mountains 
are pre-Cambrian metamorphic rocks including schists, quartzites, and 
crystalline limestones the last named consisting partly of sedimentary, 
partly of igneous rocks, both metamorphosed. The first two periods of 
the Mesozoic are represented by smaller proportions of sedimentary 
rocks which are covered by remnants of once extensive beds of sand- 
stones, shales, and conglomerates of the Cretaceous period. There were 
also periods when volcanoes were active, especially the early Devonian 
period and the greater part of the Mesozoic era. The mass had been 
uplifted during the Jurassic period, but erosion and subsidence brought 
the ancestral Klamath mountains to below sea level in the Cretaceous 
period. This oscillation continued more or less quietly, except for an 
outburst of great volcanic activity in the middle of the Miocene. The 
most recent re-elevation, like that of the Sierra, was at the beginning 
of the Quaternary period. At approximately the same time, gold- 
bearing gravels were carried down along the sides of many canyons 
by erosion. 


There are no Paleozoic (old life) rocks in the northern Coast 
Range, but crystalline limestone and schist, probably of this age, are 
found in the Santa Cruz, Gabilan, and Santa Lucia Ranges. Of the 
next era, the Mesozoic, Triassic period remains are lacking, but from 
the Jurassic come most of that complex series of Coast Range rocks 
known as the Franciscan. These are sedimentary rocks of several 
types: conglomerate, sandstone, shale, variegated chert, and (rarely) 
limestone. With them is embedded a great series of volcanic and plu- 
tonic rocks of the same age. 

Cretaceous rocks in the Coast Range are abundant. They make 
up considerable parts of the Santa Lucia, the Temblor, and Diablo 
Ranges, and they become even more widespread north of San Fran- 
cisco. The rocks consist chiefly of shale, siltstone and sandstone, with 
some small streaks of coal, and near Coalinga shale, which is the 
source of the oil in overlying Tertiary beds. The Cretaceous sea cov- 
ered considerable parts of what is now the north Coast Range, but 
the region that now comprises the Santa Lucia Range and the Salinas 
Valley was relatively higher than at present, and formed Salinia, a long 
narrow peninsula running out to the northwest. The Eocene strata are 
relatively uncommon except in the eastern foothills near Coalinga and 
in the Mount Diablo region. The rocks are similar to those of the 
Cretaceous. There are considerable beds of coal, but the latter is of 
poor quality. Salinia had become an island, and there was a similar 
island whose axis ran along what are now the Gabilan and Mount 
Hamilton Ranges northwest to Marin County. 

The Oligocene formations in the Coast Range are chiefly of red 
sandstone; there are also certain organic shales, which seem to be the 
source rocks for the oil of Kettleman Hills. The seas had become less 
widespread. Salinia extended farther north and west, but the San 
Joaquin Valley still formed an arm of the sea into which drained the 
rivers of Mohavia a name given to the region now covered by the 
Mojave Desert, Death Valley, and the Owens River Valley. In 
the early Miocene there was much volcanic activity in the Coast Range, 
and this ultimately cut off the sedimentary deposits from Mohavia and 
prevented their reaching the sea. There followed in the late Miocene 
another period of widespread shallow seas and many coastal islands. 
Much organic siliceous shale was laid down, and this is the source 
)f the oil in the Santa Barbara and Ventura coast region as well as 
elsewhere. Of Pliocene origin are calcareous and feldspathic sand- 
tones and thick beds of brown and blue sandy clay. As elsewhere in 
California, the climate became cooler. There was still a series of 
slands and peninsulas along the entire coast. 

In the Pleistocene epoch most of the old interior seas and bays dis- 
ippeared. This was a period of violent deformation of structure, with 


foldings and bendings of the strata and a series of faults. Of these 
latter, the San Andreas fault, which was responsible for the earth- 
quake of 1906, extends from Tomales Bay, 40 miles north of San 
Francisco, to the Mojave Desert, 600 miles southeast. In contrast 
to the more common type of vertical movement, it has a horizontal 
drift. The extent of its movement during Tertiary times was at least 
700 feet, and according to some estimates as much as 10 or 20 miles. 
The Hayward fault, which runs sub-parallel to the San Andreas across 
San Francisco Bay and through Berkeley, is also important; and the 
Coast Range is cut by several smaller faults. 

The Great Valley is an immense trough formed late in the Jurassic 
period when the mountain ranges inclosing it began to rise from the 
water. Unlike most valleys in the United States, which were cut by 
streams, it came into being through the sinking of the earth's crust. 
From that time on it remained an inland basin. For long periods it 
was flooded with salt water, as the sea flowed in through gaps in its 
intermittently rising barriers. The upward thrust of the Coast Range 
in the middle of the Tertiary period made it a nearly landlocked and 
shallow inland sea. Finally, in early Pleistocene times, the streams 
of the Sierra and the Coast Range, steadily carrying down their loads 
of sediment, caused a recession of the sea and laid down the flat valley 
floor. Although the valley is probably still sinking, it has filled with 
alluvium as fast as it has sunk. In some places drillings to depths of 
more than 3,000 feet fail to reveal bedrock. 

The Transverse Ranges, comprising the San Bernardino, San Ga- 
briel, Santa Monica, Santa Inez, and Santa Susana Mountains, have 
a general east-west trend, but differ only slightly in their geology from 
the chains of the Coast Range. Some of their Tertiary sedimentary 
rocks are more than 30,000 feet thick, exceeding in thickness any other 
such rocks in North America. They are remarkably rich in fossils. 

Extending southeast of the Los Angeles Basin to a point beyond 
the Mexican border, the Peninsular Ranges include the San Jacinto, 
Santa Ana, Santa Rosa, and Coyote Mountains, with plateaus and 
valleys in between. Their geology has been but little studied, but 
they seem to belong to the fault-block type of mountains. While the 
faults are branches of the San Andreas, their general geology is rather 
like that of the Sierra, the dominating rocks being granitic. 

The Great Basin comprises all that part of California lying south- 
east of the Sierra and east of the Peninsular Ranges, including the 
Colorado Desert, the Mojave Desert, and the Basin Ranges. Except 
for the Imperial Valley and some smaller areas under irrigation, the 
section is today a complete desert. The Colorado Desert, in part 245 
feet below sea level, is a depressed block between active branches of 
the alluvium covered San Andreas fault in the Peninsular Ranges 


and the Mojave Desert to the north and east. The Mojave Desert 
region has isolated mountain ranges rising abruptly from desert plains. 
Farther north the Basin Ranges, of typical fault-block structure, run 
roughly parallel from north to south and are separated by deep basins 
or troughs. Death Valley, the most famous of the basins, is the bed 
of a lake of Pleistocene times and shows distinct sets of shore lines. 
The Great Basin had a number of such lakes in recent geologic time, 
although the region as a whole has been a land area since Cretaceous 
times. In the Panamint and Amargosa Ranges, which fence in Death 
Valley on the east and west, are formations from as far back as the 
Paleozoic era, but- the valley, as such, is recent. The Mojave Desert's 
many short mountain ranges of various trends are largely of ancient 
volcanic and metamorphosed Tertiary rocks. The rest of the Mojave 
is an expanse of great sandy valleys and of dry lakes holding deposits 
of dead seas salt, gypsum, soda, and borax. The last named was 
formed when the red-hot lava streams flowed into the saline lakes. 
The Colorado Desert is underlaid with Tertiary volcanic flows and 
coarse conglomerates, above which lie Quaternary fresh-water silts and 

With the rise of the mountains to the north and west in the early 
Miocene epoch, the sea that covered them was cut off and inland 
drainage systems were created. Rainfall decreased and the region 
slowly dried up. However, lakes of considerable extent have existed 
in the basin of the Colorado River within the period of the occupation 
of the country by the Indians, whose old camps may still be found 
on the margins of what are now salt flats. 

A number of regions in California, particularly in the Coast Range 
and the Los Angeles Basin, are rich in fossils. Numerous fossil radio- 
laria found in the Franciscan cherts show their marine origin, and 
the north Coast Ranges have yielded fossil ferns, cyads, and conifers, 
as well as several kinds of mollusks and smaller marine organisms of 
the Cretaceous period. The types of marine organism found in the 
Eocene rocks indicate a much warmer surface water than exists on 
the California coast at present, and consequently a warmer climate. 

From the Sespe beds between Los Angeles and Ventura have come 
bones of a variety of mammals of Oligocene times : the rhinoceros, the 
oreodont, the miohippus, the camelid, primitive carnivores, rodents, 
and insectivores. At a number of places the remains of primitive horses, 
peccaries, and camels have been found in Miocene formations. In 
the Pliocene strata there are primitive horses close in form to the 
modern horse. 

The best-known paleontological area in California, and one of the 
richest in the world, is La Brea Pits in Los Angeles County. Since 
Tertiary times the quaking and sticky area of the La Brea asphalt 


beds has been a death trap for unwary animals. Beneath it have been 
preserved the skeletons of a prehistoric menagerie, including the im- 
perial elephants, largest of all land mammals, whose domain extended 
from eastern Nebraska to Mexico City, hideous great ground sloths 
and little ground sloths, sabre-tooth tigers, giant wolves, camels and 
horses, llamas, wide-front bison, and numerous smaller species such 
as turtles, snakes, beetles, and birds. Well-preserved forms of vege- 
tation, which show the evolution of plant life, have also been un- 
earthed here. Noteworthy among these is a complete eight-foot cypress 
of the McNab species, which was discovered standing upright, but- 
tressed by bones. This species is now found only rarely on the dry 
hills and flats of the Coast Range in northern California. 

The Mojave and Death Valley Deserts of southern California have 
yielded fossils of the Oligocene and Miocene epochs, deposited as long 
as 25,000,000 years ago. In a narrow canyon near Barstow, where 
layers of breccia in dazzling colors were thrust up by an ancient vol- 
canic upheaval, scientists have discovered during the past twenty years 
the remains of three-toed horses, several varieties of camels, antelope, 
and smaller animals, and an animal almost identical with the desert 
coyote of today. The complete skeleton of an Ice Age elephant (ter- 
rabeladon), similar to fossils discovered in the Gobi Desert, was found 
in 1938 near Saltdale, Kern County, in the northern part of the 
Mojave Desert. Death Valley's Tertiary beds have yielded the re- 
mains including a skull three feet long of a titanotherium, a large 
mammal that somewhat resembled the rhinoceros, found in red sand- 
stone formations of the Oligocene epoch near Leadfield. 

The fossils of Inyo County's "oldest muds in the world" are so 
abundant that, in geologist G. D. Bailey's words, they "are hauled 
away by carloads to fill the museums of the East." In Fresno County, 
less rich paleontologically, submammalian fossils have been found near 
Coalinga, a Pliocene mastodon skull at the north end of the Kettleman 
Hills, and fossil mastodon bones near Fresno. A rare find, uncovered 
in the Coast Range west of Fresno in 1937, was a fossil of eight 
vertebrae of a mesasaurus, huge sea lizard of the upper Cretaceous 
epoch. Kern County has yielded fossil animal bones of Tertiary and 
earlier ages and exceptionally rich marine fossils of the mollusca phylum, 
among them some highly ornamented forms showing a considerable 
degree of advancement in racial development. 

The first dinosaur remains ever uncovered on the west coast of 
America were found in 1936 in the hills west of Patterson, Stanislaus 
County, by a high school student. The remains consisted of the tail 
and one hind foot. In other mountain counties of northern California, 
ancient caves including Hawver's Cave on the North Fork of the 
American River in Eldorado County, and Potter and Samwell Caves 


on the McCloud River in Shasta County have proved to be veritable 
storehouses of the bones of mammals swept in by river floods in the 
remote past. Remains of the giant ground sloth (megalonyx) have 
turned up in the earth fan at the entrance to Mercer's, or Murphy's 
Cave in Calaveras County. 

The State's most unexpected paleontological discovery was dredged 
from the mud of San Francisco Bay during construction of the island 
site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From sand- 
stone strata 45 feet below the bay level, a tooth and a section of 
the ivory tusk of a Columbian mammoth (elephas Columbia) of the 
middle Pleistocene epoch were scooped up and pumped through 17,000 
feet of pipe line. On the Peninsula, near Menlo Park Station, San 
Mateo County, remains of a mastodon skeleton were found in June 
1927, buried in the plain formed by the coalescent fans that fringe 
the Bay. The discovery included a molar tooth, preserved without 
even discoloration of the enamel, three sections of a tusk, and frag- 
ments of ribs and other bones. 

The most complete quarry in California for specimens of the Ter- 
tiary period was discovered in 1926 near Moraga, Contra Costa County, 
on the site "of an ancient fresh-water lake. The fossils so far re- 
covered are not so well preserved as those of the La Brea Pits, but 
they are believed to be more complete and to predate the La Brea 
remains by about 9,000,000 years. A three-toed giant horse and a 
three-footed antelope, a camel much larger than any known today, 
and the most primitive dog of its type yet found are among the species. 
Other discoveries include fossils of mastodons, hyenalike dogs, sabre- 
tooth cats, oreodons, peccaries, and a host of smaller creatures. At 
Irvington, in Alameda County, remnants of a prehistoric horse, an 
antelope, a mammoth, and a horned toad all more than 500,000 years 
old were found in 1936 and turned over to the University of Cali- 
fornia department of paleontology, which discovered the beds. 


California's plant and animal life is as diverse as its environment. 
Since its climate ranges from subtropical to Arctic, its terrain from 
arid, below sea level deserts in the south to moist, forested mountains 
in the north and from icy Sierra ridges on the east to foggy coastal 
slopes on the west, the State embraces a wide variety of flora and 
fauna. All the life zones of North America, except the tropical, are 
represented, their distribution depending not so much on latitude, as 
in most regions, as on altitude. California's plant and animal life, 
virtually isolated from the rest of the continent, is frequently distinc- 
tive and sometimes unique. While some species have migrated into 


the mountain slopes and coastal fog belt of the north from Oregon, 
and into the semiarid deserts, plains, and mountains of the south from 
Mexico, only a few eastern species have had the hardihood to cross 
the inhospitable deserts of the Great Basin and scale the barrier of the 
Sierra. These have undergone striking transformation in their migra- 

Botanically, California is notable in particular for the unusual num- 
ber of its annuals, both species and individuals, and for its numerous 
rare species of the lily family. More evergreens, especially the conifers, 
and fewer deciduous trees are found here than in most other States. 
Notable also are the many species of trees surviving only in limited 
localities from past ages, of which the best known are the Monterey 
pine and Monterey cypress and the two Sequoias (the coast redwood 
and the "big tree"), representing a family extinct elsewhere since the 
Ice Age. Still another distinctive feature is the chaparral extensive 
pigmy forests of shrubs, stunted trees, and associated herbaceous plants 
which covers the hillsides of the Upper Sonoran zone in dense 
thickets. It remains dormant throughout the hot dry summer, but 
becomes active with the rains of late winter and early spring. 

The eucalyptus and acacia of Australia, the pepper tree of Peru, 
and the palm tree of the tropics flourish in both rural and urban areas; 
the eucalyptus (eucalyptus globulus) especially has been so widely 
planted in groves and roadside lanes both along the coast and in the 
Great Valley as to seem like a native. The wild yellow mustard, that 
covers orchard lands and hillsides in season with a yellow-green tide, 
was planted by the earliest Spanish settlers, as was the wild radish. 
The geranium and fuchsia both grow to extraordinary size in all the 
coast counties, where there are no extremes of heat and cold. In a 
number of places in the Sierra foothills, Scotch broom (cystisus sco- 
parius) more than holds its own as an "escape" in the chaparral; and 
a species of filarese (erodium macrophyllum) , a valuable forage crop, 
has become widely distributed. 

The animals of the State are also distinctive, though less conspicu- 
ously so than the vegetation. The birds as a whole tend to be grayer, 
paler, and of slighter build than their eastern relatives. There are 
fewer species of snakes and more of lizards. Except for several species 
of trout, few fresh-water fish are native to the State, although some 
interesting indigenous species are found among the fauna of the 'tidal 

The streams were once abundantly supplied with sturgeon, but 
this magnificent fish has practically disappeared save in the least acces- 
sible rivers of the State's northwest coast. The icy lakes and streams 
of the Sierra favor many species of native and introduced trout. The 
former include the rainbow trout, or steel head, the Tahoe trout, the 


golden, the cutthroat, and Dolly Varden. Salmon, migrating from 
the ocean to their upstream spawning beds, are found in the northern 
coastal rivers in the spring. Dog salmon and quinnat salmon fre- 
quent coastal waters and the great king salmon enters the Bay of 
Monterey during the summer months. Other deep-sea fishes are the 
black and white sea bass, the yellowtail, the sheepshead, the "tonno," 
the albacore, the leaping and the yellowfin tuna, the bonito (the Sardo 
chilensis of the Pacific), the voracious barracuda (Sphyraena barra- 
cuda}, and the battling swordfish. 

Marine life of every kind is prolific and variegated. The Cali- 
fornia lobster, though large, lacks the huge pinchers of his eastern 
cousin. The pilchard or sardine (Sardinia caerulea) is found in such 
numbers during its run as to comprise 2O percent of the annual value 
of the State's fisheries. Herds of sea lions roar from the rocks off 
San Francisco, and elsewhere the leopard seal is occasionally seen. The 
abalone, most noted of California's shellfish, is a table delicacy and its 
shell is of use in manufacture. Oysters are plentiful but smaller than 
eastern varieties. 

California is divided by biologists into six life zones, in each of 
which the altitude and climatic conditions are roughly uniform through- 
out the zone (see accompanying map). These are designated the Lower 
Sonoran, Upper Sonoran, Transition, Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic 
zones. The first is the lowest in altitude, and the warmest; the last 
is the highest and coldest. The Lower Sonoran zone includes the 
larger part of the Great Valley from Red Bluff to Bakersfield, all 
of the great arid and desert regions southeast of the Sierra to the 
Nevada and Arizona lines, and several long narrow strips extending 
from the Salinas Valley south. The Upper Sonoran takes in all the 
foothill country of the Sierra Nevada, the lava plateaus of Modoc and 
Lassen Counties, the western slopes of the Sacramento Valley, the inner 
chains of the Coast Range and Valleys from Mendocino County to 
San Francisco Bay, and all of the coastal region south of San Fran- 
cisco except the Santa Cruz Mountains and the higher elevations of 
the Santa Lucias. These latter belong to the Transition zone, which 
also includes all of the coast country north of San Francisco, the heavily 
watered northeastern counties and a long belt, between 2500 and 5000 
feet high in the Sierra. The Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic zones 
lie in the higher elevations of the Siskiyous, the Trinity Mountains, 
the Sierra, .the San Bernardino and San Jacinto ranges. 

It is possible to mention here only a few of the commoner or more 
characteristic inhabitants of these biologic zones, as a brief indication 
of the extraordinary range and variety of California's plant and ani- 
mal life. 


In the Colorado Desert section of the Lower Sonoran zone are 
found the California fan palm; the cylindrical cacti, echinocactus, and 
bigelovia; the mesquite, screwbean, and palo verde; and in the rainy 
season, among other flowers, the dwarf desert poppy and several dimin- 
utive asters. The most famous of plants peculiar to the Mojave 
Desert is the Joshua tree (Yucca arborescens) . Along the river bot- 
toms of the Great Valley grow Fremont cottonwoods and valley oaks. 
The mammalian life, mostly nocturnal in its habits, includes jack rab- 
bits, kit foxes, kangaroo rats, pocket mice, and white-footed mice. 
Few animals besides the various species of chipmunks and ground 
squirrels appear in the daytime. In recent years the San Joaquin and 
Tulare basins have been overrun by Texas opossum, all originating 
from imported animals which either escaped or were liberated. The 
birds of the Lower Sonoran include Texas nighthawks, mocking-birds, 
blue grosbeaks, road runners, phainopeplas, cactus wrens, hooded orioles, 
verdins, and LeConte thrashers. Because of the large number of 
rodents, hawks and owls are unusually common. The tule elk once 
roamed over the marshes and sloughs of the Tulare Basin and San 
Joaquin River; today the last herd can be seen at the State park west 
of Bakersfield. The reptiles include the sidewinder (a small rattle- 
snake), the desert tortoise, and the horned toad. 

The Upper Sonoran zone includes the State's great chaparral belt. 
This was the home of the now extinct California grizzly; it is still 
the haunt of the rapidly disappearing California condor, largest flying 
bird of the northern hemisphere. Here are found Digger pines, blue 
and scrub oaks, California buckeyes, many species of manzanita and 
ceanothus, certain kinds of yucca, and a host of other shrubs. Some 
of its distinctive species of birds are the California jay, stellar jay, 
California thrasher, bush tit, Anna hummingbird, bell sparrow, house 
finch, dusky poorwill, valley quail, mourning dove, and yellow-billed 
magpie. Among the animals are the brown-footed woodrat, brush 
rabbit, antelope, and ring-tailed cat (a relative of the raccoon). 

This is a region rich in flowers. Early travelers in the State 
were eloquent in their descriptions of the continuous garden that once 
blanketed the plains and lower slopes. At a later time John Muir 
wrote, "For a distance of four hundred miles, your foot crushed a 
hundred flowers at every step." Most of this land is under cultiva- 
tion now, and much of the rest is heavily grazed ; but on fallow lands, 
in spite of the ravages of careless tourists in well-traveled regions, wild 
flowers still flourish in surprising abundance and soon recapture aban- 
doned fields and ranges. Among the most common genera are gilia, 
nemophila, mint, mimulus, godetia, phacelia, lupine, orthocarpus, cas- 
tilleia, dodecathon, viola, and calochortus. The State flower, the Cali- 
fornia poppy, or eschscholtzia, is most abundant in this zone. In the 


spring it colors hills and fields and roadsides with great masses of 
brilliant orange. It acquired its generic name from Adelbert von 
Chamisso, a German poet and naturalist, who saw it in bloom at San 
Francisco in 1816 and named it for a college friend who accompanied 
him the German naturalist Johann Friedrich Eschscholtz. Though 
the eschscholtzia is widely distributed, it is not found in the densely 
wooded regions or at high elevations. A plant that is common to all 
parts of California and that occurs in a greater number of species here 
than anywhere else in the world is the lupine. As herb or shrub it 
varies from dwarf kinds in the high Sierra to the arborescent varieties 
growing close to the ocean. The pea-shaped flowers are of many 
colors, ranging from white through pale yellow, pink, and lavender 
to deep blue and purple. 

In the Transition zone, which includes most of the State's great 
forests and therefore supplies most of its commercially valuable timber, 
are the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests of the Coast Range, 
extending from the Oregon border on the north to the coastal canyons 
below Monterey on the south and as far as the inner limit of the 
summer fogs on the east. The redwood is one of the tallest trees in 
the world, commonly growing more than 2OO feet high, and sometimes 
more than 300 feet. Trunks are often 15 to 20 feet in diameter, and 
occasionally from 20 to 25 feet. One of the peculiarities of the red- 
wood is its shallow root system, though the trunks are strongly but- 
tressed at the base. Because of the spongy, fire-resistant bark, these 
trees survived the annual fires set by the Indians of the region to clear 
out the underbrush and make hunting easier. The gently tapering 
shafts are almost bare of branches for a hundred feet or more above 
the ground. The bark is a deep purplish red, massively fluted ; the 
foliage is delicate and feathery. A virgin redwood forest, with the 
light filtering through the treetops and falling in diagonal beams be- 
tween the great columns, is one of the most beautiful sights in the 

Beneath the trees, watered by the fog which they have trapped 
and precipitated, is an extraordinarily luxuriant growth. Swordferns, 
woodwardia ferns, alumroot, fringecups, barrenwort, fetid adders- 
tongue, erythronium and violas, trillium and fritillaria carpet the floor. 
In almost impenetrable thickets grow the huckleberry, Oregon grape, 
rhododendron, azalea, California buckthorn, salmonberry, elder, and 
wild currant. The trees most commonly found in association with the 
redwood are the broad-leaved maple, madrona, tanbark oak, California 
laurel, and (usually in separate stands) the somber Douglas fir. Of 
these Coast Range trees the most picturesque is the madrona, a species 
of arbutus, which moved Bret Harte to write: 



Captain of the western wood 
Thou that apest Robin Hood! 
Green above thy scarlet hose, 
How thy velvet mantle shows! 
Never tree like thee arrayed, 
O thou gallant of the glade! 

The Transition zone is particularly rich in animal life. It is 
the home of the Columbian black-tailed deer, black bear, Pacific coon, 
marten, mink weasel, skunk, fox, packrat, and mountain beaver. The 
California ring-tailed cat, common in both the Upper Sonoran and 
the Transition zones, is one of the handsomest animals peculiar to the 
West; it is often tamed and kept as a pet. Cougars and bobcats are 
fairly common. A few small herds of Roosevelt elk survive in the ex- 
treme northwest. Of the few reptiles, gopher snakes, garter snakes, 
and the rattlers are commonest. Amphibia are numerous, as is to be 
expected in so moist a region. The streams abound in water-puppies, 
and the woods in big mottled redwood salamanders which thrive on 
the abundant yellow groundslugs. In the depths of the Transition 
zone forests the birds are neither very numerous nor very conspicuous. 
Kingfishers, chickadees, various warblers, towhees, varied and hermit 
thrushes, robins, juncos, mountain quail, and hummingbirds are the 
most common. 

East of the redwood belt, on the slopes of the Klamaths, the Cas- 
cades, and the northern Sierra, is a mixed forest of coniferous and 
deciduous trees, with the former predominating. Yellow pine, Douglas 
fir, sugar pine, white fir, incense cedar, western yew, mountain birch, 
and white oak are the important trees of this region. The herbaceous 
flora resembles that of the southern Sierra and the drier portions of 
the redwood belt. This is the home of the white Washington lily, the 
orange Lilium pardalinum, the erythronium, western azaleas of white 
or pink, several lupines, and the curious darlingtonia, which traps un- 
wary insects in its hoodlike leaves. The Klamath Mountains, mark- 
ing the border line between the Oregonian and Californian floras, are 
of great interest to botanists. With the exception of the antelope of 
the Modoc lava beds, the mule deer, the eastern kingbird, and an 
occasional eastern bobolink, the fauna of this area is much like that 
of the coastal region. 

South of Lake Tahoe lies the characteristic Sierran forest. Here 
at an average elevation of about 3,500 feet is found the "big tree" 
(Sequoia gigantea). Unlike the redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) , it 
does not form great belts of continuous forest but stands in about 35 
isolated groves, scattered from the American River to the Tule. These 
trees are probably the oldest living things in the world some of them 
have been shown by ring counts to be not less than 4,000 years old. 
In diameter they average from 15 to 20 feet; their average height is 


about 250 feet. The "big tree" is bulkier than the redwood, with 
cinnamon-colored bark and foliage similar to that of its coast cousin. 
The two Sequoias, with the ginkgo tree and the marestail, are sur- 
vivals from a flora that was nearly destroyed in the glacial period. In 
Miocene times, Sequoias of various species were common over much 
of the northern hemisphere. In spite of their great age, both indi- 
vidually and as a species, the "big trees" are not dying out, but rather 
are increasing with the aid of the reforestation work of the United 
States Forest Service and office of National Parks. The "big tree" is 
found on the edge of the Transition and Canadian zones, usually close 
to stands of fir. Below it, in the Transition zone, stretch extensive 
forests of yellow and sugar pine, incense cedar, golden and black oak, 
California laurel, and broadleaved maple. In this Sierran forest, the 
most common wild flowers are pentstemons, gilias, mariposa tulips, 
pussypaws, mimulus, lappulas (wild forget-me-nots), collinsias, tiger 
and leopard lilies, buttercups, and the omnipresent lupines. 

As one enters the Canadian zone, a change is immediately notice- 
able. The yellow pine gives way to the related Jeffrey pine. As one 
ascends, mountain pines and red firs and (higher still) lodgepole pines 
dominate the forest. Brushy areas are covered with dwarf manzanita 
and ceanothus. Under the firs grows some herbaceous vegetation, 
mostly living on the decayed wood common in fir forests. Notable in 
this vegetation are the brilliant snowplant, several species of corallor- 
rhiza, and the cancerroot. This is also the home of the unique Sierra 
puffball. Some of the more conspicuous birds are the blue-fronted jay, 
Sierra junco, western chipping sparrow, Sierra hermit thrush, water 
ouzel, evening grosbeak, Sierra grouse, and Townsend solitaire. Among 
the animals are the mountain weasel, yellow-haired porcupine, snowshoe 
rabbit, golden-mantled ground squirrel, Sierra chickaree, and certain 
species of chipmunks. 

The Hudsonian zone is the belt of forest immediately below timber 
line. With the Canadian zone it shares the lodgepole pine, which is 
here the dominant cover. Usually associated with, or above the level 
of, the lodgepole are the white bark, foxtail, and silver pines. These 
latter trees, with the mountain hemlock, form the stunted and twisted 
growth of the timber line. Birds become scarcer in this zone, though 
mammals remain plentiful; some of the species extend up from the 
zones below. The California pine grosbeak, mountain bluebird, white- 
crowned sparrow, alpine chipmunk, Sierra marmot, Sierra cony, pine 
marten, Sierra least weasel, and wolverine are typical of the region. 

The Arctic-Alpine zone, the highest of all, is a treeless area stretch- 
ing from an elevation of about 10,500 feet to the summits of the loftiest 
peaks. Here are found the Sierra primrose, the blue and fragrant 
polemonium, the yellow columbine, the alpine buttercup, the steershead, 


and the alpine shootingstar. Only one species of bird is native to the 
zone, the Sierra rosy finch; but many others visit it, notably flocks of 
migrating hummingbirds and, in the summer, gray and white Clark 
nutcrackers. The principal mammals are visitants from lower eleva- 
tions; however, the Sierra cony is often found in these heights and the 
Sierra white-tailed jackrabbit makes its home here. The Sierra Nevada 
bighorn sheep are seen occasionally in the White Mountains east of 
Owens Valley and in some of the southeastern ranges. A small band 
remains in the Mount Whitney region, survivors of those described by 
John Muir, which in his day ranged along the Sierran crest to the 
vicinity of Sonora Pass. 

Certain animals range through several zones, particularly the mule 
deer, the coyote, and the cougar or mountain lion ; as do a number 
of birds notably the blue-fronted jay, the Sierra junco, the redshafted 
flicker, certain hawks, and some of the sparrows. The flowers and 
trees are generally confined within the limits of their native zones, 
although various similar forms, distinguishable only by botanists, occur 
at several elevations. Thus, the Jeffrey and western yellow pines can 
be differentiated with certainty only by a chemical analysis of their 
sap; while the Compositae generally, and particularly the asters, are 
the despair of all but highly trained specialists. 

Gone now from most sections of the country is Nature's intricately 
organized population of bear, marten, beaver, otter, elk, deer, and 
badger. Tilled fields have replaced the natural haunts of fox, lynx, 
bobcat, and fisher. But in California these animals still possess the 
sunny chaparral and the green shade of forests. The United States 
Forest Service estimates that in the 18 national forests of California, 
covering nearly one-fifth of the State's area, there are 1 1 1 ,000 bkcktail 
deer, 148,000 mule deer, 7,000 bear, 2,800 antelope, 24,000 foxes, and 
1,230 mountain lions. Man's encroachments have not yet driven out 
all the mountain sheep, weasels, badgers, raccoons, muskrat, beaver, and 
otter. Over vast areas of the California wilderness, human footprints 
seldom obliterate the tracks of paw and hoof. 


Gold was the first natural resource scarcely noticed by the Indians 
and Spanish-Calif ornians to be discovered in the land fronting the 
Pacific. Its discovery spelled the destruction of the simple economy 
of pre- Yankee California, attracted tens of thousands of fortune seek- 
ers, and radically affected the history of the State. 

California's minerals, forests, soils, and water power, its scenery 
and climate, and its two great natural harbors, place it among the 
regions most richly endowed by nature. But its natural resources, 


originally so great as to seem inexhaustible, were thrown open to 
private exploitation without restriction. Gold miners, taking little 
thought of the future, despoiled forests, denuded land of its surface 
soil, and clogged rivers with debris. Cattlemen deliberately set fire 
to forests to increase their acreage of grazing lands ; ranchers exhausted 
the soil by growing wheat year after year on the same areas. The 
inevitable consequences were floods, erosion, and soil depletion. 

The land surface of the State comprises about 100,000,000 acres, 
of which approximately 30,000,000 acres are tillable. Since cultiva- 
tion in many areas is dependent on irrigation, it is impossible to esti- 
mate the amount of tillable land with accuracy. About 500 variations 
in soil types have been listed by the U. S. Bureau of Chemistry and 
Soils; taken as a whole, they are uncommonly productive. 

Ever since pioneer days, the State's forest lands have yielded vast 
quantities of lumber. Some 7,700,000 acres have been logged over, and 
500,000 have been reclaimed for agricultural use. The commercial 
forests, mainly in the mountain sections, consist chiefly of coniferous 
trees : Ponderosa pine, sugar pine, and white and red fir in the Sierra ; 
Douglas fir and the towering redwood in the northern coast counties 
of Del Norte, Humboldt, and Mendocino. Many stands in both regions 
are very heavy, capable of yielding as much as 100,000 board feet 
to the acre. The total bulk of old-growth timber in California is 
estimated at 213,500,000,000 board feet. The forest lands are divided 
almost equally between public and private ownership, but the heavier 
and more accessible stands are privately owned. 

Legislative attempts early in the present century to conserve forest 
resources were mostly unsuccessful because of the opposition of cor- 
porate interests. In recent years the division of forestry of the State 
department of natural resources has done useful work, especially in 
fire and insect control. 

Since 1892 the Federal Government has set apart as national forests 
1 8 tracts along the headwaters of California streams, with a combined 
area of 19,216,332 acres about one-fifth of the State's total acreage. 
These tracts have been "set aside to protect and maintain in a per- 
manently productive and useful condition lands unsuited to agriculture 
but capable of yielding timber and other forest benefits, such as forage 
for livestock and water for irrigation, domestic use, and power." They 
are controlled and supervised by the Forest Service of the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. Extensive forest tracts are also reserved as 
State parks. Artificial reforestation is done mostly in the redwood 
region, where the climate fosters the growth of seedlings. In the pine 
region, with its hot dry summers and cold winters, natural reforestation 
is usually more successful. Artificial reforestation is carried on by 


the U. S. Forest Service and a few county organizations, some 4,000 
acres being planted annually. 

Of the 58 counties, each has some of the State's mineral substances. 
The six most important products of 1936 (latest available figures), 
listed in order of financial value, are petroleum, gold, natural gas, stone, 
soda, and cement. California is rich in petroleum, which has replaced 
gold as its most important mineral. Its oil, which is in general dis- 
tinguished by an asphaltum base, is found, along with great quantities 
of natural gas, on the coastal plain of southern California, in the San 
Joaquin Valley, and in scattered smaller areas elsewhere. California 
continues to outrank the rest of the United States, including Alaska, 
in the production of gold; its 1936 production topped any previous 
year in the history of the State. Quicksilver, copper, silver, lead, and 
zinc are found in substantial amounts, as are cement, clay products, 
stone, sand, and gravel. Most of the world's supply of borax comes 
from California. Platinum, tungsten, magnesite, chromite, pyrites, sil- 
ica, diatomaceous earth, potash, sodium salts, and talc are also mined. 

In the early iSyo's, Sacramento Valley farmers organized anti- 
debris associations as a defense against the strongly intrenched mining 
interests, and in 1893 an act was passed by the State legislature to 
control hydraulic mining. Shortly after 1900, steps were taken for 
co-operative work between owners of land and the State and Federal 
governments to reclaim valuable swamp and overflow lands along the 
rivers. Not until 1911, however, did the State legislature create a 
conservation commission. 

Since petroleum and natural gas are classed as minerals, their pro- 
duction is controlled by Federal laws; but under the California laws 
of 1911 and 1915 the State may regulate oil-drilling methods and 
prevent the waste of natural gas. Under the act of 1915, "to protect 
the natural resources of water, petroleum, and gas from damage, waste, 
and destruction," oil operators must use every effort to prevent con- 
tamination of fresh water suitable for irrigation or domestic use, to 
avoid the waste of natural gas, and to make regular reports of produc- 
tion to the State gas and oil supervisor. In 1919 several previously 
existing agricultural commissions were combined in a State department 
of agriculture, under the charge of a director of agriculture. The 
department is organized in several divisions, such as plant industry, 
animal industry, and agricultural chemistry. Its work is supplemented 
by that of the College of Agriculture of the University of California, 
with its central establishments at Berkeley and Davis. State conserva- 
tion activities include restoration of soil fertility, control and exclusion 
of pests, and study of plant diseases. 

The task of protecting wild life is divided between State and Fed- 
eral agencies. The State maintains an effective patrol organization to 


enforce its regulations in this field. U. S. Forest Service officers help 
the State to enforce the fish and game laws, and aid in the restocking 
of streams and lakes with trout. Throughout the national forests, many 
areas have been set aside as State game refuges. California's lakes and 
streams are stocked annually w r ith millions of fingerlings, under State 
and Federal conservation programs. The work of breeding the numer- 
ous game fishes is carried on at twenty State and two U. S. fish hatch- 
eries, and distribution to the lakes and streams at higher elevations is 
effected through co-operation with the anglers' associations and the 
Sierra Club. 

The future of California is closely linked with the future of its 
water supply. From the earliest days of the State, a popular movement 
for public ownership and distribution of irrigation water has struggled 
for domination over private ownership and sale. Californians have 
undertaken many comprehensive investigations of the problems of water 
control, pollution abatement, watershed protection, and beach erosion. 
In 1931 a complete water utilization plan, reported by the State division 
of water resources, outlined specific projects for the great agricultural 
districts. The reports of the California Basin Committees, drafted 
for the National Resources Committee (1937), recommended projects 
in flood control, irrigation, soil and wildlife conservation in the northern 
California-Klamath, Central Valley, central California coast, and south- 
ern California coastal drainage basins. 

The project of making the desert blossom as a rose, or (more pro- 
saically) of turning desert areas into productive farmland, has held 
the imagination of western settlers for more than half a century. The 
possibility of irrigating the Imperial Valley area through the diversion 
of the waters of the Colorado River was first considered in 1876. The 
Colorado Irrigation Company was formed in 1892 and constructed a 
canal in the vicinity of the Mexican border. The plan almost ended 
in disaster when the powerful Colorado River changed its course during 

I a flood in 1905-6 and hurled its waters through Imperial Valley into 
the big inland sink since known as Salton Sea, threatening to make a 
clean sweep of the valley ranches and settlements. After the damage 
had finally been repaired at great cost, the problem of effectively regu- 
lating the Colorado River was repeatedly brought before Congress. 
The completion in 1936 of Boulder Dam, second in size only to Grand 
Coulee in the Northwest, finally solved the problem, assuring the future 
of Imperial Valley as one of the most important agricultural regions 
in the country. Boulder Dam will control the waterflow of the All- 
American Canal, opened in 1938, which will distribute irrigation water 
throughout the reclaimed desert region in the southeastern corner of 
the State. 

Despite the extremely high productivity of Central Valley's alluvial 


soils, large parts of the valley have been threatened for years with 
reversion to desert through drought and salinity, largely caused by 
prodigal and unplanned use of water resources over a long period. 
In order to conserve and regulate the water resources of the valley, 
and to prevent the acute water shortage threatening over a million 
acres in the Sacramento and San Joaquin basins, the Bureau of Reclama- 
tion of the U. S. Department of the Interior has now under construc- 
tion another great irrigation, flood control, and power project, known 
as the Central Valley Water Project. Its key unit, the Shasta Dam, 
above Redding, which will be the second largest concrete dam in the 
world, will back up the Sacramento, Pit, and McCloud Rivers for a 
distance of 35 miles, to create a storage reservoir with a capacity of 
nearly a billion gallons. The Central Valley project also includes the 
construction of the Friant Dam on the upper San Joaquin River east 
of Fresno, with a reservoir capacity of 147,00x5,000 gallons. Developed 
water power in the State is more than 2,000,000 horse-power, with 
large potential reserves still undeveloped. 

The California Conservation Council, representing a number of 
national and State organizations, stresses the necessity for local initiative 
in conservation work and urges not only wise utilization of natural 
wealth but also cooperation with Federal, State, and county agencies, 
enforcement of protective laws, and nonpolitical administration of 
natural resources. Since 1935, the Council has annually sponsored a 
"Conservation Week." 

One of the most forward-looking phases of Califorina's conservation 
program is that which has preserved and developed the beaches all along 
the coast as State parks. Numerous historic sites are protected as State 
monuments. The national conservation program in the State embraces 
three national parks Lassen, Yosemite, and Sequoia and the two 
great national monuments, Death Valley National Monument and 
Joshua Tree National Monument. 

The First Californians 

WHEN on June 17, 1579 "it pleased God" to send Francis 
Drake's Golden Hind into the "faire and good bay" north 
of the Golden Gate, he encountered "the people of the coun- 
try, having their houses close by the water's edge." Overawed, they 
supposed the bearded, white-skinned sailors who bestowed on them 
"necessary things to cover their nakedness" to be gods and "would not 
be persuaded to the contrarj^." The men, their faces painted in all 
colors, left their bows behind on a hill and came down to the shore 
bearing presents of feathers and tobacco. The women remained on 
the hill, "tormenting themselves" in some sacrificial frenzy and "tearing 
the flesh from their cheeks." Their king, "clad with conie skins and 
other skins," arrived with a retinue of "tall and warlike men," bearing 
a sceptre. After much singing, dancing, and speech making, they begged 
Drake to "take their province and kingdom into his hand and become 
their king." 

In the interior Drake's men found other villages. Up and down 
California, if they had traveled farther, they would have discovered 
others, for the Indians of California were widely but unevenly scattered 
over the State's fertile regions. The estimated native population of 
almost one inhabitant to each square mile was comparatively large; the 
Central Valley was probably more densely populated than any other 
part of North America at that time. 

For an unknown age before the white man first stumbled upon 
them in the sixteenth century, the Indians of California had dwelt in 
their scattered bands, walled off from the rest of the aboriginal world 



by mountains and deserts. On the shores of San Francisco Bay, along 
the southern California and Humboldt Bay seacoasts and in the San 
Joaquin Valley, evidence has been unearthed from their shell mounds 
huge kitchen middens of shell, ash, and earth, piled up layer by layer 
from, the refuse of daily living over the centuries indicating a culture 
which remained almost unchanged over a period of perhaps three or 
four thousand years. It was probably the simplest culture in all abo- 
riginal North America. 

The scattered bands dwelt in isolation one from another, each fishing 
in its own creek, catching game in its own preserves, gathering nuts, 
seeds, and berries in its own forests. The village, composed of groups 
of kin and relatives by marriage, was the unit of society, its members 
holding rights in common to a specific tract of land; seldom was it 
united with other villages by tribal ties. Even among the semi-organ- 
ized tribes of northern central California, the village was the real social 
unit. The Maidu of central California, although united in language 
and customs, distinguished their local groups into Hill Maidu, Valley 
Maidu, and Mountain Maidu. The only exceptions were the Mojave 
and Yuma in the far southeast, who displayed aggressive tribal unity 
against outsiders. 

In customs and in culture the isolated villages varied widely, but 
in nothing so widely as in language. Over most of the State a villager 
needed to travel little more than 50 miles to encounter other Indians 
whose language he could not speak ; in a 5O-mile journey through many 
regions he might pass the boundaries of three or four distinct language 
groups. More than 100 dialects of 21 distinct language stocks were 
spoken. Of all the many language groups, only three larger language 
families from outside the State were represented in California: the 
Hupa and their neighbors in the far northwest belonged to the Atha- 
bascan; many groups in the south to the Shoshonean, and the Mojave 
and Yuma along the Colorado to the Yuman linguistic stock. 

Drake's men discovered tribes living in conical, dome-shaped, or 
round huts. In the northwest part of the State they were covered with 
light planks or poles ; towards the south with bark, brush, or thatch ; 
in the Sacramento Valley, with sod. The ceremonial center for most 
villages was the temescal (sweat house), round and earth-covered, 
almost airtight. Confinement in its steam-vapored interior, followed 
by a plunge into icy water, was considered an effective remedy for illness 
and a pleasant cleanly habit. 

California's great stands of oak provided the Indians with their 
staple food in most parts of the State. Acorns were dried, ground with 
pestles in stone or wooden mortars, and leached with repeated soakings 
in hot water to remove their tannic acid. This acorn meal, seasoned 
with salt or wood ashes, was eaten as it was, baked in unleavened cakes, 


or boiled in a gruel. In the southwestern desert country the Indians 
gathered mesquite beans and on the eastern Sierra slopes, pinon nuts; 
only near the Colorado River did they cultivate plants for food. Often 
they ground or roasted grass seeds, berries, roots, and nuts, and stored 
them in baskets. Lacking pottery, which only the Indians in the 
extreme southeast near the Colorado River knew how to make, most 
of the California natives boiled their food in close-woven baskets, into 
which they dropped hot stones. They hunted small game with snares, 
sticks and nets, or bows and arrows; larger game with the aid of pits 
and traps, and, in the north, dogs. Deer-hunters often donned deer- 
skins and stuffed deer's heads to approach their game. Grasshoppers 
and caterpillars were also eaten. Everywhere fish were caught with 
hook, net, or spear; by the seashore clams and mussels were gathered, 
and along the rivers of the north, salmon were speared during the 
spawning season. 

The California Indians perfected basketry and thus supplied them- 
selves with utensils for gathering and winnowing grain, cooking and 
storing water. Into their weaving went sedge, bulrush, redbud, wil- 
low, diggerpine, juniper, bracken, grape, or tule. With strands stained 
with vegetable dyes in clear blues, deep reds, warm yellows, and 
luminous pinks, the weavers worked fine geometric patterns. The Pomo 
families of Lake, Sonoma, and Mendocino Counties sometimes wove 
into their baskets the downy, many-colored feathers of birds. 

The California Indian's other possessions were few and crude. Out 
of bone, shell, or stone he carved his arrowheads, awls, pestles and 
mortars, pots, charm stones, beads, and pendants. For money he used 
dentalium or clamshell disk beads, ground, bored, and strung, and 
valued according to size, thickness, and polish. His musical instruments 
were varied; most widespread was the rattle, made of split clap-sticks, 
gravel-filled cocoon bunches, bundles of deer hoofs, or turtle shells and 
gourds; in addition there were bone whistles, flutes, musical bows, and 

He built two kinds of vessels for navigation: the balsa, a raft or 
float made of tule rushes for use in quiet waters, sometimes replaced 
by huge woven baskets in which goods or human beings were ferried 
across streams; and the wooden canoe, hollowed out of a log, for use 
on the ocean. The Canalino Indians living along the Santa Barbara 
Channel made boats of lashed planks, craft found nowhere else in 
North America. 

Most village groups were headed by a chief, who held the office 
more often by virtue of wealth than heredity; he was privileged only 
to advise, not to command. Within the village group, scarcely any dis- 
tinctions, either of social status or vocation, were drawn, except in the 
northwest, where social classes based on the possession of wealth tended 


to form. In the absence of any coherent tribal organization warfare 
as practised in eastern North America was unknown, although sporadic 
feuds broke out between kin or local groups. 

The only other tribal functionaries besides the chief were the 
shamans. The shaman might be either a man or a woman, who 
acquired supposedly supernatural powers through consultation with 
spirits in a dream. Sometimes he cured illness by "sucking the pain 
object" from the patient's body, sometimes by bringing back his wander- 
ing soul, sometimes by blowing tobacco smoke on the affected part, by 
chanting incantations, or by inducing a trance. Supposedly he could 
kill, as well as cure. Among these shamans were specialists, the rain, 
rattlesnake, and grizzly bear doctors. Most feared of all in northern 
California were the grizzly bear shamans, who either dressed in bear- 
skin robes, or were credited with the power of turning themselves into 
ferocious grizzlies in order to destroy their enemies. 

Birth, puberty, marriage, and death called for religious observances. 
In most localities the husband kept to his house for several days (usu- 
ally four) after the birth of a child, abstaining with his wife from 
meat and salt. Among the Achomawi and Shasta in the northeast, 
boys at the age of puberty were initiated into the life of the group with 
simple ceremonies by fasting, whipping with a bowstring, and the 
piercing of their ears. The initiation of girls was more elaborate : hidden 
away, sometimes in a separate hut, they were instructed in womanly 
duties, meanwhile eating no meat, bathing frequently, and scratching 
themselves with special carved sticks (since scratching with the hands 
was taboo). Marriage was a somewhat loosely defined institution ex- 
cept in the northwest, where the bridegroom presented gifts in propor- 
tion to the social standing of his bride's family. In most parts of the 
State the dead were forgotten as soon as their bodies had been buried 
or cremated; to speak their names was commonly taboo. Among the 
southern California group, however, the chief public demonstrations 
were mourning ceremonies, celebrated at annual or semi-annual me- 
morials by burning the piled-up effigies of all the recent deceased, to 
the accompaniment of sad wailing. 

The only organized religious cults which gained a foothold in 
California were the kuksu (big-head) and toloache (Jimsonweed) cults. 
The kuksu rites, practised in the southern Sacramento Valley, were 
celebrated, almost always in winter, by dancers representing gods. 
Their faces painted and disguised by curtains of feathers, grass, or 
shredded rushes, they danced in earth-covered, dome-roofed dance houses 
to the accompaniment of stamping on a hollow-slab foot drum. The 
cult trained the adolescent boys and girls (initiating the boys with 
puberty rites), organized the male members of the community, and 
focused the activities of the shaman. The toloache cult, practised in 


the San Joaquin Valley and in southern California, centered about the 
taking of the narcotic Jimsonweed plant to induce hallucinations. Its 
practitioners used sand paintings to picture the cosmos. The toloache, 
like the kuksu cult, conducted puberty rites, some groups extending them 
to girls as well as boys, with the intention of making the initiate strong, 
fortunate, and successful. Some groups celebrated with ceremonial 
rites such events as the first fire-making or acorn-gathering of the new 
year or the first catch of salmon in the spawning season. In the north- 
west, the exhibition of prized possessions like prepared deerskins was 
celebrated by dancers decked out in all their valuable goods. The 
groups of the southeast and desert performed ritual dances to accompany 
song cycles in celebration of mythical events. 

In 1769, nearly two centuries after Drake's brief visit, Franciscan 
friars trudged into the country to convert the "heathen." Cross or 
sword, the Indians had to choose. On several occasions bloody struggles 
broke out, in which the Indians were usually defeated. Only the groups 
in the mountains escaped missionary efforts: those who submitted were 
baptized. Almost all the natives in the coastal regions were brought 
to live in and around the 21 Franciscan missions, established from San 
Diego to Sonoma between 1769 and 1823. From 4,000 in 1783, the 
Mission Indian population was increased to 7,500 by 1790, to 13,500 
by 1800, and to 20,355 by 1805. The monotonous round of work and 
prayer, the rigid moral regulations, the cramped and prisonlike housing 
made life unbearable for many. They ran away, although they faced 
whipping if caught, or they died. 

The resentment against the missions flared several times into open 
rebellion. On November 4, 1775, some 800 rebels swept down from 
the hills and set fire to San Diego Mission. The year after, San Luis 
Obispo was burned. The Yumas in 1781 destroyed their mission and 
freed themselves, arousing the spirit of revolt among the Indians of 
San Diego and San Juan Capistrano. During the last two decades of 
the century there were conflicts at Santa Barbara, at most of the south- 
ern missions, and at San Juan Bautista. In February 1824 the neo- 
phytes at Purisima Concepcion, Santa Ines, and Santa Barbara revolted 
simultaneously, killing several people and burning the buildings at Santa 
Ines. In 1829 secular authorities waged a campaign against the forces 
of Chief Estanislao (for whom Stanislaus River and County are named). 
A fugitive from Mision San Jose, Estanislao led a band of other 
escaped neophytes and wild Indians of the San Joaquin Valley in an 
uprising that was crushed only by a force of 100 Spaniards with muskets 
and cannon. 

When the Mexican Government broke the mission system's land 
monopoly with its secularization decrees of 1833-34, tne Indians were 
suddenly freed. Well-meaning in their despotism as the mission fathers 


may have been, they had degraded their converts into dependent slaves, 
unable to shift for themselves. In theory, secularization was to grant 
rights of citizenship to the Indians and restore to them one-half of all 
mission land, livestock, and farm tools. In practice, the neophytes re- 
lapsed into helpless vagrancy, too demoralized to work their own lands, 
if indeed they had not been dispossessed of them by crooked adminis- 
trators. The mission population fell off rapidly, decreasing from 24,634 
in 1830 to 6,000 in 1840. The Indians took up their old life in the 
wilds, if luck was with them; if not, they fell into wretched peonage 
on the vast private ranches. 

On the ranchos the Indians were never paid, and in the small 
industrial establishments of the later Mexican period they were paid 
only with glass beads, parched corn, or homemade brandy. The raw, 
poisonous liquor, drunk with greediness, killed many of them; scarlet 
fever, smallpox, tuberculosis, and syphilis killed many more. 

From an estimated total of 133,000 in 1770 the Indian population 
had already fallen by 1852 to 85,000, and continued to decline at an 
accelerated rate under the American regime. The drop in Indian popu- 
lation between 1849 and 1856 has been estimated at 50,000. One of 
John C. Fremont's men reported in 1847: "We killed plenty of game 
and an occasional Indian. We made it a rule to spare none of the 
bucks." As Americans acquired the Mexican grants, they drove the 
ranch Indians off; the squatters who staked off so-called Government 
lands pushed the aboriginal inhabitants back into the mountains and 
deserts. Their salmon waters muddied by mining operations, acorn 
groves cut down for firewood, hunting lands confiscated, the Indians 
were left to starve. In the towns and cities, where they were paid 
only half the wages of whites, they were cut down by disease and drink. 

When the less submissive of the Indians resisted starvation by depre- 
dations on American property or livestock or retaliated for outrages by 
killing white men, they were massacred without mercy. For nearly 
three decades after American occupation of California, "Indian wars" 
continued the Klamath War of 1851-52, Kern River War of 1856, 
Pit River massacres of 1867, and the Modoc War of 1873. During 
the campaign of 1855-59 m the north, soldiers killed more than 100 
Indians, while settlers of the Mad and Eel River regions put at least 
200 to death in a series of massacres. Up to December 1854 the State 
had spent $1,030,530 on Indian campaigns; during the next six years 
it spent twice that amount. The cattle raids and attacks on emigrant 
trains of the Yumas and Mojaves were answered in the Owens Lake 
incident of 1865, when the settlers drove 100 Indians to a terrible 
death in the corroding waters of an alkaline lake. The Pit River Valley 
massacre of 10 or 15 white men in 1867 was followed by the destruc- 
tion of a whole village. During the troubles in the far north which 


eventually culminated in the last and bloodiest of the Indian "wars," 
the Modoc War of 1873, a company under Captain Ben Wright fell 
upon the Indians when they laid down their arms to make a treaty and 
murdered so many that Wright could boast of making a "permanent" 
treaty with at least 1,000 Indians. 

The Indian, his affairs entrusted to special agents who seldom inter- 
fered in his behalf, had no spokesman before the Government of a people 
who wanted only to steal his land. The white man found it easy to sup- 
port almost any charges against him. According to Helen Hunt Jack- 
son, early champion of the Indian, " 'Papers from Washington' seemed 
to give the white man the right to deprive any Indian of the land of his 
forefathers so the Indian gradually disappeared, 'hunted down, driven 
out.' The United States Government took over all the Indian holdings, 
and grants to white people could be obtained on application without 
any consideration for the right of occupancy by the Indian. To betray 
sympathy with the Indian was more than any man's 'political' head was 

As early as 1849 the Federal Government had commissioned agents 
to collect data on Indian rights and land titles. In the following year 
it appointed a commission of three which eventually succeeded in signing 
1 8 treaties with chiefs of more than 100 groups, representing most of 
the State's Indian population. In return for their promise to recognize 
United States sovereignty, keep the peace, settle on reservations 18 in 
number, aggregating 7,500,000 acres and cede their land rights to 
the Government; they were to receive farm implements and goods, in- 
structors in blacksmithing, woodwork, and farming, and maintenance 
of permanent reservations. The treaties were transmitted to the 
Senate but never ratified ; for over half a century they remained hidden 
in Senate archives. Meanwhile the Indians of California, having ful- 
filled their part of the bargain, remained uncompensated for their 
losses, seeing their promised 7,500,000 acres dwindle to 500,000. 

Beginning in 1853, the Indians were gradually gathered together 
on reservations. The first one was established at Tejon; others were 
established later on the Klamath River south of Crescent City, at the 
mouth of the Noyo River on the Mendocino coast, and at Nome Lake 
in the Sacramento foothills. The results at first were far from happy, 
since bands of diverse origin and speech were lumped together indis- 
criminately. Under a system of education which forced the white 
man's ways upon the Indian, aboriginal culture disintegrated rapidly. 
As the natives ran away faster than they died, one reservation after 
another was abandoned. Little by little the reservations were robbed 
of their more valuable lands. The 32 which exist today, as well as 
the land allotments made to individuals, are located chiefly in unpro- 
ductive hill country. Here the Indians, housed and clothed much like 


their white neighbors, practice farming, stockraising, and handicrafts, 
on some reservations under the guidance of Indian Bureau agents. The 
children attend either Indian schools, such as the Sherman Institute near 
Arlington, Riverside County, or public schools to which the Indian 
Bureau makes tuition payments. 

For every seven or eight Indians living in California before the 
white man came to stay, only one remained 14 decades later. The 
Indian population, including half and mixed bloods (nearly 30 percent 
of the total), had fallen by 1910 to 16,371 a decline of about 90 per- 
cent. Since then the Indian population has increased to an estimated 
24,000 in 1938. 

There are Indians in every county in the State, but in only four 
Humboldt, Mendocino, Riverside, and San Diego are there more than 
1,000. About three-fifths of the Indian population live on reserva- 
tions; many of the remainder live on land allotments or homesteads. 
Indian ranch hands work at hop-picking, fruit gathering, sheep-shearing, 
and general ranching. In the larger urban centers, where they have 
doubled in number during the last three decades and total about 1,100 
today, the women find employment as domestics, the men as mechanics, 
factory hands, or railroad w r orkers. 

Under the Indian Bureau's influence, native arts are now fostered, 
particularly at the Sherman Institute. The Luiseno and other groups 
are encouraged to stage their picturesque ceremonies at summer fiestas, 
ceremonies whose primitive origin is plainly apparent despite Christian 
transformations. Unfortunately, this policy of encouragement has suc- 
ceeded that of persecution too late to save more than a tiny remnant 
of Indian culture. 

Calif ornicfs Last Four Centuries 

WITHIN the half century after Christopher Columbus discov- 
ered the new world, Europeans discovered and named Cali- 
fornia. In 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa reached the Pacific 
coast at Panama; twenty-two years later another Spaniard, Hernando 
Cortes, discovered a land he named California; and in 1542 Juan 
Rodriguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese navigator, rode at anchor in San 
Diego Bay, the first white man to see any part of the region now 
known as California. 

The chain of events that led to California started with the search 
by Columbus in the Caribbean in 1493 for the island Mantinino, which 
he had been told "was peopled merely by women." Columbus thought 
this might be Marco Polo's Amazonian island "near the coast of Asia." 
He failed in his search, but the fabulous isle fascinated other navigators 
during the next decade. After Garcia Ordonez de Montalvo published 
his romance Las Sergas de Esplandidn in 1510, Spanish navigators 
were familiar with both the legend and with the name California. 
A passage reads: "Know that, on the right hand of the Indies, there 
is an island called California, very near to the Terrestrial Paradise, 
which was peopled with black women. . . . Their arms were all of 

Spain's dominion in the new world was extended to the western coast 
of Mexico by Cortes' conquest of the empire of Montezuma. In an 
attempt to push it farther west and north Cortes sent two ships com- 
manded by his kinsman Diego Hurtado de Mendoza on a "voyage of 
discovery" in 1532. Mendoza got as far north into the Gulf of Cali- 



fornia as 27 N. before a mutinous crew compelled him to send back 
one of the ships; of his own vessel, nothing but vague rumor was ever 
heard again. Fortune Ximenes, pilot of an expedition sent to search 
for Mendoza, anchored in a small bay "near the 23rd degree of lati- 
tude," landed, and was killed by natives, along with 20 of his men. 
The survivors reported the discovery of an island, said to "abound in 
the finest pearls." On May 5, 1535, Cortes entered the little bay 
Ximenes had found (possibly the present La Paz) called it Santa Cruz, 
landed and named the supposed island California. He was convinced 
that it lay "on the right side of the Indies," if not "near to the Terres- 
trial Paradise." 

For more than a year Cortes stayed in the new land, a desolate sandy 
waste, while the mutinous soldiers cursed him, "his island, bay, and 
his discovery." Clinging tenaciously to his search for the "seven cities 
of Cibola" in the north, he sent three ships, under command of Fran- 
cisco de Ulloa, to begin a thorough survey of the coast line in 1539. 
Ulloa examined both shores of what he called "The Sea of Cortes," 
now known as the Gulf of California, discovered that Cortes' island 
was really a peninsula. Later in the same year, it is said, he sailed 
around Cape San Lucas and surveyed the Pacific coast line of the penin- 
sula, getting as far as the 28th degree some say as far as "Cape 
Engano, near the 3Oth degree." By this time, however, Cortes had gone 
back to Spain, never to return. 

The new viceroy, Don Antonio de Mendoza sent Cabrillo, in com- 
mand of the ships San Salvador and La Victoria "to examine the west- 
ern side of California as far northward as possible, seeking particularly 
for rich countries and for passages leading towards the Atlantic." 
Cabrillo sailed from Navidad, a small port in Xalisco, on June 27, 1542. 
Slowed by adverse winds, he finally entered "a very good closed port" 
on September 28, which he named San Miguel the bay of San Diego. 
He discovered Santa Monica Bay and the three large islands of the 
Santa Barbara group, rounded Cabo Galera (Point Concepcion) and 
Cabo de los Reyes (Point Reyes). The ships passed the Golden Gate 
without seeing it. On the way back they found the harbor in the island 
of the Santa Barbara group which they named La Posesion. There 
Cabrillo, who had been suffering from a broken arm, died on January 
3, 1543, and the command passed to his pilot, Bartolome Ferrelo. 
Sailing north again, the ships reached a promontory on February 26, 
probably Cape Mendocino, which Ferrelo named Cabo de Fortunas 
(Cape of Perils or Stormy Cape). Turning back, they eventually came 
into their home port, Navidad. 

Disappointed by the reports of the expedition, Spanish officials be- 
came more and more convinced that north of Mexico the New World 
contained "neither wealthy nations, nor navigable passage . . . between 


the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans." Later, when the treasures of the 
Orient began to come into the port of Acapulco from the Philippines 
and from China, Spain found in the long continental mainland the best 
protection of its inland sea the Pacific. England's sea rovers had no 
way into the Pacific except by rounding Cape Horn. This Francis 
Drake did in his looton schooner, the Golden Hinde; he anchored on 
June 17, 1579, in what became Drake's Bay and named the region New 

Drake's visit seems to have aroused Spain's dormant interest in 
California. In 1584 Francisco Gali made a much more thorough exam- 
ination of the California coast than Cabrillo had done 42 years before, 
and 1 1 years later Sebastian Cermeno was directed, while returning 
from Manila to Acapulco, to examine the California coast, "in search of 
harbors in which galleons might take refuge." Losing his own ship, 
somewhere "near San Francisco Bay south of Cape Mendocino," he 
sailed southward along the coast in a small boat and sighted the Bay 
of Monterey, which he named "San Pedro Bay." 

With three ships "well officered," Sebastian Vizcaino made a second 
attempt in 1602 to explore the coast, sailing as far as Cape Mendocino, 
naming the first harbor he reached, "the best in all the South Sea," 
San Diego. On November 12, Carmelite friars of his party celebrated 
Holy Mass ashore the first time in Upper California. Vizcaino spent 
almost a year in the survey, but like Cabrillo he missed the Golden 
Gate. He renamed many places named in 1542 by Cabrillo, among 
them San Diego, Santa Catalina, Santa Barbara, Point Concepcion, the 
Carmel River, Point Reges, and Monterey Bay in honor of the vice- 
roy, Gasper de Zunigay Acebedo, who was the Count of Monterey. 

After Vizcaino's visit Spain's efforts were largely spent in attempts 
to colonize New Mexico rather than Upper California, though recur- 
rent attempts were made to keep alive the pearl-fishing industry on the 
eastern coast of the Gulf of California. The most pretentious of these 
was in 1683, when Don Isidro de Atondo, placing settlers, soldiers and 
Jesuits at different points, planned a steady penetration of California. 
But the project lagged, and not until 1697 did Jesuits receive royal 
warrants to enter upon the reduction of California at their own expense. 
In that year the first permanent colony was planted in Baja California 
at Loreto by Father Juan Maria Salvatierra. Father Kino, in 1701, 
crossed the Colorado near Yuma and entered Alta California, working 
among the Indians of "Pimeria Alta." 

By 1734 Vitus Bering was pushing his exploration of Alaska, and 
Spain began to fear the colonizing activities of Russia along the Pacific 
coast. Twenty years later a new peril arose, when France was swept 
from sovereignty in America by Britain. Spain could put off no longer 
the settlement of Alta California. 


A high officer of the Spanish "Council of the Indies," Jose de 
Galvez, was sent to Mexico as visitador-general and arrived in Mexico 
City in 1766. Early in the following year Carlos III of Spain issued a 
decree banishing all Jesuits from Spanish territories. Franciscans were 
to take over the mission at Loreto, which was to be the base of the 
operations, both military and pastoral. 

Captain Caspar de Portola was appointed Governor of Baja Cali- 
fornia and ordered to proceed to Loreto to superintend the transfer of 
mission property. He reached Loreto with an escort of fifty soldiers, 
accompanied by fifteen Franciscan monks, and was joined by Father 
Junipero Serra, who was made president of the missions in California, 
and Galvez. The king had ordered Galvez "to send an expedition by 
sea to rediscover and people the bays of San Diego and Monterey." 
Galvez thought it would be well to send a land expedition also and 
Father Serra concurred with this plan. Three missions in Alta Cali- 
fornia at San Diego, Monterey and at an intermediate point were 
to be established, also two presidios or military posts. 

On January 9, 1769, one of the ships, the San Carlos, left La Paz; 
two days later the San Antonio sailed from San Lucas, and the Senor 
San Jose, from Loreto soon after. The vessels were loaded with orna- 
ments, sacred vases, church vestments, household utensils, field imple- 
ments, seeds, and other settlement needs. The San Antonio, under 
Captain Juan Perez, reached its destination, San Diego Bay, on April 
1 1 ; the San Carlos on April 29. Scurvy had swept both vessels, but 
its ravages on the San Carlos had so prostrated the crew that not even 
a boat could be lowered. The San Antonio's boats carried the sick 
ashore, where they convalesced behind a temporary stockade. 

The march by land was no less long and painful. The forces 
divided into two columns, one under an army captain, Fernando de 
Rivera, and the other under Portola. With the latter went Father 
Serra. The columns took different routes, each driving a herd of cattle. 
Rivera's party reached San Diego on May 1 5 ; Portola's route was more 
difficult and his party did not arrive until July I. 

The expedition lost no time in putting its plans into action. Mision 
San Diego de Alcala was dedicated on July 16, two days after Portola 
had led sixty-four members of the expedition away to the north to find 
the Bay of Monterey. Through country described by Portola as "rocks, 
brushwood and rugged mountains" wound these newcomers Spanish 
officers in brilliant uniforms, monks in gray-brown cowls, leather-clad 
soldiers, Indians on foot. On October 2 they reached Monterey, failed 
to recognize it, and pushed on. In Father Crespi's words: "The expe- 
dition strove to reach the Punta de los Reyes, but some immense arms 
of the sea which penetrate into the mainland in an extraordinary fashion 
would have made it necessary to take a long, circuitous detour." Those 


arms of the sea, first seen by Sergeant Ortega and his band of scouts, 
were the reaches of San Francisco Bay. Curiously inept at foraging for 
food, the company would have starved except for their pack animals. 
They ate twelve in as many days. 

At last, on January 24, 1770, they returned to San Diego, "smelling 
frightfully of mules." At San Diego there was so much suffering from 
illness and hunger that Portola decided to abandon the expedition and 
return to Baja California if help did not come from Galvez by March 
20. But at dusk on March 19 they sighted a sail on the horizon and 
less than a month later were on their way back to Monterey. 

This time they recognized the Bay, and on June 3, 1770, dedicated 
the sites of the mission and the presidio. Serra felt that they were 
dedicating themselves to the task of civilizing the natives and winning 
them for God. To Portola, the planting of royal standards and crosses 
in the name of King Carlos III of Spain, signified the assertion of 
Spain's rights in California. During the next half century nineteen 
more missions were established, and near some of them presidios and 
pueblos. The last mission San Francisco Solano was founded north 
of San Francisco Bay on July 4, 1823. 

The missions formed a chain of civilized outposts along the coast, 
spaced a day's journey apart. Each had its herd of cattle, its fields 
and vegetable gardens, tended by the Indian neophytes. The Indians 
were taught by the padres to build irrigation systems and they became 
weavers, masons, carpenters, and blacksmiths. Thus the missions could 
be nearly self-sustaining, though they did receive clothing, furniture, 
implements, and tools from New Spain, in exchange for their surplus 
of meal, wine, oil, hemp, hides, and tallow. 

The work of the padres, measured by the number of Indians re- 
claimed from their free life in the wilderness and put to tilling fields, 
was for a time successful. But even in 1786 at a time when the 
future of the missions was most promising a discerning French sci- 
entist, Jean Frangois Galaup de la Perouse, visited California and wrote 
that he was not impressed with what the padres were accomplishing. 
He doubted whether the mission system would ever develop self- 
reliance in the aborigines. 

The presidios, with their small military staffs, were established to 
protect the missions from hostile natives and possible invaders. Their 
military equipment was meager and antiquated, but fortunately the sol- 
diers had little use for it. They occupied themselves with explorations, 
bear hunts, capture of run-away neophytes, carrying of the mails, and 
providing their own food supply. Like the padres, the soldiers were 
supposed to receive regular wages from New Spain, but more often 
than not the money failed to come, and they were forced to become 
more self-reliant than most subjects of the paternal Spanish Government. 


Gradually small towns began to grow. Some of them, like San 
Diego, San Francisco, Santa Barbara, and Monterey, spread around 
the edges of the presidios, and were at first under military rule. Others 
sprang up near the missions; among these were Sonoma, San Juan 
Bautista, San Juan Capistrano, and San Luis Obispo. Los Angeles and 
San Jose began as independent towns, with civic governments, and San 
Francisco, although an adjunct to the Presidio, was definitely planned 
by the Spanish authorities as a civic enterprise. Its first settlers were 
240 immigrants brought from Sonoma, and Tubac, Mexico, by Juan 
Bautista de Anza. Leaving Tubac in October 1775, he led them over 
the present Arizona desert and the snows of the high Sierra, and arrived 
with his company, almost intact ; only one person, a woman, died on the 
way, and eight children were born. (The Spanish Government had 
supplied every anticipated need.) On March 28, 1776, Anza located 
a presidio along the Golden Gate. The settlers, who had stopped in 
Monterey, arrived on June 27. 

Although Portola had hoped to establish the authority of Spain in 
California, his successors could not even repel the small company of 
Russian fur traders who landed in 1812 and boldly built a stockade, 
Fort Ross, in the Spanish province. The Spaniards made polite pro- 
tests but the intruders stayed as long as was convenient to them. 
Because of their military weakness, the presidio commanders were also 
forced to receive respectfully the visits of British, French, South Amer- 
ican, and Yanqui ships all of which were technically forbidden to enter 
the California harbors. The captains of these vessels carried home 
eloquent reports of life in California . . . and it was inevitable that 
one or another covetous nation would snap the weakening Spanish rule. 

After Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821 and Cali- 
fornia settlers had their first taste of self-government, their dissatisfac- 
tion with the patriarchal mission authority crystallized. The Indians 
were virtual slaves who could not be sold, but could be pursued if 
they left the mission grounds, brought back, whipped, and locked up, 
and when penitent allowed to go to work again. Though unhappy 
enough to plan two or three revolts the worst occurring in 1824 
the Indians were not very articulate about their plight, but the "y un g 
Californians" a party of progressive Castilians took up the Indians' 
cause. Their efforts, added to the republican sentiment in Mexico, 
resulted in a decree issued by the Mexican Congress in 1833 removing 
the missions from Franciscan management. California's Mexican Gov- 
ernor, Jose Figueroa, had made a careful plan for the secularization 
of the missions, but he died before it could be carried out and the im- 
patient Calif ornios made the change unwisely and with too much haste. 

One-half of the mission land and livestock was to have been given 
to the Indian neophytes who had developed it and to whom it had be- 


longed before the coming of the Spaniards. Since they had never been 
taught self-discipline, they were to be forbidden to sell or mortgage 
their holdings. But when the missions were finally dismembered colon- 
ists helped themselves to mission lands and the cattle. The Indians 
received little cash for what they were able to sell, and that little they 
quickly squandered. 

The Good Life: A few years after Portola's earnest little company 
struggled up from Baja California, there rode into the new province a 
new kind of Spanish immigrants. Travelers returning to New Spain 
had told how the mission herds were thriving on the virgin pastures 
of Alta California. Castilian colonists, attempting to raise their cattle 
on the stonier soil of Mexican ranches, were tempted to move on up the 
coast. The viceroy encouraged them with generous land grants. 
Although mission authorities opposed such colonizing by individuals, in 
1786 Lieutenant Colonel Pages, Governor of Alta California, was 
empowered to make private grants and to outfit each ranchero with a 
storehouse and at least 2,000 head of cattle. By 1824 the colonist was 
also guaranteed security of person and property and freedom from taxes 
for five years. 

The ranch houses, built of sun-dried adobe brick were plain but 
comfortable. Fields, worked by Indian labor, surrounded the house 
and beyond these were the vast pasture lands for the family's herds. 
The rancheros and their wives worked from dawn to sunset as indus- 
triously as the people who labored for them. The individual ranches 
had to be self-sustaining, for the arrival of the supply ship was uncer- 
tain. All visitors praised their hospitality. "If I must be cast in sick- 
ness or destitution on the care of the stranger," wrote Walter Colton, 
"let it be in California; but let it be before American avarice has 
hardened the heart and made a God of gold." 

It was the younger sons of these families who led the progressive 
factions when the Californios were forced into politics. As long as 
Spain's American colonies remained loyal, even California, the remotest 
of them, looked to Madrid for guidance and assistance. The Californios 
took no part in the struggle to sever Spanish dominance in the New 
World but, when they learned early in 1822 that an independent gov- 
ernment had been set up in Mexico City, they suddenly became con- 
scious of their republican rights. On April 9, 1822, Governor Pablo 
Vicente de Sola and ten delegates eight presidio comandantes and 
military officers and two priests met at Monterey, recognized Cali- 
fornia "from this time ... as a dependent alone of ... the Empire 
of Mexico and independent of the dominion of Spain." On November 
9, 1822, California set up her own legislative body, the Diputadon, 
composed of six vocales, or representatives, one from each presidio and 
pueblo district. During this first brief period of independence, the 


province acted decisively. It declared the Indians free citizens, opened 
the ports to trade, levied import and export duties, and taxes on crops 
and cattle, and established a military force and militia, and a judiciary. 

California in March 1825 formally became a Territory of the Re- 
public of Mexico. Under the Republic, California government con- 
sisted of : a governor, appointed by the national government ; a secretary ; 
a territorial legislature ; a superior court ; a prefect and sub-prefect 
(sheriffs); district judges; alcaldes (minor judges); justices of the 
peace; and ayuntamientos, or town councils. The Territory of Cali- 
fornia could send one diputado to represent it in the Mexican Congress 
but had no vote. 

In November 1825 Luis Antonio Arguello's provisional governor- 
ship (1822-25) was ended by the arrival of a Mexican governor, Jose 
Maria de Echeandia. Echeandia's troubles began at once. The soldiers 
struck and marched against some of his Mexican troops, when he was 
not immediately able to pay their wages. But as generally happened 
in the local rebellions of this period, no blood was spilled. Although 
Echeandia rescinded some of the measures put into effect during Ar- 
guello's term, on the whole he was liberal and just. But in March 
1830 he was replaced by a dictatorial governor, Manuel Victoria, who 
did not, however, take office until February 1831. Victoria opposed 
secularization of the missions, ordered the death penalty for small mis- 
demeanors, and refused to convoke the Diputadon or to give the Cali- 
fornios more voice in their affairs, although urged to do so by prominent 
diputados. The Calif or nios, led by Pio Pico, Juan Bandini, and Jose 
Carrillo, seized the presidio at San Diego and advanced towards Los 
Angeles. On December 5, 1831, they clashed with Government troops 
near Cahuenga Pass. The fight was not severe, for there was only one 
fatality, but Victoria was convinced that he probably could never sub- 
due the independent spirit of these provincials, and he returned to 

Into the rancheros' lives of gentlemanly leisure had come a new sense 
of political responsibility. Although they had no heritage of democratic 
ideals, as a class the caballeros acquired quite suddenly a natural desire 
to take their own government into their own hands. This they did in 
1836, revolting against Mexico to proclaim the "Free and Sovereign 
State of Alta California." But the Republic of Mexico made con- 
cessions which brought California back into the Union. 

During this transitional period, 1830 to 1846, a number of "battles" 
were fought which usually settled the current controversy. But the 
Calif ornios had such an aversion to shedding blood that the opposing 
forces generally were careful not to shoot if the enemy was within 
range of their guns. Most of the decisions were won by oratory and 
pronunciamentos. Some of the California*' controversies were with the 


Mexicans, some with each other. When they had an unpopular Mexi- 
can governor to oust, they united fervently, but between times they 
indulged in just as violent local disputes. Jealous from the beginning 
were Los Angeles and Monterey, each wanting to be the capital. The 
balance of power between customhouse and legislature was never settled. 
One of the most bitter of the many individual rivalries involved two 
of California's respected citizens Juan Bautista Alvarado, a spell- 
binding young leader who became civil governor at 27, and his uncle, 
Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, Alvarado's co-ruler as military chief. 
Their disagreement brought down upon them Mexican authority, in 
the person of General Manuel Micheltorena who arrived with an army 
of convict soldiers in August 1842. Micheltorena, the last of the Mexi- 
can governors, stayed in the province for three years. He was driven 
out by the Calif ornios under Castro and Alvarado in March 1845, 15 
months before the Americans took command at Monterey. 

Yankee Bargain : The tide of American pioneer families that flooded 
California in the i84o's was preceded a generation earlier by a smaller 
migration of skippers, traders, and trappers who came on brief com- 
mercial missions. True to their reputation for driving a good bargain, 
they secured wives, estates, and finally control of the province and its 
gracious people. The visitors were welcomed by the Calif ornios, but not 
by their rulers in Mexico City or Madrid. Even before 1800 the 
Spanish Court had instructed the colonists that no foreigners were to 
land at California's ports or cross its borders. 

Since the Court had neglected, however, to send regular supply 
ships to the colonists, the Californios seldom turned away the Yanqui 
skippers when they arrived with shiploads of such essentials as skillets, 
needles, cotton cloth, and plows. The captain of an American vessel 
wrote in 1817: "We served to clothe the naked soldiers of the king, 
when for lack of raiment they could not attend mass, and when the 
most reverend fathers had neither vestments nor vessels fit for the 
church, nor implements wherewith to till the soil." The first United 
States ship, the Otter of Boston, docked at Monterey in 1796. In 
1799 the Eliza stopped at San Francisco, and in 1800 the Betsy at San 
Diego. In addition to the regular traders, storm-battered whalers 
bound home from the North Pacific stopped at California harbors for 
repairs and supplies, paying for them with household goods brought 
from New England. Gradually, in spite of Spain's embargo, Cali- 
fornia hides and tallow began to find their way to Atlantic coast 

While Yankee skippers were breaking into the California ports, 
Yankee trappers climbed the barrier of the Sierra and descended the 
canyons into the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys. They explored 
many parts of California the Spaniards had never reached and took 


away a fortune in furs. On the whole, since they offered the Spaniards 
little and threatened much, they were not received as well as were the 
sea-faring traders. But one trapper, James Ohio Pattie, assured him- 
self a welcome by bringing smallpox vaccine. 

Before foreigners settled among the Calif or nios there had been little 
commercial enterprise in the province, but the newcomers immediately 
started to organize its business life. One ambitious firm, McCullough 
& Hartnell called "Macala and Arnell" by the soft-spoken Spaniards 
contracted to dispose of the entire mission output of hides for a yearly 
shipload of supplies. While the foreigners aided California financially 
in this period, they held it back politically; in most cases they supported 
the despotic Mexican governors against the rebellious California* be- 
cause they feared that revolution would endanger their commercial 

The influence of the Americans after the arrival of the first United 
States immigrant train, the Bidwell-Bartleson company, in 1841 rose 
steadily. They had not yet declared any intention of raising the United 
States flag over the presidios, pueblos, and ranches, but that purpose 
was stirring in their minds, as the Calif ornios must have realized after 
October 19, 1842. On that day two American vessels sailed into 
Monterey Bay and their commander, Commodore Thomas Ap Catesby 
Jones, ordered the port to surrender to the United States. Stationed 
at Peru, the Commodore had heard a rumor that the United States 
and Mexico were at war and had hurried north to annex California. 
When he learned that no war had been declared, he retired from 
Monterey on October 20 with elaborate apologies . . . leaving the 
Calif ornios something to think about. 

Quieter but more significant was the arrival of Captain John C. 
Fremont, the U. S. topographical engineer later honored as "The 
Pathfinder," who came to California in 1844 on a scientific expedition. 
The next year he came again, this time visiting Monterey for several 
weeks as the guest of the United States Consul, Thomas O. Larkin. 
Jose Castro, the prefect, met Fremont and entertained him but in 
January 1846 Castro learned that Fremont, en route to Monterey, had 
left two detachments of soldiers behind him in the back country. 
Upon Fremont's assurance that his party were interested only in 
scientific data, Castro gave them permission to spend the winter in 
California, with the express provision that they remain away from the 
coast settlements. Fremont left Monterey to rejoin his soldiers. Six 
weeks later the prefect learned that Fremont's band were camped at his 
back door, in the Salinas Valley, and demanded that they leave Cali- 
fornia at once. Then Fremont, acting perhaps under secret orders from 
Washington (the whole question of Fremont's official instructions re- 
mains a controversy), fortified a little hill, Gabilan (Hawk's Peak), 


and raised the American flag. His force was so small that it seems 
fantastic to regard this gesture as the first maneuver in the annexation 
of a great territory but so it was. It came to nothing. When Gen- 
eral Jose Castro made some not very effective military advances, Fre- 
mont withdrew up the Sacramento Valley, and after spending a week 
at the fort of Johann August Sutter, the Swiss immigrant who wel- 
comed overland caravans at his colony of New Helvetia on the Sacra- 
mento River, retreated northward toward Oregon. 

The retreat was made without haste, however. On the shores of 
Klamath Lake, Fremont was overtaken by two men from Sutter's Fort 
with the message that Lieut. A. N. Gillespie was following his trail 
with dispatches for him from the United States Government. Fremont 
and his company broke camp and retraced their steps. When he had 
read Gillespie's dispatches, he knew, as he wrote later, "that at last 
the time had come when England must not get a foothold; that we 
must be first. I was to act, discreetly but positively." Soon after- 
wards all the American ranchers north of San Francisco Bay were 
informed by an anonymous paper that a band of Californians were 
on their way north to destroy the crops, cattle, and houses of the 
Americans. What followed remains largely conjecture, since Fremont 
withheld most of the story. Probably the Americans, when they re- 
ported to Fremont for aid, were advised to provoke the Californians 
into an act of overt hostility. At any rate, they struck first when a 
small band headed by Ezekiel Merritt captured 250 horses which a 
group of vaqueros were driving southward to Castro's camp in the 
Santa Clara Valley. 

As dawn was breaking on June 14, 1846, in the pueblo of Sonoma, 
the northern frontier, a little band of Yankees who had surrounded 
the house of the comandante of the presidio, General Mariano G. 
Vallejo, seized him and the other officers. The presidio, ungarrisoned, 
was taken without a shot. The rebels, led by farmer William B. Ide, 
hauled down the Mexican flag and raised a new one of their own, 
fashioned of homespun with a strip of red flannel and decorated in 
brown paint with a star, the figure of a grizzly bear, and the words 
"California Republic." Although war had begun between the United 
States and Mexico on May 13, neither the rebels nor Fremont knew 
it. Despite the provocation of the Americans, the California* remained 
strangely reluctant to make reprisals, even when the force at Sonoma 
grew to 130 and Fremont marched to join them at the head of 72 
mounted riflemen. 

Although the intentions of the Americans must have been thoroughly 
revealed to the Calif ornios, by July I, their two ranking officials, Gov- 
ernor Pio Pico in Los Angeles and General Jose Castro in Monterey, 
were so absorbed in a private dispute that they made no preparations 


to defend the province. While they were arguing with each other in 
Los Angeles, Commodore John D. Sloat sailed into Monterey Bay 
and on July 7, raised the American flag on the custom-house, and 
claimed California for the United States. Two days later the flag was 
flying^ over San Francisco and Sonoma. 

In alarm, Castro and Pico combined at last to resist the invasion. 
Mustering a hundred men, they were ready when the American forces 
350 strong landed in San Pedro under Commodore Robert F. 
Stockton, who had arrived in Monterey on July 15 to succeed Com- 
modore Sloat. But before a shot was fired, both Castro and Pico had 
fled to Mexico, and on August 13 Stockton entered Los Angeles. Leav- 
ing Capt. Archibald Gillespie in charge, he returned northward. On 
September 23 the California* attacked the small garrison. John Brown 
(California's Paul Revere) carried an appeal for help to San Francisco 
on horseback, covering more than 500 miles in less than five days. But, 
by the time Captain Mervine had reached Los Angeles with reinforce- 
ments on the Savannah, Los Angeles had been recaptured. On October 
6 the California* met and defeated Mervine and his sailors in a battle 
at the Domingues Rancho and drove them back to their ship in San 
Pedro Bay. At Santa Barbara and at San Diego the American flags 
so recently raised were hauled down again. 

Meanwhile the California*, skirmishing with the Americans led by 
Fremont and Thomas O. Larkin in the Salinas Valley, seemed to be 
getting the better of it, until late in the fall assistance arrived for the 
Americans. An expeditionary force sent overland from Santa Fe by 
the War Department, under command of Colonel Stephen W. Kearny, 
arrived on December 5 and engaged with General Pico's forces the day 
following in an indecisive skirmish. Kearny's men, when combined 
with Stockton's and the resident Americans, now made an army of 
600, equal to the California*' forces. The two "armies" met in the 
battle of San Gabriel and of La Mesa on January 8 and 9, 1847. So 
decisive were the American victories, that the California* surrendered. 
On January 10 General Kearny and Commander Stockton once more 
raised the American flag over Los Angeles, and on the I3th hostilities 
finally ended with the signing of articles of capitulation by General 
Andres Pico and Fremont at a ranch house near Cahuenga Pass. The 
incident was like the patching up of a quarrel by old friends, for the 
Americans required of the Californios only that they give up their 
artillery and pledge to obey the laws of the United States. On Feb- 
ruary 2, 1848, when the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, 
California was formally relinquished by Mexico. 

California's adopted sons had one more job to do. Although the 
United States now owned California, Congress made no satisfactory 
provision for its civil government because the Congressional slavery and 


anti-slavery factions could not come to an agreement on these questions. 
After a confused period in which military law, Spanish law, and 
American law were simultaneously administered in California, Briga- 
dier-General Bennet Riley, U.S.A., military Governor, took official 
action on June 3, 1849, when he issued a proclamation "recommending 
the formation of a State constitution, or a plan for a Territorial gov- 
ernment." When the convention met in Colton Hall, Monterey, on 
September I, 48 delegates were admitted to seats. On October 10 
they adopted a constitution, which was ratified by people on November 
13, 1849. It remained in force until 1879. 

On the day of ratification (as provided by the constitution) the 
people elected a Governor, Lieutenant Governor, 16 State senators, 
and 36 assemblymen. On December 15, 1849, the State legislature 
convened and on the 2Oth inaugurated Peter H. Burnett as Governor, 
and John McDougal as Lieutenant Governor. On the same day the 
legislature elected two United States Senators, John C. Fremont and 
William M. Gwin, and on December 22 most of the State officials 
and the supreme court judges. 

On December 20, 1849, the military Governor, General Riley, 
issued a remarkable proclamation: "A new executive having been 
elected and installed into office in accordance with the provisions of 
the Constitution of the State, the undersigned hereby resigns his powers 
as Governor of California." The proclamation constituted a recog- 
nition by the highest United States agent in California that California 
had declared itself to be a State, although legally, of course, it had no 
right to do so without Federal permission. Its action precipitated an 
eight months' argument in Congress, prolonged by pro-slavery Con- 
gressmen who fought to prevent the admission of a new non-slavery 
State. Finally on September 9, 1850, California was admitted to the 
Union as a free State. 

Flood Tide: Hundreds of reports describing California as "a per- 
fect paradise, a perpetual spring" had started eastern families building 
prairie schooners several years before California became American terri- 
tory. The first pioneer train, organized largely by John Bidwell, left 
Independence, Missouri, May 19, 1841 and reached the San Joaquin 
Valley on November 4. The first to travel in wagons, the Chiles- 
Walker Party, came in 1843. By 1846 thousands, including the tragic 
Donner party, almost half of whom died of exposure and starvation 
en route, were on the westward trails. It was in that year that immi- 
grants also started to come around the Horn, one group of 2OO 
Mormons arriving at San Francisco on the ship Brooklyn on July 31. 

A member of one of the overland trains in 1845 was a young New 
Jersey wagon builder, James Wilson Marshall, who went to work for 
Sutter, building a saw mill on the south fork of the American River 


near the site of Coloma. While inspecting the tail race there, one 
morning late in January 1848, Marshall picked out of the water a piece 
of shining metal half the size of a pea. At first he thought it was iron 
pyrites, but when he pounded it between stones and found it soft, he 
knew that what he held in his hand was gold. Alone in the upland 
forest Marshall "sat down and began to think right hard," as he wrote 
in his diary. It is doubtful whether he guessed that his discovery 
would start the greatest mass movement of people since the Crusades. 

Less than six months later Walter Colton, alcalde of Monterey, 
wrote: "The blacksmith dropped his hammer, the carpenter his plane, 
the mason his trowel, the farmer his sickle, the baker his loaf, and 
the tapster his bottle. All were off for the mines, some on horses, 
some on carts, and some on crutches, and one went in a litter." By 
June 1848 scarcely a male remained in Monterey, San Francisco, San 
Jose, or Santa Cruz. Soldiers deserted, and so did the detachments 
sent to capture them. Hundreds of ships lay at anchor in San Fran- 
cisco Bay, their crews gone to the foothills. Fields of wheat went 
unharvested, homes and shops were abandoned, newspapers suspended 
publication, and city officials closed their desks. 

The gold fever spread almost as quickly throughout the Nation 
and the world. At one time westbound wagon trains passed between 
Missouri and Fort Laramie in an unbroken stream for two months. 
By March 1849, 17,000 had embarked for California from eastern 
ports. Within its first 10 years as one of the United States, California 
became generously populated not only with Americans, but with the 
adventurous of all nations. Between 1847 an d 1850 the population 
of California increased from 15,000 to 92,497 and a decade later the 
Federal Census enumerated 379,994 persons in the State. Substantial 
pioneer families were among the Argonauts who danced and played 
games on the crowded little ships, while gales, scurvy, and starvation 
threatened them. Others trudged courageously over trails so bordered 
with the wreckage of previous parties that one immigrant, James Abbey, 
counted in 15 miles 362 abandoned wagons and the bleaching bones 
of 350 horses, 280 oxen, and 120 mules. 

Oh! Californy! 

That's the land for me! 

I'm bound for Sacramento 

With the washbowl on my knee. 

In the boisterous shanty-towns of gold rush days Git-up-and-git, 
Bogus Thunder, Angel's Camp, You Bet, Shinbone Creek, Red Dog, 
Lazy Man's Canyon the average return was up to $50 a day, though 
many made much more. From one panful of dirt $1,500 was washed, 
and a trench 100 feet long yielded its two owners $17,000 in 7 days. 


Sometimes gold was picked out of the rock "as fast as one can pick 
kernels out of a lot of well-cracked shell barks." Fully as much was 
made by those who served the miners. Many a tent-store took in 
$1,000 a day. Owners of river steamers and stage coaches, conveyors 
of water, innkeepers, entertainers gathered in copious wealth. They 
supplied the elementary needs; amenities were nonexistent. One of 
the "best hotels," described by Hinton R. Helper, was a canvas struc- 
ture, floored with dirt. It consisted of an undivided room were guests 
ate, drank, and slept in tiered bunks. "When we creep into one of 
these nests it is optional with us whether we unboot or uncoat our- 
selves; but it would be looked upon as an act of ill-breeding to go to 
bed with one's hat on." 

The colorful ruffians of the times have been so immortalized as 
to create the impression that the camps were lawless. As a matter of 
fact, the mining camps, in distinction to the cities, stand as one of the 
world's best examples of men's spontaneous ability to govern them- 
selves. With no formal legal setup, the miners, extremely diverse in 
background and nationality, established a society with a high degree 
of justice and democracy particularly in the early years. Later, when 
"loose fish" and "bad whites" came to California in increasing num- 
bers, crime became more difficult to control, both in the camps and in 
the feeder-town, San Francisco. 

Gold seekers, disembarked after a nine-month trip around the Horn 
or down from the camps with bags of gold, wanted the lustiest enter- 
tainment imagination could provide. They got it. Visitors gambled 
around the roulette tables residents gambled in real estate, nails, cork, 
calico, rice, whatever commodities could be cornered all gambled with 
their lives, for it is said that during the years from 1849 to 1856 more 
than a thousand murders were committed in San Francisco, with but 
a single execution. Of city government there was practically none. 
An alarmed official addressed his fellow citizens in 1849: "We are 
without a dollar in the public treasury. . . . You have neither an office 
for your magistrate, nor any other public edifice. You are without a 
single police officer or watchman, and have not the means of confining 
a prisoner for an hour." To remedy the situation the citizens formed 
the vigilance committees of 1851 and 1856. The former drove out 
the "Hounds," a gang that attacked various racial minorities, and the 
latter dispersed more "reputable" crooks in league with bankers and 
politicians. Both groups sprang from a widespread desire for demo- 
cratic control, representing the community as a whole. Less clearly 
characterized by a sense of responsibility for its actions was the similar 
sort of spontaneous government that arose in Los Angeles, where volun- 
tary citizens' committees broke up the bandit organizations of Salomon 
Pico, Juan Flores, and Pancho Daniel. 


In 1854 the Great Bonanza suddenly slackened. Fortunes large 
and small collapsed. Disillusioned miners drifted up and down the 
State. Added to their numbers were the wagon trains and boatloads 
of immigrants arriving, now, to homestead on Uncle Sam's new fertile 
acres. They came not realizing that most of this vast land had been 
apportioned long before to the Calif or nios, who had been guaranteed 
their property rights at the end of the Mexican war. The Americans 
simply moved onto the ranches and dared the owners to put them off. 
What to do with these squatters became the question of the hour. 
Unfortunately the boundaries of the ranches had never been fixed 
exactly. "Professional squatters" were hired by land-grabbing corpora- 
tions. Unscrupulous legislators defended the squatters in order to court 
their votes. When at last riots and bloodshed forced the Federal 
Government to take action, a survey of the State was ordered and a 
land commission formed to adjust disputes. In the end many of the 
Spanish families were reduced to comparative poverty. They were re- 
markably patient. General Vallejo, one of them, wrote, "The inhabi- 
tants of California have no reason to complain of the change of govern- 
ment, for if the rich have lost thousands of horses and cattle, the poor 
have been bettered in condition." 

The admission of California into the Union had not satisfied all 
Californians. In 1850 Walter Colton had predicted that an inde- 
pendent nation would spring up on the Pacific unless Congress built 
a railroad to the Coast, for without it, California would easily have 
become self-sufficient. The cry for independence was soon taken up 
by southern sympathizers, the followers of pro-slavery Senator William 
S. Gwin, who overran southern California, especially San Bernardino 
County. The Democratic Party, which controlled the State legislature 
in every session but one from 1851 to 1860, was torn by the struggle 
between the Gwin faction and the anti-slavery faction headed by David 
C. Broderick, who was elected to the Senate in 1857. When Brod- 
erick was slain in a duel by Gwin's henchman, David S. Terry, in 
September 1859, his successor in the Senate, Milton S. Latham, joined 
Gwin in the demand for a republic on the Pacific. He declared in 
1860 that if civil war should break out, California would declare its 
independence. In 1860 the pro-slavery Democrats had gained over- 
whelming strength in both houses of the legislature, but in the year 
following they split, and Abraham Lincoln carried the State by less 
than a thousand votes. In the nick of time a plot to seize Federal 
strongholds in California and raise Confederate forces was frustrated. 
When news of the fall of Fort Sumter came on May 17, California 
pledged its loyalty to the Union, and in the next session of the legis- 
lature Republicans controlled the assembly. Gold from California's 
mines began traveling eastward to help win the war for the North. 


Steel Rails to Sunny Shores: When the first transcontinental rail- 
road was completed in May 1869, new multitudes of pioneers traveled 
westward. Although two decades had passed since the first Argonauts 
set out across the plains, California had still not absorbed its surplus 
population. The new pioneers found their promised land in a state of 
poverty and strife wages low and unemployment widespread, capital 
scarce and interest rates prohibitive, land titles uncertain, freight rates 
exorbitant, and water rights held by monopolies. They found the labor 
movement restless, anti-Chinese agitation rampant, and the whole people 
in an uproar against a government corrupted by railroad control. 

Following collapse of a wild frenzy of speculation in wildcat mining 
and oil company stocks in the i86o's had come an even wilder boom 
in Nevada silver mining stocks, set off by exploitation of the Comstock 
Lode's Bonanza mines in 1872. The California Stock Exchange Board, 
organized in that year, became the scene of such violent excitement that 
the flush days of forty-nine paled in comparison. Throughout the 
State people invested in stocks every cent they could borrow, beg, or 
steal. A few made millions; most lost all they had. For on August 
2 7> J875, the Bank of California crashed and California was shaken 
to its foundations. 

The hard times that followed the bank panic bore down on people 
in town and country alike. The farmers of the interior valleys, already 
oppressed by inequable mortgage and taxation laws, the railroad's high 
freight rates, monopoly of land and water rights by the railroad and 
land companies, and finally by the ravages of a severe drought in 1876, 
took with ill grace the added burdens of an economic depression. In 
the cities wages fell and breadlines grew as thousands were thrown out 
of work and hungry men walking the streets began to resent the 
Bonanza kings' ostentatious display of their newly found wealth. 

Meanwhile the long-smouldering hostility against the Chinese, who 
had been thronging in since 1848 as miners, truck gardeners, laundry- 
men, fishermen, and workers on the railroad, had begun to break out in 
flames. It was incited by politicians, among them Governor Henry 
Haight, who had said in December 1869: "The Chinese are a stream 
of filth and prostitution pouring in from Asia, whose servile competition 
tends to cheapen and degrade labor." As workingmen, under artful 
urging, began to blame the Chinese for all their wrongs, the anti- 
Chinese feeling spread throughout the State. In 1871 a lawless gang 
looted and pillaged Los Angeles' Chinatown and lynched nineteen 
Chinese. The labor movement took up the cry: "The Chinese must 
go!" On July 23-24, 1877, several thousand rioters burned and sacked 
Chinese laundries in San Francisco and fired the Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship docks where Chinese immigrants landed. Elsewhere there were 
sporadic outbreaks of violence. 


Despairing of redress for their difficulties from the railroad con- 
trolled State government, city and farm workers, and even some small 
businessmen and small landholders organized the Workingmen's Party 
of California, promptly nicknamed the Sand-Lot Party for its Sunday 
afternoon meetings on San Francisco's vacant sand lots harangued by 
the Irish spellbinder, Dennis Kearney. The party vowed "to wrest the 
government from the hands of the rich and place it in those of the 
people, where it properly belongs; to rid the country of cheap Chinese 
labor as soon as possible ; to destroy the great money power of the rich 
... to destroy land monopoly in our state by a system of taxation that 
will make great wealth impossible in the future." 

For a solution to their problems, the people looked to the legislature. 
The authors of California's first constitution, framed in the idealistic 
days of the Gold Rush, had given the legislators sweeping powers to 
levy taxes, make appropriations, grant franchises, and give away public 
lands of which the legislators of the seventies took full advantage. 
By 1878 the Workingmen's Party had grown so strong that it forced 
the legislature to adopt an act calling a constitutional convention. Of 
the 152 members of the convention who came together on September 
28, 1878, 51 were members of the Workingmen's Party and 78 were 
nonpartisan ; they included mechanics, miners, farmers, and even a cook, 
as well as lawyers, doctors, journalists, and teachers. 

The constitution which they adopted was ratified by the voters 
May 7, 1879. It was termed reactionary by some, radical by others. 
It remodeled the judiciary department, improved prison regulations and 
prohibited convict labor, and passed a law instituting the eight-hour 
working day. In general, it differed little from the organic law com- 
mon in most States of the Union, but when compared with the consti- 
tution of 1849, it marked a distinct advance toward popular control. 
The power of the legislature was everywhere curtailed. "Lobbying" 
was made a felony. Provisions to tax and control common carriers and 
corporations, and to regulate public utilities and services were inserted. 
A two-thirds vote in both houses and ratification by the people were 
required to pass a constitutional amendment. Suffrage was extended 
to "every male citizen," 21 years or more old who had lived in Cali- 
fornia for a year, "provided no native of China' 1 and no idiot, lunatic, 
convicted criminal, or illiterate "shall ever exercise the privileges of an 
elector." The legislature was to consist of 40 senators and 80 assem- 
blymen, meeting biennially. The Governor, Lieutenant Governor, 
secretary of state, controller, treasurer, attorney general and surveyor 
general were to be elected by the people for four-year terms. A 
two-thirds vote of each house could overcome the Governor's veto. 
Judicial powers were confined to a supreme court (a chief justice and 


six associate justices), three district courts of appeal, a superior court 
for each county, and also minor courts (as amended Nov. 8, 1904). 

The Workingmen's Party was driven out of existence in 1880 by a 
fusion of Democrats and Republicans but not before its anti-Chinese 
agitation had led to a vote by the people of the State (154,638 to 883) 
against further immigration from China. On March 20, 1879, the 
national Congress passed an exclusion bill, killed by the veto of Presi- 
dent Rutherford B. Hayes. Two years later a treaty with China 
giving the United States the power to "regulate, limit, or suspend" 
Chinese immigration was ratified by the Senate. 

Although the State's population had increased 54 percent during 
the iSyo's, its professional boosters fast becoming a familiar type 
discovered soon after 1880 that promotion would bring still more new 
settlers. For the first time California went afield to bid for immigrants 
with advertisements, books, magazine and newspaper articles telling 
about the extraordinary climate and resources of "the Coast.'' Typical 
was this from B. F. Taylor's Between the Gates: "Whoever asks 
where Los Angeles is, to him I shall say: across a desert without 
wearying, beyond a mountain without climbing . . . where the flowers 
catch fire with beauty . . . where the pomegranates wear calyx crowns 
. . . where the bananas of Honolulu are blossoming; where the chest- 
nuts of Italy are dropping; where Sicilian lemons are ripening; where 
the almond trees are shining ... in the midst of a garden of thirty- 
six square miles there is Los Angeles." The inducements were so 
convincing that by 1884 the Southern Pacific was doing a rushing 
passenger business at fajes of $125 from the Midwest to Los Angeles. 
When the Santa Fe was completed the following year, the two roads 
entered on a rate war that reduced fares to $5 and even, at one time, 
to $i. Multitudes climbed on the trains and started West, savings in 
their pockets, bound as they thought for a sort of South Sea paradise. 

A real estate boom began, legitimate enough in that it originated 
in a sudden influx of buyers. But the shrewd encouragement of 
swindlers led most of the citizens to believe that the 1885 boom was 
only the prelude to another that was to "outclass the present activity 
as thunder to the crack of a hickory-nut." Prices of Los Angeles 
lots rose from $500 to $5,000 within a year. Truck gardens and out- 
lying vineyards worth $350 an acre were squared off into lots and sold 
for $10,000 an acre. Networks of sidewalks ran mile after mile out 
into the sagebrush. Elaborate hotels were built on desert tracts and 
never occupied except on the opening day. 

The newcomers, many of them unsophisticated farmers and small 
tradespeople from the Middle West, grew hysterical when the boom 
got really under way. The wealthier among them paid $20,000 to 
$50,000 for waterfront lots on a lonely stretch of shore, "Redondo- 


by-the-Sea," because "engineers" had declared that a submarine oil well 
off Redondo kept the water smooth and made an ideal harbor. Smaller 
savings were invested in Widneyville-by-the-Desert, a wasteland 
covered with Joshua trees, spiny and tortuous. Since the grotesque 
trees failed to give the site a homelike atmosphere, the promoters stuck 
oranges on the spines and sold a citrus grove! To Widneyville, as 
to the other boom towns, prospective buyers were carried in tallyhoes 
and stages, accompanied with bands, to be greeted on the grounds by 
the smoothest of high-pressure salesmen and plied with free chicken 
dinners and all the liquor they could drink. "Millionaires of a day," 
to quote Theodore C. Van Dyke, "went about sunning their teeth 
with checkbooks in their outside pockets." 

In 1887 many of those millionaires were suicides, as syndicates 
collapsed, banks closed, individuals and business firms went bankrupt, 
and the bands, the tallyhoes, and the oratory disappeared from the sunny 
scene. Once more the bubble had burst. The hard times of the early 
iSgo's lay ahead, breadlines once more lengthened, unemployed men 
mustered to join Coxey's Army in a hunger march on Washington, 
and the cities put their jobless thousands to work on public works 
projects. The influx of new settlers dwindled. 

Twentieth Century: But the tide of immigration once more rose 
and new multitudes flocked in, swelling the population by 60 percent 
in the decade from 1900 to 1910. "A new century a new order" 
became the slogan. The new century began with prosperity, marked 
by rising wages and industrial expansion, the development of the petro- 
leum and hydroelectric industries, and of intensive fruit growing on 
a big scale. But the newcomers, mostly people from the Midwest 
who brought with them a long tradition of active participation in 
community affairs, found much in California to challenge corruption 
in municipal politics, machine control of government by corporations, 
industrial strife, and anti-Oriental agitation. 

For once more the outcry against the "yellow peril" had broken 
out. The Japanese, imported in increasing numbers by large agricul- 
turists to take the place of the Chinese as farm workers, had begun to 
settle as farmers and tradesmen, managing their small holdings so 
thriftily that soon they were displacing white workers and farmers. 
Although they numbered but 14,243 in 1906 and for many years had 
been excluded along with other Orientals from the privilege of natural- 
ization military and patriotic groups, merchants' associations, and 
labor organizations combined to raise the cry: "California shall not 
become the Caucasian graveyard." In 1906 the San Francisco Board 
of Education passed an order segregating the 93 Japanese pupils in the 
city schools in an Oriental public school. When Japan protested that 
the action was a violation of her treaty with the United States, the 


Federal Government persuaded the board to rescind its order. The 
result of the diplomatic controversy was the "Gentlemen's Agreement" 
of 1907, by which the United States agreed to admit Japanese chil- 
dren below the age of 16 to the regular public schools, while Japan 
contracted to prevent the emigration of laborers to the United States. 
But anti- Japanese feeling persisted and grew in California. 

One of the first evils that challenged the attention of California's 
civic-minded newcomers in the early years of the century was corrup- 
tion in city politics. The prosecution of San Francisco's "City Hall 
graft ring" led the way in a series of exposures of municipal scandals 
that introduced the muckraking era in California. From 1906 to 
1908 the whole State followed with eager interest the prosecutions 
of political boss Abraham Ruef, Mayor Eugene Schmitz, and Patrick 
Calhoun, United Railroads head, pushed by Fremont Older, Rudolph 
Spreckels, and James D. Phelan; attorneys Francis J. Heney and 
Hiram Johnson ; and detective William Burns. In Los Angeles the 
reform movement was taken up in 1909 when the editor of the Herald, 
T. R. Gibbon, accused Mayor A. C. Harper and his associates of 
enriching themselves through forcing owners of vice dens to buy stock 
in fictitious sugar companies by promising police protection. The 
municipal clean-up campaign, soon joined by the editors of the Evening 
Express and various citizens' committees, succeeded in defeating Harper 
in the next election. 

In State politics the battle against control by corporation lobbyists, 
fought so ardently in the 1870*3, was still to be won. As early as 
1905-06, resolutions demanding Government ownership of railroads 
were passed at Bakersfield and Fresno, aimed against the Southern 
Pacific. The demand for public ownership was linked with demands 
for other reforms. The Independence League, a group of liberal Demo- 
crats meeting in Oakland in September 1906, came out for equal 
suffrage, the eight-hour working day, and State arbitration of indus- 
trial disputes, as well as for public ownership. At the same time a 
demand for direct primary legislation to reform the election laws was 
arising out of charges of fraud at the State party conventions. When 
a new economic depression shook the whole financial and business 
structure of the State in 1907, the reform movement gathered sudden 

The outcome was a political revolt which took form in a coalition 
of liberal Republicans, organized in Oakland in August 1907 as the 
Lincoln-Roosevelt League. It proposed to give the people of the State 
a direct voice in government by freeing the Republican Party from 
domination by "Vested Interests." Its platform included such planks 
as the direct primary, popular election of Senators, and institution of 
the initiative, referendum, and recall. It promised to elect "a free, 


honest, and capable legislature, truly representative of the common 
interests of the people of California." As leading newspapers through- 
out the State swung to the support of the Lincoln-Roosevelt League, 
it rallied enough votes in 1908 to elect a legislature which passed a 
direct primary law, soon ratified by the people. When it gained control 
of the Republican Party in 1910 by electing its candidates to nearly 
every State and Congressional office, the State was shaken by a political 

The Lincoln-Roosevelt League's candidate for Governor, Hiram 
Johnson, took office in 1911. The new legislature which convened at 
the same time fulfilled its platform promises by approving a long series 
of legislative reforms. The 22 amendments to the Constitution of 
1879, which it adopted and the people ratified, included provisions for 
woman suffrage, a new railroad commission, the initiative, referendum, 
and recall, and workingmen's compensation for industrial accidents. 
Theodore Roosevelt called its enactments "the most comprehensive 
programme of constructive legislation ever passed at a single session 
of an American legislature." When the Roosevelt Republicans bolted 
the Republican National Convention of 1912, they nominated Hiram 
Johnson as Theodore Roosevelt's running mate on the progressive "Bull 
Moose" ticket, which carried the State in the national elections. 

A concession to anti-Japanese agitation was the 1911 legislature's 
alien land law. It was supplemented in 1913 by the Webb Act, for- 
bidding aliens ineligible to citizenship to own agricultural land in the 
State, which the legislature passed over President Woodrow Wilson's 
protests. The Japanese evaded its operation by forming land corpora- 
tions or by transferring ownership to their American-born children, but 
the hue and cry forced enactment in 1920 of the Asiatic Land Law, 
forbidding such evasions. Despite Japan's protests, the United States 
Supreme Court upheld in 1923 the constitutionality of the Webb Act. 
And in 1924 Congress revised the immigration law to exclude Japanese. 

The reform wave continued into the early years of the World War. 
In December 1913 the Republican State Central Committee, announc- 
ing that it foresaw no hope of progress within the Republican Party, 
recommended the formation of the Progressive Party. The new party, 
formally launched on December 6 of that year, attracted a mass of 
former Republican voters. In the elections of November 1914, when 
Hiram Johnson was returned to office, the Progressives won more 
decisively than in any previous election. But in 1916, the year in 
which Johnson was elected to the Senate, the bitter feud between 
Republicans and Progressives gave California to Woodrow Wilson by 
the narrow and history-making margin of 3,773 votes. 

Already California had embarked on the feverish expansionist 
period of the World War boom years, as wages, industrial output, and 





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the number of wage earners and industrial plants soared dizzily. 
Between 1910 and 1920 the assessed value of real and personal prop- 
erty doubled. The opening of the Panama Canal in 1914, celebrated 
the following year by the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego 
and the Panama-Pacific International Exposition at San Francisco, 
seemed to promise unlimited growth of California's maritime trade. 
The reform movement was soon forgotten. In southern California 
the unexpected plea of guilty by J. B. and J. J. McNamara, on trial 
in 1911 for the dynamiting of the Times building, had crushed the 
labor movement and turned the tide of a municipal election against 
the socialist candidate. When the bombing of San Francisco's Pre- 
paredness Day parade July 22, 1916, was followed by the swift arrest 
of labor organizers Thomas Mooney and Warren K. Billings, the 
voices raised in protest were drowned out by the clamor of war-era 
patriots. The period of repression continued into early post-war years, 
when the newly passed criminal syndicalism law was invoked against 
members of the I. W. W. and other nonconformists. 

The westward moving hordes of forty-nine were as nothing to the 
new influx of settlers whom California welcomed in the 1920*5, as 
prosperity, unrestrained, reached giddy heights. The high-pressure 
efforts of boosters and promoters were devoted to making prosperity 
and California synonymous in the public mind. Its harbors, its oil wells 
and factories, its movie studios, its orange groves and irrigation projects, 
its booming real estate subdivisions all helped to renew its association 
in people's thoughts with the El Dorado of the Argonauts. The cities 
around San Francisco Bay advanced as maritime and manufacturing 
centers and the new metropolis of the south, Los Angeles, surrounded 
by fast expanding suburbs, as a manufacturing, oil-refining, fruit- 
shipping, and movie-making center. By 1930 the population of Cali- 
fornia had grown to 5,677,251 an increase of 65 per cent in 10 years, 
greater than in any other State in the Union during the same period. 
The increase gave it sixth place among the States in population. 

And again the bubble burst. The newcomers who had thronged in 
by the hundreds of thousands the wage earners and farmers, the small 
investors and businessmen, the elderly retired people found themselves 
in the same situation as those who had come before them : jobless, their 
savings exhausted, their businesses bankrupt, their farms foreclosed, or 
their investments wiped out. 

As they had done in the 1900*5 and earlier still in the 1870*5, the 
people turned to politics. Of the State-wide political movements that 
began to follow close on one another throughout the I93o's, the first 
was the EPIC movement, which rallied around the "End Poverty in 
California" (EPIC) plan presented by Upton Sinclair when he con- 
sented in August 1933 to run for the gubernatorial nomination on the 


Democratic ticket. Sinclair's plan called for the establishment of self- 
sustaining State land colonies and the opening of idle factories, both 
to be operated on "production for use" principles for the benefit of the 
unemployed and to be financed by State-issued scrip. The plan called 
also for repeal of the State sales tax, exemption of small homes and 
ranches from taxation, and for levying of graduated taxes on incomes, 
inheritances, corporations, and unused lands and buildings. Another 
plank in the EPIC platform was pensions for the aged, the physically 
incapacitated, and widows with dependent children. After the hottest 
election campaign hitherto waged in the State, Sinclair was defeated 
for the governorship by a narrow margin, although EPIC candidates 
were elected to city and Congressional offices. 

The people turned to other movements which seemed to promise 
a way out, some of which, like the EPIC movement, spread into other 
States. A short-lived one that swept southern California was the 
Utopian Society, which employed semi-dramatic rites to educate its 
members in social and economic affairs. The Townsend Plan, devised 
by an elderly Long Beach physician, Dr. Francis E. Townsend, enlisted 
the support of large numbers of the State's more elderly citizens with 
its proposal to promote business recovery by paying $200 per month to 
each person over 60 years of age. In 1938 another project for economic 
recovery, the so-called "Thirty Dollars Every Thursday" or "Ham- 
and-Eggs" plan, rose to prominence, promising to pay aged persons 
$30 weekly in State warrants, financed by a 2^ tax on all sales. 

California Bound IQ3Q: On the highways leading into California 
there appeared in the late I93o's, among the long lines of streamlined 
automobiles, more antiquated vehicles. Like the covered wagons of 
earlier days they carried all their owners' worldly goods: those 
elemental necessities that change but little in 80 years pots, pans, bed- 
ding, basins, washtubs. These latter-day prairie schooners, like their 
predecessors, stopped for the night at wayside camps, where the in- 
formality of hardships loosened tongues. Once again campfires burned 
along western trails but the stories told around them resembled not at 
all the stories of the earlier pioneers. "The dust was drifted high as 
the window sills." "The cattle died a-lookin' at you." "Wouldn't a 
blade of grass grow anywhere in the valley." 

Over the spirits of the starving migrants the desolation they had 
seen lay heavy until they remembered that they were going to Cali- 
fornia. That horizon was a bright one, for they were sure that in a 
State which supplies nearly half the Nation's fresh fruit and a third 
of its truck crops there would be a place for them among the pickers. 
What few of them had learned was that earlier immigrants Japanese, 
Mexicans, Filipinos had swarmed so thickly over the fertile acres 
that wages never rose above the standard accepted by coolie and peon 


labor. Or that they would have to make their homes in districts like 
the one where in 1934 the National Labor Relations Board found 
"filth, squalor, an entire absence of sanitation, and a crowding of 
human beings into totally inadequate tents or crude structures built of 
boards, weeds, and anything that was found at hand to give a pitiful 
semblance of a home at its worst." For these workers the workmen's 
compensation law failed to operate, the State's minimum wage law for 
women and minors was ignored, medical aid was denied unless death 
was imminent, and labor contractors took an exorbitant percentage 
of wages wages which averaged, in 1935, but $289 per family, in- 
cluding the income of all its members. Such were the conditions that 
awaited 97,642 Dust Bowl migrants in 1936 and 104,976 in the 
following year. In 1938 they were arriving at the rate of 10,000 a 
month. Their coming served to bring to people's consciousness the long 
unsolved problem of how to feed, clothe, and shelter the hundreds of 
thousands of homeless farm workers who follow the crops over the 

When the people of California went to the polls in November 
1938, the surge of protest and demands for reform that had swept the 
State throughout the I93o's came to a climax. They elected a new 
Governor, Culbert L. Olson the first Democrat to hold the office 
since the Republican Party had captured it 43 years before. During 
those four decades, California's period of expansion had run its course. 
At the end of the 1930'$, Calif ornians could look forward neither to 
the opening up of new lands nor, probably, to the discovery of new 
resources. The dramatic influx of fortune seekers, following in suc- 
cessive waves as boom succeeded boom, has subsided. What lies ahead 
is an intensive struggle to solve the social and economic problems which 
are the inevitable heritage of California's four centuries of development. 

Riches From the Soil 

WITHIN the rock wall formed by California's two great moun- 
tain ranges lies the long level stretch of the Sacramento-San 
Joaquin or Central Valley the "Long Valley," as John 
Steinbeck has named it called the world's most fertile growing region, 
which contains about two-thirds of the State's 30,000,000 acres of 
agricultural lands. Other major growing areas are the coastal valleys, 
the intensely developed farm area south of the Tehachapis, center of 
the citrus industry, and the arid but potentially highly productive 
desert region in the southeastern corner of the State, which includes 
Imperial Valley. 

The wide range of topography, soil, and climate makes it possible 
to produce every species of temperate zone and subtropical fruit, vege- 
table, and field crop within the limits of the State. Pears grow on 
the cool mountain slopes to the north ; asparagus, celery, beans, onions, 
and rice in the black soil of the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta area; 
lettuce in Salinas Valley, called "the Valley of Green Gold" ; grapes for 
dry wines on the sunny foothills of Napa and Sonoma Counties ; prunes 
most of America's supply in the sheltered orchards of Santa Clara 
Valley; table, wine and raisin grapes, peaches, apricots, plums, olives, 
and a fabulous yield of cotton in the brown silted loam of San Joaquin 
Valley; oranges, lemons, limes, pomegranates, figs, avocados, loquats, 
guavas, almonds, and walnuts to the south ; dates far out in the desert 
to the southeast beyond Indio. 

The State is ideally adapted to the modern, industrialized, mass- 
production type of specialized intensive farming. The dominant unit 



in the agricultural pattern is the large-scale, mechanized, irrigated 
"ranch," operated with the precision of a Ford factory, employing hun- 
dreds of workers and turning out specialized crops for eastern and 
foreign markets or for California's $174,000,000 fruit and vegetable 
canning and preserving industry. 

A typical large-scale fruit ranch in the extreme southern end of San 
Joaquin Valley 6,000 acres devoted exclusively to the production of 
"green" or fresh fruit ships more than two dozen carloads of peaches, 
plums, and grapes daily at the peak season and employs 2,500 men and 
women in orchards, vineyards, and packing sheds. Hidden by the 
gentle, scarcely perceptible swell of the plain is the heart of the ranch : 
the cluster of administrative buildings, the white staff bungalows on a 
miniature Main Street with gay little gardens and tennis courts, the 
packing-sheds and refrigeration plant and railroad siding, the school- 
house and store. Beyond lie the separate labor camps for American, 
Mexican, Filipino and Japanese workers. 

The elaborate irrigation system is equipped with 18 pumps, run by 
125- to 25O-horsepower deepwell turbines. They draw the ranch's 
water supply from subterranean springs, fed by melting snow in the 
mountains. Farm machinery includes 15 caterpillar tractors, 43 trucks 
and trailers, over 50 company-owned automobiles, and 22 mules appar- 
ently still indispensable to farming even in this ultra-modern form. 
The carpenter shop puts together a reserve supply of 300,000 crates 
before the season opens ; 60,000 crates can be stored in the refrigerating 
plant when they are packed with fruit. 

Ranch personnel includes the ranch manager, his assistants and office 
stafr, a physician, an electrician, a blacksmith and five assistants, a cook 
and 1 1 assistants for the single men's cook houses. The labor force 
of men and women engaged in irrigating, tractor driving, and picking, 
packing, and shipping fruit ranges from 700 at the lowest point in 
December to 2,500 at the highest in the summer, averaging 2,200 from 
April through December. At peak season, in the packing sheds 
alone, 450 workers pack plums and about 325 pack grapes. The con- 
veyor system is used from the time the crated fruit is brought in on 
trucks for sorting and packing until the finished, boxed, scientifically 
pre-cooled product glides out on the belt to the refrigerator cars, wait- 
ing on the siding of the ranch's special branch line. 

Agriculture is the basic industry of the State, occupying a key posi- 
tion in its economic structure. Its income far outstrips the combined 
income of oil and mining, and its production cost more than triples that 
of the motion picture industry. In addition, more than a fourth of the 
total value of products from manufacturing industries is in industries 
directly allied to agriculture, such as milling, canning, packing, and 
preserving. In 1937, California was second only to Texas in gross 


farm income. It produces nearly one-half of the country's fresh fruit 
output, about 95 percent of its dried fruit, a third of its truck crops, 
and nearly a third of its canned fruits and vegetables. California holds 
first place in many of the country's most important fruit and truck 
crops and some field crops. In many crops, such as lemons, dates, figs, 
and olives, the State has a monopoly of commercial production. 

Farm production in California rose over 120 percent in the period 
1909 to 1936. This expansion has been accomplished, with practically 
no accompanying expansion in acreage for the last 50 years, by intensive 
cultivation. Since about 1885, the tendency has been to concentrate on 
increasing output, with an accompanying expenditure of money and 
labor per acre which today has reached a point probably unequalled 
anywhere else in the world. The huge outlays for power, irrigation, 
water rights, fertilizer, machinery, labor, and transportation have neces- 
sarily developed California's intensive agriculture into an extremely 
complex industrial and commercial enterprise, far removed from the 
simplicities of farming in the familiar sense of the word. 

The old family-size farm, run by the farmer and his family and a 
few hired hands, is steadily declining in importance and in number. 
Those that remain are increasingly operated, not as self-sufficing family 
units, but as commercial enterprises, imitating on a miniature scale the 
big "outdoor factories." Many are direct adjuncts of fruit and vege- 
table packing corporations, for which they produce selected crops 
according to company specifications under supervision of the company's 
fieldmen and, in many cases, with funds advanced by the company. 

Among the small submarginal farm units are the tens of thousands 
of little farms, often worked on a part-time basis, which are as charac- 
teristic a feature of the California scene as the great thousand-acre 
ranches, especially in the south around Los Angeles. Many of these 
are run by retired business and professional men, or midwestern farmers 
attracted to California from more austere territory. 

Two percent of California farms control one-fourth of the acreage, 
nearly one-third of the crop value, and pay more than one-third of the 
bill for hired labor. "Of all farms in the United States whose product 
is valued at $30,000 or above," according to Paul Taylor, University 
of California authority, "nearly 37 percent are found in our own state. 
California has within its borders 30 percent of the large-scale cotton 
farms of the country, 41 percent of the large-scale dairy farms, 44 
percent of the large-scale general farms, 53 percent of the large-scale 
poultry farms, 60 percent of the large-scale fruit farms of the United 

The growth of the two extremes, very large and very small farms, 
progressively eliminating the middle farmer, has been promoted by the 
high and steadily rising value of land to over twice the United States 


average. Other major factors are the high costs of land development 
and labor in intensive cultivation of fruit and truck crops. 

The bulk of farm work in California today is performed, not by the 
independent farmer, but by a vast army of some 200,000 wage earners,, 
most of them migrant laborers. According to a recent study, three- 
fifths of those engaged in agriculture in 1936 were wage-earners, as 
against less than half in 1920. The big landowners, following the 
railroads in scouring the world for sources of cheap labor, imported in 
succession Chinese, Japanese, Hindus, Mexicans, and Filipinos to do 
field work. Today the ranks of migratory workers also include refugees 
from Dust Bowl areas. 

This great mass of landless field and shed workers constitutes a 
major social problem in the State. Under the system of intense crop 
specialization steady employment for most of the year is an impossibility ; 
labor requirements fall from an estimated peak of 198,349 in September 
to 46,448 in January. Since huge areas are devoted to a single crop, 
employment begins and ceases simultaneously throughout the whole 
region. Migrants stream Up and down the valleys, covering hundreds of 
miles from Imperial Valley to the coast valleys, to San Joaquin Valley 
and the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta, and back to Imperial Valley 
homeless, cut off from stable rural communities, existing continuously 
near the hunger line. 

An effective approach to the migrant problem is now being made, for 
the first time in California history, by the Federal Government. Its 
Farm Security Administration is aiding the Dust Bowl exiles through 
the series of camps extending from Brawley, in the Imperial Valley, to 
Marysville, in the Sacramento Valley, through food grants made to 
workers in danger of starvation between crops ; and through the recently 
organized Agricultural Workers Health and Medical Association, 
which utilizes existing medical apparatus in agricultural counties. 

Friars as Farmers: The large-scale pattern for agriculture was set 
in the opening days of California agriculture by the Spanish-Mexican 
mission and rancho. The mission padres used their Indian neophytes 
to cultivate large tracts of desert land, and experimented boldly with a 
variety of vegetables and fruits. Today mission olives and grapes, 
planted 150 years ago by the Spanish padres, are still among the most 
favored varieties of these fruits. From the end of the eighteenth cen- 
tury until the secularization of the missions (1834-37), mission agri- 
culture developed with amazing rapidity. A maximum Indian labor 
force of 20,000 to 30,000 was said to have been reached in 1804. In 
1834, according to the historian, Duflot de Mofras, the 21 missions 
existing in California territory had under cultivation a total of 70,000 
hectares (a hectare equals 2.471 acres) of wheat, corn, barley, and 
beans and possessed 242,000 cattle, 65,000 horses, and 321,500 sheep. 


When the Spanish monarchy under King Carlos III occupied Alta 
California in 1769, only usufructuary title of various grades was 
granted to individuals, since absolute title in all lands was vested in 
the king. Theoretically the Indians were recognized as natural owners 
of lands sufficient for their subsistence, and the missions, therefore, held 
the vast grants ceded them in trust for their Indian wards. Few large 
grants were made under the Spanish regime except to missions, for the 
padres strenuously opposed secular grants. When Mexico proclaimed 
her independence from Spain in 1823, only 20 secular grants existed in 
California. Ten years later the number increased to about 50 and by 
1845, to 700 or 800. 

The padres' bitter opposition to Mexican secession from Spain rose 
to a climax when the Mexican Congress issued its decree of August 17, 
1833, ordering the division of mission properties in Alta California. 
With the Indians deprived of most of the land that was theirs, the 
rancheros assumed prominence in the State's agricultural development. 

Cattle on the Range: The era of the Spanish-Mexican land grant 
was a purely pastoral period. The cattle ranch with its tens of thou- 
sands of acres of wild range land was the dominant form, farming being 
conducted only to raise sufficient produce for the immediate needs of 
the individual ranch. Cattle were raised largely for their hides and 
tallow, the principal export articles, which the rancheros exchanged 
with the Yankee traders for flour and various luxury and other manu- 
factured articles. For half a century California was considered a major 
source of tallow and hides. 

The bigger rancheros lived like feudal lords with scores of retainers 
and servants. Their vast herds, roaming the valleys and foothills, were 
rounded up yearly at rodeo season and driven into home pastures. Don 
Manuel Nieto, recipient in 1784 of the second grant given in California, 
sixteen square leagues (71,016 acres) including the site of Long Beach, 
ran 100,000 head of cattle on his tract. Don Jose Domingo Peralta, 
owner of the Rancho Canada del Corte de Madera, in Santa Clara 
Valley, had his private embarcadero, chapel, bull ring, and fleet of boats 
to transport his hides and tallow. On a rancho in the San Luis Obispo 
district, there was said to be a room filled with baskets of silver and gold 
and huge chests brought by galleon from China stuffed with rare silken 
shawls, satins, laces, embroideries, and jewels. 

The American conquest opened a new market for agricultural 
products even before the discovery of gold. The period is graphically 
described in the diary of John Sutter, the great adventurer-agriculturist 
and first white man to settle the interior, who combined a longing to 
live in the grand style with an intensely practical passion for farming. 
In California Sutter achieved all his dreams, raising fine crops and 
cattle on the immense grant he received from Governor Alvarado 22 


square leagues (97,648 acres) including the present site of Sacramento. 
He ruled his domain, called New Helvetia for his native Switzerland, 
in the manner of an independent fortified kingdom "with 24 pieces of 
ordnance available," until the discovery of gold on his land ruined 
instead of enriched him. 

"I found a good market for my products among the new-comers 
and the people in the Bay district" Sutter wrote of the period immedi- 
ately following the American occupation. "Agriculture increased until 
I had several hundred men working in the harvest fields, and to feed 
them I had to kill four or sometimes five oxen daily. I could raise 
40,000 bushels of wheat without trouble, reap the crops with sickles, 
thrash it with bones, and winnow it in the wind. There were thirty 
plows running with fresh oxen every morning. The Russians were 
the chief customers for my agricultural products. I had at the time 
twelve thousand head of cattle, two thousand horses and mules, between 
ten and fifteen thousand sheep, and a thousand hogs. My best days 
were just before the discovery of gold." 

The wave of wild speculation, rising in the wake of discovery of 
gold in 1849, affected agriculture along with every other phase of Cali- 
fornia life. A huge new population had to be fed 93,000 in 1850 as 
against 15,000 in 1848. Gold was plentiful, meat and vegetables scarce. 
Prices reached astronomical heights. The return from 150 acres planted 
to onions, tomatoes, and potatoes near San Jose is said to have been 
$200,000 in one season. Near Sacramento four men made $40,000 
from 1 6 acres of potatoes. The price of cattle rose from $6 a head in 
1846 to $300 a head by the close of 1849, with sales as high as $500 a 
head recorded in Sacramento. Stock raising, like every other phase of 
activity in California, went through an artificial forced growth. 

When the gold rush passed its crest, agriculture began to take over 
the dominant role in the economic life of the State as thousands of ex- 
miners settled on the land or w r ent to work on the big cattle or wheat 
ranches. The number of miners in the State rose from 57,797 to 
82,573 in the fifties; the number of farmers rose from 1,486 to 20,836. 

The stock raising industry advanced rapidly as measures were taken 
to improve the breed of cattle, previously bred for hide and tallow, in 
order to suit them for eating and dairy purposes. Spanish cattle were 
interbred with American stock which settlers drove hundreds of miles 
across the plains. Stock raising had reached its highest point when the 
great drought of 1862 hit the "cow country" that stretched from the 
Monterey area to San Diego, burning up thousands of acres of range 
land, killing over a million cattle and horses, ruining and driving off 
the land thousands of ranchers. The drought delivered the death blow 
to the Mexican cattlemen, whose California grants, already insecure, 


now passed almost entirely into the hands of Americans, largely land 

The forced sales of those years, when land prices fell to from 25 to 
50 cents an acre, precipitated the first genuine California land boom. 
A syndicate of San Francisco financiers, incorporated as the Los Angeles 
and San Bernardino Land Company, bought up Don Abel Steam's 
rancho of 200,000 acres south of the Tehachapis, placed it on the 
market in 1868 in tracts of 40 acres and up, and put on a high-pressure 
advertising campaign that brought in a flood of buyers from the East 
and the North. As land values rose, the syndicate cleaned up a 
$2,000,000 profit. In the late sixties and the seventies the railroads 
received immense land grants from the Government the Central 
Pacific alone received 1,349,000 acres and brought in settlers by the 
thousand with similar boom methods. 

The public domain in California was rapidly disappearing. The 
Pacific Rural Press showed in 1875 that 45 men held 4,000,000 acres 
of land. The struggle against absentee ownership and the evils of 
landlordism became a major political concern, and the Constitutional 
Convention of 1879 stressed the need for legislation curbing the great 
land companies and railroads. The California State Grange, today an 
important organization of the family-farm type of farmer, was formed 
as a protective organization against the big interests that were becoming 
the decisive influence in agriculture. In the seventies, at the peak of its 
early growth, the Grange demanded a Government curb on grain 
speculation; taxation of uncultivated land held for speculation at the 
same rate as cultivated land; Government control of irrigation, then 
in its beginnings; and railroad freight rates. 

The Epoch of Wheat: In the 1870'$ California became the second 
wheat State in the Union. In addition to the sudden decline in stock 
raising, after the great drought, there were other basic causes for the 
rapid rise of wheat. Rates for shipment by water were low. Wheat 
was a staple commodity in international trade, and it could be shipped 
long distances without deterioration. The huge bonanza wheat farms, 
celebrated by Frank Norris in The Octopus, became the outstanding 
feature of the eighties. The Central Valley became a world granary. 
On these wheat ranches the process of mechanization, which has played 
such an important role in California's trend towards large-scale farm- 
ing, was first developed. 

This era was short-lived, however. Although wheat, barley, and 
other extensive crops continued increasing in value up to 1919, fruit, 
vegetables, and other intensive crops had begun to supplant them in 
importance by the turn of the century. The exorbitant railroad freight 
rates which raised land prices and cut wheat profits, the competition of 
new grain fields in the Mississippi Valley and Russia, and the rapid 


growth of population were factors in forcing all farmers to raise crops 
promising higher returns from a given area. The development of 
irrigation projects, begun in 1872 along the San Joaquin and Kings 
Rivers and rapidly pushed after 1885, spurred the change from ex- 
tensive farming. Meanwhile the construction of new railroad lines and 
introduction of the refrigerator car facilitated transportation of fruit 
and vegetables. 

Mass Production in the Orchard: Although the accomplishments 
of mission agriculture had pointed the way, the real development of 
present-day California farming began with the conscious efforts of the 
"fruit pioneers" of the early American period. Many of the early 
settlers who sailed around the Horn or toiled across the plains showed 
their deep faith in the brave new land by bringing along seeds and slips 
and even trees from their former homes. In more recent years the 
United States Department of Agriculture has sent its men to scour four 
continents in search of valuable fruits and plants adapted to growing 
conditions in the State. 

The work of Luther Burbank contributed materially to the agri- 
cultural pre-eminence of intensive fruit growing in the State. When 
as a young man Burbank arrived in 1875 from Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, to carry on his experimental work in California, he wrote of the 
Sonoma Valley: "I firmly believe from what I have seen that it is 
the chosen spot of all this earth as far as nature is concerned. ... I 
cannot describe it! I almost have to cry for joy when I look upon the 
lovely valley from the hillsides." Among the new plant varieties which 
he originated were 60 varieties of plums and prunes, the result of 40 
years of experimentation. He also introduced important varieties of 
peaches, nectarines, quinces, and apples, and his experimentation with 
berries resulted in the origination and introduction of 10 new varieties. 
In addition to the famous Burbank potato, he introduced varieties of 
asparagus, tomato, squash, and corn. 

The establishment of orange growing on a commercial basis drew 
the attention of farmers all over the country to the financial possibilities 
of irrigated intensive fruit growing in California. The exotic picture 
of orange groves set in hot valleys surrounded by snow-capped moun- 
tains, of trees with their glossy green foliage hung heavily with golden 
globes, fitted into the California legend, caught men's imaginations 
almost as strongly as the gold of '49, and brought California before 
the Nation as an agricultural Eldorado. 

The first orange grove was set out at the San Gabriel Mission 
near Los Angeles in 1804, although the orange had been introduced 
into California about 1770 and was reported as flourishing at Mission 
Buena Ventura in 1792. The first commercial grove was planted in 
1841 by the Kentucky trapper, William Wolf skill, with trees from the 


San Gabriel Mission; his success stimulated a number of other farmers 
to experiment with the friut. The present great citrus industry was 
mainly developed from two seedless orange trees, sent to the pioneer 
Eliza C. Tibbetts at the newly established Riverside farming colony, 
by the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1873. The trees belonged 
to the "Washington Navel" variety, originally imported from Bahia in 
Brazil. The introduction of the navel orange by the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture initiated an industry which today has about 250,000 
acres planted with 20,000,000 bearing trees, netting the greatest income 
of any one crop in the State (see TOUR 2d). Lemon growing, too, 
was gradually developed to a point where it could meet European 
competition ; today the lemon crop is fifth among all crops in farm value. 

As completion of railroad connections opened eastern markets, 
feverish agriculturists pulled up flourishing and highly profitable 
orchards and vineyards and planted expensive orange trees in their 
stead. Speculators preyed on inexperienced and unorganized growers 
with disastrous results, which soon pointed to the urgent necessity of 
some type of regulative action. The first significant step towards the 
organization of packing, shipping, and marketing cooperatives was made 
in Los Angeles in 1893; tw years later it was succeeded by the South- 
ern California Fruit Exchange. This organization, broadened in 1905 
to include the whole State, was the forerunner of the widespread 
network of marketing cooperatives today covering most major branches 
of agriculture. 

Californians not only drink a lot of wine almost seven times as 
much per capita as other people in the United States they also produce 
58 percent of the wine consumed in the country and 93 percent of the 
Nation's grapes $43,108,000 worth, covering a half-million acres. 
Viticulture is second only to orange growing in the State's agricul- 
tural economy. The wine industry of the State, including the grape- 
growing and wine-making divisions, has an investment of some 
$420,000,000 in vineyards, plant, building, and wine inventories and is 
estimated to employ, directly and indirectly, 125,000 persons. 

The Franciscans set out the first California vineyard at Mision 
San Diego de Alcala about 1770. Each of the missions had its vineyard 
and its winery. The industry in its later developments was pioneered 
by vineyardists and wine producers from France, Italy, Hungary, and 
Germany. The noted Hungarian viticulturist, Agoston Haraszthy, 
brought cuttings of the Muscat Alexandria grape in 1851, founded 
California's huge raisin-growing industry, introduced the Zinfandel 
red wine grape, and later imported 200,000 vine cuttings including all 
the most important European varieties. The finest dry wines come 
from the coast area, especially Sonoma, Napa, and Alameda Counties: 
the Pinot of Burgundy, Cabernet of Gironde, Riesling and Traminer of 


the Rhine and Moselle. Sweet fortified wines come from great vine- 
yards of the Lodi area, from the Fresno area, and from San Bernardino 
County, where the 5OO-acre Guasti vineyard, largest in the western 
world, is planted on land reclaimed from the desert. The Fresno 
grape-growing region has a combined area of almost 250,000 acres 
planted in raisin, table, and wine grapes; about 160,000 acres are in 
raisins alone. 

Peaches had grown in California from early mission days, but it was 
the trees, seeds, and seedlings brought in by settlers from the East that 
laid the basis for the present great industry which today supplies 98 
percent of the country's canned peach crop, all of its dried peaches, 
and a fresh fruit crop exceeded only by Georgia. Although peaches 
are produced on uplands and plains in most parts of the State, the most 
concentrated production is in the "peach bowl" of San Joaquin Valley, 
which accounts for 36 percent of the entire crop. 

Santa Clara County is the largest dried fruit packing and fruit can- 
ning center of the world. The Santa Clara Valley grows 70,000 acres 
of prunes, producing over 40 percent of California's total crop, and 
20,000 acres of apricots. Fifty percent of California's fancy canned 
fruit is packed in the valley, and 30 percent of its general canned fruit, 
amounting to over 72,000,000 quart cans. 

Among California's more exotic products are olives, dates, and 
avocados all, except avocados, monopoly crops. The gray-green olive 
groves are scattered over the State from the Mexican border almost up 
to Mount Shasta in the north. Among leading varieties are the Mission 
from Mexico, the large Manzillo and Sevillano from Spain, the Asca- 
lano from Italy. The production of dates, practically all grown within 
a 25-mile radius from Indio, where the California Date Growers Asso- 
ciation processes most of the crop, was 3,580 short tons in 1937 valued 
at $430,000. In order to find the best varieties of avocado for com- 
mercial cultivation in California and Florida, the Office for Foreign 
Plant Introduction of the U. S. Department of Agriculture spent nine 
years exploring the avocado districts of Mexico and South and Central 
America. In 1927 California had 690 bearing acres; in 1935, 8,564 

Walnuts, leading nut crop, occupied 134,638 acres in 1937 and 
produced a crop valued at $9,975,OOO. Two-thirds of the State acreage 
is in southern California. The California Walnut Growers Associa- 
tion, to which 90 percent of the growers belong, has central warehouses 
where the nuts are scientifically treated, handled, and marketed. 

Field, Farm, and Vegetable Garden: California typically combines 
age-old methods of cultivating its "stoop" crops as fieldhands classify 
truck and field crops that need intensive hand cultivation with the 
most modern machine farming technique. The airplane seeding of rice 


fields was first tried in the Sacramento area, where over 90 percent of 
the California crop is raised. Pilots flying within 25 feet of the ground, 
plant in 5 minutes eight loo-pound sacks of rice. From 30 to 40 
acres can be planted in an hour. Before seeding in early spring, tractor- 
drawn fleets of giant gang plows and scrapers construct the levees 
around the rice fields. For five months after seeding, levees are used to 
maintain water on the field at a level of 6 inches in depth. Nine gallons 
of water per minute must be pumped to each acre. In October big 
threshers harvest the crop. 

The development of California's extensive dairy industry has been 
largely dependent on the State's high production of tame hay. The 
value of the tame hay crop in 1937 was $53,112,000, topped only by 
the value of the orange crop. This figure includes $39,351,000 for 
alfalfa, which flourishes even in semi-arid districts. In the areas where 
alfalfa is grown as an irrigated crop, it yields up to seven and eight 
cuttings a year; sometimes there is a new crop every 30 days. In the 
old days, settlers coming around the Horn found the dark green alfalfa 
fields of Chile so attractive that they took along cargoes of hay and 
seed. Henry Miller, landowner and cattle rancher, who is said to 
have boasted that he could drive his herds from Oregon to Mexico on 
his own land, initiated California's commercial production of alfalfa 
in the San Joaquin Valley, sending to Chile in the seventies for ship- 
ments of the seed. His alfalfa holdings became the largest in the 
United States. 

Cotton in this State, largely a speculative crop, has been subject to 
booms like those that formerly plagued the citrus industry. The 1937 
crop was the largest in California history 738,000 bales valued at 
almost $32,000,000. The average yield was 570 pounds per acre, as 
against the United States average for the same year of 266.9 pounds 
per acre. Cotton became an important crop in 1917, when representa- 
tives of the Department of Agriculture were sent to California to 
experiment in production of the tough-fibred type of cotton urgently 
needed for tire fabric and airplane wing coverings. The State's cotton 
production is only about two percent of the national total, but the crop 
is significant for its concentration on a single quality variety, Alcala, 
rare and in great demand in this country. 

The development of the "lettuce bowls" in the Imperial Valley 
and Salinas- Watsonville areas has come almost entirely since the World 
War. Effective advertising, new health and diet concepts stimulated 
the demand, and the rise of lettuce from a small truck crop to a mass- 
produced commodity within the past few years has been spectacular. 
A large part of the lettuce crop is produced by "migratory" farming. 
In J937, 102,500 acres produced lettuce valued at $23,230,000, highest 


of any truck crop. It is exceeded in acreage among truck crops only 
by tomatoes. 

Big capital investment also has gone into asparagus growing, center- 
ing in the delta area, which has always been cultivated largely by 
Oriental contract labor. While the fertile peat soil produces rich crops, 
the cost of reclaiming the land and maintaining levees and drainage 
systems is too large for the average farmer to bear. A number of the 
great holdings, sometimes including whole islands, have remained undi- 
vided from early days. Asparagus in 1937 was third among truck 
crops in size of acreage (67,260 acres) and farm value ($9,146,000). 

The harvesting of peas, done entirely by hand, employs big labor 
forces 20,000 pickers at peak season. California has over a half of 
the country's pea acreage and has led in carload shipments since 1927. 
California is exceeded only by Colorado in sugar beet production and 
exceeds it in production per acre. The 1936 acreage 140,000 acres 
almost tripled the 1929 acreage. Beet farming, an adjunct of the sugar 
factories, is usualy carried on near the plants, because the bulkiness of 
the beets involves high costs in transportation. It requires an excep- 
tionally large amount of hand labor, most of which is done by Mexi- 
cans and Filipinos, at Government-fixed wage standards under the 
sugar beet program. Artichokes, introduced into the United States 
by the Italians of California and the French of Louisiana, are grown 
today in the fog-moistened coastal strip extending from Marina on 
the north to San Luis Obispo on the south. 

Although the days when stock raising was the heart of California's 
life have long since passed, great flocks and herds still roam the foot- 
hills of the Coast Range and the Sierra Nevada, high mountain valleys 
in the north, and the range land in the far south. The value of the 
annual cattle, sheep, and hog production runs into impressive figures 
about $135,000,000, or roughly $45,000,000 more than the total truck 
crop. In 1937 California had 2,298,000 cattle, 820,000 hogs, and 
3,600,000 sheep and lambs. It was third among the States in wool 
production with 28,901,000 pounds shorn. In poultry it ranked sixth 
(June 1938) in total numbers and seventh in value of products; in 
egg production it ranked second. 

Growers' Organizations: Farm organizations formed by California 
growers, stockraisers, and dairymen fall into three main categories, 
overlapping in function and membership. The first includes organiza- 
tions such as the Grange, the Farm Bureau Federation, the Farmers 
Educational and Cooperative Union, and Associated Farmers, Inc., 
embracing growers engaged in all branches of agriculture in one organi- 
zation ; the second, the marketing cooperatives such as the Citrus Grow- 
ers Exchange, and the Prune and Apricot Growers Association, and 
the California Walnut Growers Association; and the third, organiza- 


tions such as the Wool Growers and Cattlemen's Association, organized 
on the basis of a single industry. 

The California Farm Bureau, organized in 1913, has done effective 
work in advising growers on technical questions involved in farming 
fertilizers, soil, irrigation, and stockbreeding ; it collaborates with the 
Agricultural Adjustment Administration and other governmental agen- 
cies. The Farm Bureau also concerns itself with labor relations in 
agriculture and carries on legislative activities on a State and national 
scale. Membership in the State is about 25,000 in 43 counties. 

The Farmers Educational and Cooperative Union, powerful in the 
middle west, is comparatively small in this State, centering around 
Santa Clara County. The Grange or, to give its full title, The 
Patrons of Husbandry tends to represent family rather than com- 
mercial farming in this State. A fraternal and social organization 
with ties to the consumers' cooperative movement, it admits farmers' 
wives and children to membership. It has played an important his- 
torical role in California in pushing through measures of benefit to 
the rural population. 

The marketing cooperatives, of which California has about 450 
with a membership of some 80,000, are primarily business organiza- 
tions seeking efficient control of produce, closely allied in their func- 
tioning to the State agricultural prorate commissions. With main 
emphasis on price, shipping and marketing problems, they also operate 
processing plants for their members, maintain purchasing services, and 
carry on scientific research to improve quality of production. The 
California Fruit Growers Exchange, oldest of the cooperatives and 
typical of them all, has about 13,500 members, comprising about 210 
local packing associations grouped in 26 district exchanges. It handles 
over 75 percent of the State's citrus crop, selling 75,000 to 100,000 
cars of fruit in a normal crop year for about $125,000,000. In addi- 
tion, it manufactures by-products such as citric acid and pectin, pur- 
chases supplies in volume for its membership, supplies lumber for crates 
from its own lumber properties, provides growers with the latest tech- 
nical information on citrus culture, enforces grade regulations in ship- 
ping fruit, using X-ray machines to inspect the crated product. It 
is responsible for the Nation-wide advertising campaigns which have 
attempted to make the California orange more than gold, or oil, or 
movies register unmistakably as the State's own peculiar symbol. 

Industry and Finance 

FOR HALF a century the first outposts of Spanish rule, the mis- 
sions, were the centers of economic life in California's shut-in 
feudal world. They grew into industrial institutions, each with 
its weaving room, blacksmith shop, tannery, wine press, and ware- 
houses. The Indian neophytes, held in subjection by the energetic, prac- 
tical Franciscan friars, learned to tan leather, weave coarse cloth, bake 
bricks and pottery, make soap and candles, and grind corn. When 
the missions were secularized (1834-37), however, their industrial 
activities disappeared rapidly as the skilled neophytes, now free but 
most of them robbed of their land rights, either worked on the ranches 
or took to the wilds. 

Hardly had secularization been accomplished when the 1840*5 her- 
alded an economic revolution. Canny, ambitious foreigners, most of 
them Americans, pushed into the sleepy province. They harnessed the 
streams to run the wheels of gristmills and sawmills that soon sup- 
planted the household metates (mortars) and the crude mule- and ox- 
power mills of the Calif ornians. In 1843 an American trapper, Stephen 
Smith, set up California's first steam gristmill and sawmill at Bodega. 
John Augustus Sutter, a Swiss emigrant, built a flour mill, set up a 
distillery, and began the weaving of coarse woolen blankets at his 
colony of New Helvetia (now Sacramento). On the eve of the 
American conquest, according to Thomas O. Larkin, United States 
Consul, California was exporting enormous amounts of lumber, soap 
and brandy. 

The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, recognizing the American con- 



quest, had not yet been signed when gold was discovered in the tail- 
race of Sutter's sawmill at Coloma. Although a small scale gold rush 
had sprung up in the San Fernando Hills back of Los Angeles six 
years earlier, the enormous riches of the California Hills had remained 
unsuspected. Virtually every enterprise but mining now stopped. 
Larkin later wrote: "Every blacksmith, carpenter, and lawyer is leav- 
ing; brick-yards, saw-mills, and ranches are left perfectly alone." An- 
other writer reported: "Every bowl, warming pan, and piggin has 
gone to the mines. Everything in short that has a scoop in it that will 
hold sand and water. All the iron has been worked up into crowbars, 
pick axes and spades." 

During the first three years of the rush, placer miners took out 
the surface "pay dirt" from the "diggin's" with pick, shovel, crowbar, 
and tin pan. Other contrivances replaced the pan : the washing rocker 
or "cradle," a criblike wooden box mounted on rockers, with a "riddle" 
or sieve; the "Long Tom," a wooden trough with a riddle at one end 
over a riffle box; and the "board-sluice," a long open flume with 
riffle-bars across the bottom. Even with such primitive tools as these, 
fabulous amounts of gold were mined in 1849, approximately $10,- 
000,000 worth; in 1850, more than $41,000,000; and in 1852, the year 
of largest production, more than $81,000,000. 

The demand for money far outstripped the supply. Californians 
scorned paper money. Gold dust, a "pinch" to the dollar, substituted 
for currency. Silver coins of many nations crept into circulation: 
Mexican dollars, German marks, French 5-franc pieces. Private assay- 
ers coined gold pieces of widely varying denominations for profit. Not 
until April 1854, when the new San Francisco mint began operations, 
did Government minted coins circulate in needed quantities. 

Merchants received gold dust and specie for safe-keeping in their 
vaults; soon they were buying and selling gold, loaning funds, dealing 
in exchange. Stephen A. Wright opened his "Miners' Bank" in San 
Francisco late in 1848, Naglee and Sinton their "Exchange and De- 
posit Office," and the Rothschilds of London their San Francisco branch 
early in 1849. The Wells Fargo Bank and Union Trust Company 
of today, founded as an express company, entered banking in 1852. 
By the close of 1853, San Francisco had nineteen banks, carrying on 
business in cramped offices and shacks. Few of these, however, sur- 
vived the depression following the bank panic of Black Friday, Febru- 
ary 23, 1855. For nearly a decade afterwards, banking continued to 
be marked by instability. 

As the "flush days" of mining drew to a close, machines began to 
replace men. In 1851 the first mill for crushing quartz was erected in 
Grass Valley, Yuba County; by 1857, more than 150 quartz mills had 
been built for working the lode. In 1852 placer mining was revolu- 


tionized when hydraulic methods were introduced at American Hill 
in Nevada County. By the seventies, millions of tons of gold bearing 
sand had been washed down under powerful jets of water and flushed 
into the Yuba and Feather Rivers. The destruction of valley farm 
lands by the debris precipitated a struggle between farmers and miners 
which finally led to prohibition of hydraulic mining by injunction in 

Mining remained the chief industry throughout the first decade 
of the American regime, absorbing almost 60 percent of the inhabitants. 
After 1859, however, the annual output of gold began to decrease, 
falling to $18,000,000 by 1870. Meanwhile, a population increase 
from 92,597 in 1850 to 379,994 a decade later, gave manufacturing its 
first great impetus. 

By the winter of 1849-50 San Francisco had grown into a lively 
manufacturing center of shipbuilding yards, foundries, flour mills, and 
workshops. To supply tools and machinery for the mines, Donahue 
Brothers established their foundry (later the Union Iron Works) in 
1849; other foundries were soon opened. The wool of California's 
sheep was utilized in the weaving of cloth; the hides of its cattle 
in the tanning of leather. A sugar refinery, using raw sugar from 
the Hawaiian Islands, was established on the Bay in 1860. In that 
year there were close to a hundred gristmills throughout the State, 
while about three times as many sawmills were making lumber of its 
ponderosa pine, its redwood, and Douglas fir. The gold mines still 
held first place in 1860, with a $45,000,000 production, but man- 
ufactures assumed growing importance, with an output valued at 

During the middle i86o's a prospecting mania swept the State, 
recalling the feverish "flush "days." Prospectors wandered into Cali- 
fornia's most isolated regions, hunting for gold, copper, silver, quick- 
silver. So many amazing discoveries were reported that a thousand 
new companies began to peddle mining stock. Frenzied financiers ex- 
tended their efforts to a new field, oil wells. From Humboldt County 
to San Diego, wildcat wells were drilled as more than 60 companies 
entered the field. The San Francisco Bulletin reported that from 
40,000 to 50,000 gallons of oil had been produced in 1865. But the 
bubble soon burst. The wildcat mining companies began to collapse 
and by the end of the decade the oil companies, too, wound up in prac- 
tical failure when their product was pronounced of no value. 

None the less, the growth of industry continued. When the Civil 
War interrupted normal communications, goods once imported from 
the Atlantic Seaboard, shoes and clothing, chemicals and drugs, fur- 
niture, iron and steel, distilled liquors, soaps and candles, and tobacco 
were produced within the State. As cities grew, gas plants, planing 


mills, foundries, brick and pottery works were built, and banking insti- 
tutions sprang up. Four years after the legislature had provided for 
incorporation of Savings and Loan Societies in 1862, there were five 
savings banks with total deposits of $8,650,000. In southern Cali- 
fornia, remote from the gold fields of the populous north, I. W. Hell- 
man in 1865 hung up his sign, "I. W. Hellman, Banker"; three years 
later Alvinza Hayward and Company opened, with a capitalization of 

Even after two decades of industrial development, California was 
not yet a manufacturing State in 1870. Industry still labored under 
some of its original handicaps: lack of fuel for power, of facilities 
for transporting goods to markets, of an adequate banking and credit 
system. A further setback was the financial panic of 1875, which 
followed the eastern panic of two years before, and was itself aggra- 
vated by the collapse of wild speculation in mining stocks. It broke 
with startling suddenness when the Bank of California, a financial 
power since 1864, closed its doors because of the speculations of its 
president, William C. Ralston. Banks collapsed throughout the State; 
in Los Angeles all closed, two permanently. 

A widespread demand for Government regulation of banking forced 
the legislature in 1878 to pass the Banking Act, under which "a board 
of three bank commissioners was appointed with power to call for 
statements from the banks, make examinations of their affairs, regulate 
the conduct of their business, and to close insolvent concerns." Of the 
84 banks then in existence, five were forced into liquidation. In spite 
of this temporary slump, bank deposits by 1890 had grown to $230,- 
000,000, representing an 88 percent increase in 10 years, while the 
number of banks increased from 120 to 232. 

Industrial expansion kept pace with banking. The growth of agri- 
culture called for farm implement and wagon factories and for mills 
and factories to process its goods for market. The influx of inhabi- 
tants during the Great Boom of 1887-88 widened the local market, 
furnished needed capital, and increased the labor supply. By 1890 
the number of manufacturing establishments was nearly twice that of 
1870, the value of manufactured products more than three times as 
great, and the capital invested nearly four times as great. 

The Nation-wide panic of 1893 rocked industry and banking to 
their foundations once more. On June 14, the Riverside Banking 
Company crashed. Two banks closed in San Francisco, four in Los 
Angeles, and several others throughout the State. After 1898, as the 
business trend turned upward again, banking resources were more than 
doubled. But again in 1907, as another national depression hit Cali- 
fornia, bank failures shook the State. One consequence was the Bank 


Act of 1909, imposing more stringent regulations, which brought greater 
stability to California banking. 

Industrial production, meanwhile, had risen. By 1899 California 
had 4,997 manufacturing establishments, representing an estimated cap- 
ital investment of $175,000,000, which produced goods valued at 
$257,000,000. The chief industries were, in the order of their im- 
portance, sugar and molasses refineries, meat-packing plants, lumber 
mills and brickyards, flour and gristmills, fruit and vegetable can- 
neries, foundries and machine shops. Manufacturing had far outgrown 
mining, which produced $29,313,460 of mineral products in 1899. 
Handicapped by lack of fuel, it was still little more than an adjunct 
to agriculture. But by this time manufacturing had begun to draw 
upon new resources of power petroleum and hydroelectric energy. 

In 1893 E. L. Doheny and C. A. Canfield sank a shaft with pick, 
shovel and windlass on a plot of ground at the corner of Patton and 
West State Streets in Los Angeles. A little oil oozed up, the first 
trickle from a vast reservoir which numberless derricks in the Los 
Angeles field would soon begin to drain. Years before, the early Span- 
ish settlers, whose cattle sometimes got mired in surface oil pools, had 
plastered the sticky brea (Sp., tar) on the roofs of their adobe houses. 
As early as 1855 or 1856, Andres Pico had distilled small quantities 
of oil for use at Mission San Fernando. Wildcat companies were 
drilling wells throughout the State in the i86o's. In 1874 the Cali- 
fornia Star Oil Company established the first refinery neai Newhall. 
During the next decade fields were being worked in the Puente Hills, 
Whittier, Summerland, Newhall, Ventura, and Los Gatos districts. 
By 1888 annual production had risen to 690,000 barrels. The Coalinga, 
McKittrick, and Midway-Sunset fields in the San Joaquin Basin were 
producing by 1890 or 1891, the Los Angeles-Salt Lake field by 1893. 
Production had risen in 1900 to 4,319,950 barrels and this was but a 
fraction of the yearly output to follow. 

In 1882 George Chaffey began to operate a small power plant near 
Etiwanda. When the San Antonio Light and Power Company was 
formed, just a decade later, to transmit electricity from its power 
station in San Antonio Canyon near Pomona, only two other commer- 
cial plants, one in Oregon and the other in Colorado, were producing 
hydroelectric power. A year later the Redlands Electric and Power 
Company was operating its plant on Mill Creek in the San Bernardino 
Mountains. By 1900 the hydroelectric industry, grown to a producing 
capacity of 30,500 kilowatt hours, was developing speedily to meet the 
demands for electricity of railroad, mine, factory, home, and farm. 

The new century saw a marked increase in the industrial develop- 
ment of the State. The value of manufactured products increased 
nearly tenfold in the first quarter of the century, from the $257,000,000 


of 1899 to $2,443,000,000 in 1925. During the World War period of 
forced expansion, industrial output rose 170 percent in value and after 
the abrupt decline of post-war deflation, industrial growth continued 
rapidly. From 1919 to 1925 the increase in value of manufactured 
products was 1.5 percent for the country as a whole but 28 percent for 
California. Industry, as it expanded, became more evenly distributed. 
Los Angeles, like San Francisco, became a foremost manufacturing 
center ; Oakland, Richmond, San Jose, Berkeley, and Fresno outstripped 
Sacramento, their former leader. 

The State's industrial output soared to a total value of more than 
three billion dollars in 1929. After an abrupt drop to less than two 
billion in the following two-year period, it has risen somewhat, though 
not to its 1929 level. If the cost of motion picture production (prior 
to 1933 included in computations of the total value of industrial output) 
is added to the value of other manufactured products for 1935, the 
total is very close to that of a decade earlier. It should be noted, 
however, that because films are rented, not sold, production costs are 
not a measure of the value of output. With a production of $265,- 
385,925 in 1935, petroleum refining stood at the top of eighteen 
manufacturing industries whose products were valued at more than 
$25,000,000. Fruit and vegetable processing totaled $174,011,865 for 
that year and both meat packing and the automotive industry, more 
than $120,000,000. 

Oil production has been first among the State's industries since 
1919. The era of greatest productivity began in 1920, with the open- 
ing of such fields as Huntington Beach, Santa Fe Springs, and Signal 
Hill. From 1920 to 1926 California produced 1,300,000,000 barrels, 
more oil than in all its previous history. During this boom period the 
industry had more than its share of unscrupulous promoters and in 
1927, the year of the startling Julian Petroleum Corporation scandal 
in Los Angeles, the department of natural resources took over State 
regulation of oil production. Today in the oil fields that dot Los 
Angeles, Ventura, Kern, Fresno, Orange, and Santa Barbara Counties, 
the passerby may see enormous forests of oil derricks sucking black gold 
from the earth night and day. In 1937 production was 238,521,000 
barrels. In the same year production of natural gas, in daily consump- 
tion of which the State leads the nation, was 357,420,000,000 cubic 

Second in value of production among California's industries are its 
fruit and vegetable canneries, which in 1937 produced a fruit and 
vegetable pack of almost 60,000,000 cases, thirty percent of the Na- 
tion's total output. To supply its demands, the manufacture of tin 
cans and tinware has itself risen to seventh place among the State's 
industries. An important branch of fruit and vegetable processing is 


the dried fruit business, largely conducted by co-operative organiza- 
tions whose advertising efforts have made California brands familiar 
throughout the world. The sea food canning industry, centered chiefly 
in Monterey, San Diego, and Los Angeles, leads the world in com- 
mercial production of tuna fish. Another industry, wine making, rep- 
resenting an estimated investment of $350,000,000, shipped nearly 
60,000,000 gallons in 1937. The meat-packing industry utilizes ship- 
ments from other States as well as California's supply of livestock. 

California's importance as an automobile market (in 1937 there 
were 2,484,653 automobiles registered) has influenced eastern manu- 
facturers in opening branch factories within the State. A flourishing 
allied industry, motor vehicle bodies and parts, was responsible for an 
output valued at $19, 155,337 in 1935, while manufacture of rubber 
tires and inner tubes took tenth place among all industries. In air- 
craft manufacture the output for 1935 was valued at $15,883,918; by 
the end of 1937 a single manufacturer reported net sales in excess of 

Metal products and machine production have become increasingly 
important in the industrial life of the State. Pig iron from Utah has 
largely supplanted scrap and pig iron from England or Belgium as 
raw material. Southern California's iron deposits, smelted with coke 
from Utah and Colorado, promise to furnish another source of supply. 

Except for redwood, production of lumber is far less than that 
needed. Much of the material imported (in 1937 a billion feet) is 
timber which California mills convert into lumber. The total output 
of the lumber products industries, including saw- and planing-mills, 
box factories and furniture plants, was valued at $97,386,559 in 1935- 

Before the turn of the century mining had fallen behind manu- 
factures in value of output, though it continued to be an important 
factor in the State's economic life. The value of mineral output for 
1936 (excluding petroleum) was $227,539,942. In gold output the 
State still leads the Nation. A total of 1,174,578 ounces of gold were 
mined in 1937, the greatest amount since 1861. Between 1900 and 
1915 dredging displaced other methods in placer mining. Huge chain- 
bucket dredgers worked their way down the shallow rivers, creating 
their own channels as they went. The gravel was scooped from the 
river bed to the deck of the dredger, washed in revolving screens, 
and the gold particles captured on gold saving tables supplied with 
rifHes, or in short sluices. Since the World War machine worked 
quartz mines have been a chief source of supply; the gold is reclaimed 
by amalgamation or by cyaniding. Forty counties produce gold, 60 
percent from lode mines, 40 percent from placers, but the Grass Valley 
and Nevada City district is by far the outstanding center of production. 

Of the State's 58 commercial minerals, silver is next in importance 


to gold; 2,103,799 fine ounces, valued at $1,629,392 were produced 
in 1936. Copper production, centering in Trinity County, was 10,- 
502,000 pounds, valued at $1,270,742; lead production, centering in 
Inyo County, was 2,372,000 pounds, valued at $139,948. Most of the 
borax mined in the United States comes from Inyo, Kern, and San 
Bernardino Counties, and the greatest United States production of 
sodium bicarbonate is from Searles Lake in San Bernardino County. 
The State's producing quicksilver mines, numbering 54 in 1937, pro- 
vide a large portion of the world supply. Tungsten is produced at 
Atolia in San Bernardino County; magnesite, in Stanislaus and Santa 
Clara Counties. Building materials account for approximately $50,- 
000,000 of the total value of mineral output. 

California today ranks third among the States in the production 
of electricity. The hydroelectric industry generated 30,500 kilowatt 
hours in 1900 and 8,365,205,000 in 1937. Steam heat and internal 
combustion added 1,266,974,000 kilowatt hours to the total produc- 
tion within the State for that year. California also consumes electricity 
generated at Boulder Dam, carried by high-power transmission lines 
operating at 287,500 volts over a distance of 266 miles. 

From 1900 to 1917 the State's banking resources accumulated stead- 
ily, advancing from $384,785,000 to $1,682,000,000, while the number 
of banks increased from 269 to 718. The post-war era witnessed the 
emergence of powerful financial institutions through bank mergers, 
the establishment of branch banking on a wide scale, and the impor- 
tation of capital from the East. In 1927 banking resources were 
$3,833,957,000, an increase of 128 percent for the decade following 
1917. In 1928 the Bank of Italy (now the bank of America) had 
become the fifth largest in the country, with 279 branches throughout 
the State. The growth of the banking system was paralleled by the 
growth of banking and loan companies, whose assets increased 100 
percent from 1895 to 1920 and 400 percent from 1920 to 1927. 
California shared with other States the debacle of bank failures that 
came with the depression. The banks recovered gradually from this 
setback until in 1937 their resources were greater than they had been 
a decade earlier. 

Following 1929, California's industrial graph, here as elsewhere in 
the Nation, fell in a dizzy curve. After an upturn from 1935 to 
I937> during which period the losses of 1930-1935 were partially offset, 
the trend headed downward during the latter part of 1937. Agricul- 
ture remains (1939) the dominant factor in the economy of the State, 
but manufacturing runs a close second, and far outdistances mining; 
it contributes one-third to the State's yearly income. Despite all re- 
verses, California still holds its position of eighth manufacturing State 
in the Union. 

From Clipper Skip to Clipper Plane 

f | V 

OO SWIFT arrives as tardy as too slow" might have been 
the motto in Spanish California. The pack mules of the 
padres ambled from one mission to another. The horses of 
the rancheros might gallop fast enough in a round-up, but not in going 
from ranch to town. There was no reason for speed nor was speed 
possible in a carreta (cart), squeaking with its ponderous wheels of 
solid oak over roads little more than trails. Soldier-couriers carried the 
mail along the Camino Real (king's highway) from San Francisco to 
San Diego and continued along their slow, hot, dry way to Loreto in 
Lower California, whence letters went across the gulf of San Bias and 
on to Mexico City. 

Trade was no less leisurely. Although the Spanish government 
prohibited trade with other than Spanish ships, American and British 
ships successfully smuggled their goods into California long before the 
Mexican government removed this restriction. Californians needed too 
many products to resist the temptation of dealing with smugglers, while 
the profits which awaited the Yankee sea captains from trading their 
manufactured wares for seal and sea otter pelts, hides, tallow, and lum- 
ber were enough to induce them to risk capture of their ships and confis- 
cation of their cargoes. Their illicit trade grew to the point where a hide 
came to be called a "California bank note," substituting for money as 
the common medium of exchange. 

When gold was discovered in 1848 the sudden mass movement 
taxed intercoastal transportation facilities to the utmost. By March 
1849, 17,000 persons had sailed from Atlantic and Gulf coast cities for 



California; in the same year fully 35,000 traveled the tortuous overland 
routes. With such mushroom growth came an extraordinary demand 
for goods, so that freight rates rose to $50 and even $60 a ton. The 
Pacific Mail Steamship Company, established when the gold rush 
began, speeded construction of its three i,ooo-ton steamers for the 
New York-to-San Francisco run. The first of these, the California, 
arrived at San Francisco February 28, 1849, laden to the water's edge 
with 400 Argonauts taken aboard at Panama. The company rapidly 
built up a combined Atlantic and Pacific fleet of 29 steamships. Aided 
by the Panama Railroad and a government subsidy for carrying mail, 
it did an enormous business, bringing some 175,000 passengers to Cali- 
fornia and taking back $200,000,000 in gold within ten years. 

The New England shipbuilders, too, rose to the emergency. Soon 
that most beautiful of sailing ships, "the knife-edged clipper with her 
ruffled spar," was cutting the sailing time around the Horn to little 
more than three months. The Flying Cloud and the Andrew Jackson 
made the trip in 89 days. All this record-breaking bustle meant enor- 
mous profits to the owners. In one passage the Samuel Russell, carry- 
ing a i2OO-ton cargo, earned a gross revenue of $72,000, or more than 
the cost of building the ship. 

From San Francisco, travelers continued by horseback or steamer 
to the mines. The first river steamer to make regular runs from San 
Francisco to Sacramento was a little launch named the Pioneer, im- 
ported in sections on the deck of a sailing ship, which began puffing and 
blowing up the river in the summer of 1849. A number of other 
vessels of not too great draft were pressed into service on the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin, where rivalry for speed led sometimes to forc- 
ing of the boilers and terrific explosions. Since there were not enough 
steamers of light draft to handle the traffic, the high fares 2 ounces 
of gold or its cash equivalent and the freight rates of $50 per ton 
from San Francisco to Sacramento led the owners of medium-sized 
sailing vessels to attempt the trip. Once the master had got his craft 
out of the tangle of shipping in the harbor of San Francisco, the bay 
breezes made the passage up through San Pablo and Suisun Bays easy 
enough. If his destination was Stockton, he could still count on a 
little breeze, his chief trouble being to keep to the main channel through 
a circuitous course in the San Joaquin delta. But if he began to sail 
up the Sacramento, his troubles were manifold, as Captain Coffin of 
the Sophronia complained in his account of "fifteen days' labour, boiling 
and roasting" en route to Sacramento. The river banks were "so over- 
grown with oaks and sycamores that we lay becalmed. . . . The only 
way to advance was to warp and tie." Before a year was out, however, 
several steamers suitable for the river run had made the trip around 
the Horn or through the Straits of Magellan. The most famous of 


these was the Senator, of which it was later said that she carried 
enough gold to sink her had it been carried all in one load. 

From Stockton, Sacramento and Marysville, focal points on the 
river routes, carreta, calash, and spring wagon carried men and sup- 
plies to an ever growing number of new mining camps. Driven by 
Mexican arrieros (mule drivers), each animal with a load of 300 
pounds, mule teams set out not only with bacon and beans and shovels, 
but with plows, barrels of whisky, pianos, and printing presses. Later, 
as roads took the place of trails, the stage coach and the heavy freighter 
were pressed into service. The first Concord Coach reached California 
in 1850. With its steer-hide springs, its stout ash spokes, its landscaped 
panels, and damask-lined curtains, it was, by comparison with the 
carreta, a model of beauty and comfort. 

In June 1851 there were but 34 post offices in all California. With 
gold or high wages beckoning, no one would carry the mail at Gov- 
ernment pay; hence the rise of the expressman who carried mail 
independently from San Francisco, Sacramento, or Stockton, charging 
at first the fantastic price of $4 a letter. If the post rider was shrewd, 
he presently became a treasure carrier, or even a banker if he could 
get hold of a safe. Within another year the business of carrying gold 
from the mines had attracted a number of far-sighted Easterners. The 
Adams Express Company established itself, and in May 1852, Wells, 
Fargo and Company announced, "We are now prepared to forward 
gold dust, bullion, specie, packages, parcels, and freight to and from 
New York and San Francisco, thence to Sacramento, Marysville, Ne- 
vada, Shasta, Stockton, Sonora, and all the principal towns of Cali- 
fornia and Oregon." 

In 1858 Congress gave the Butterfield Overland Mail an annual 
subsidy of $600,000. Their stages went across the old Santa Fe 
Trail from San Francisco to St. Joseph in 23 days. When the Civil 
War interrupted service on the Butterfield line, the stages used the 
middle or California trail route via Colfax and Truckee, across the 
Nevada desert to Salt Lake City. Stages also ran north to the mines 
in Trinity and Shasta Counties and across the Siskiyous into Oregon. 
In 1862 the discovery of the rich Comstock silver mines in Nevada 
brought about a kind of reversal of the emigrant trail. As a rival 
to the California Route, a toll road was built from Placerville over 
the summit of the Sierra Nevada down the steep drop to Tahoe Val- 
ley and thence into Nevada. Over it ran the stages of the Pioneer 

Far swifter than the best stages were the riders of the Pony Ex- 
press, who for a brief period carried a fast mail service from Missouri 
to California each week. Riding a horse bred for the race track, car- 
rying no arms, even wearing clothes and boots as light as possible, the 


rider sped across some 1,900 miles in eight days. With the opening 
of telegraph service across the continent in 1861, the Pony Express 
was discontinued, but it had already blazed the way for the first trans- 
continental railroad. 

In striking contrast was another brief experiment. In 1852 Jeffer- 
son Davis urged, in Congress, the use of the camel on the Great Ameri- 
can Desert. The California press became naively eloquent. Why not 
"a dromedary express to carry the fast mail" ? Congress made a small 
appropriation and two caravans of camels were shipped to Texas. Some 
of these or their offspring eventually reached California and the Army 
used them between Fort Tejon and Los Angeles. Unfortunately the 
camels frightened horses and mules. The teamsters and mule skinners 
and vaqueros swore in two languages that they would have no trek 
with these strange beasts. The Army drivers could not pack or man- 
age the camels properly and were unwilling to learn. In the end the 
camels were auctioned off: some to end their days in circuses, others 
to carry salt to the Comstock mines, still others to be set adrift on 
the desert. 

California's first railroad was the modest little Sacramento Valley 
line which in 1856 began running east 22 miles from the capital to 
Folsom, reducing considerably the time to the mines. It had a wood- 
burning locomotive, as did the line which joined San Francisco and 
San Jose in 1864. In Southern California, over a line from Los 
Angeles to Wilmington, ran a vainglorious black and gold locomo- 
tive called the San Gabriel, alongside of which the vaqueros used to 
race, shouting at it derisively and profanely in Spanish. 

As early as 1836 there had been talk of a transcontinental railroad, 
but partisan rivalry over the slavery question between North and South 
held up action by Congress until 1862. In that year Theodore Judah, 
who had been chief engineer for the Sacramento Valley Railroad and 
agent of the Pacific Railroad Convention in Washington, returned to 
California to announce that he had found a practicable railway route 
across the Sierra Nevada. His enthusiasm and vision were such that 
he was able to fire the imaginations of four wealthy, hard-headed 
Sacramento merchants: Leland Stanford, a grocer, Charles Crocker, a 
dry-goods man, and Collis Huntington and Mark Hopkins, partners 
in a hardware establishment. These became the "Big Four." 

In 1863 the Union Pacific began to build west from Omaha, the 
Central Pacific east from Sacramento. Men were scarce; money was 
short ; labor troubles halted construction until Crocker imported Chinese 
coolies. There were no power tools in the i86o's and no explosives 
but black powder. With pick and shovel, steel and jack, the crews 
dug and blasted through the granite of the Sierras. It became a race 
with the Union Pacific which ended in May 1869 at Promontory, in 


Utah, where Stanford drove in the golden spike. The Southern Pacific 
completed its line to Los Angeles in 1876 and a year later to Texas 
tidewater, connecting southern California directly with the South and 

The first coach trains to cross the continent, for all their red plush 
and polished brass, were none too comfortable. In winter a stove at 
one end of the coach gave very uneven heat, and in summer there was 
no ventilation without dust and cinders. However, the coaches were 
palaces on wheels compared to the emigrant trains that brought to 
the west the hopeful tide of Europe's poor. The discomfort and 
squalor of these trains was described in detail by Robert Louis Steven- 
son in The Amateur Emigrant. Provisions for sanitation were quite 
inadequate; the journey long. "Haste," we learn from this account, 
"is not a foible of the emigrant train. It gets through on suffrance, 
running the gauntlet among its more considerable brethren." 

The enthusiasm which had greeted the Southern Pacific in 1869 
fell to a low ebb in the eighties, when this railroad and the Santa Fe 
entered into an agreement with the Pacific Mail Steamship Company 
and formed the Transcontinental Association with the purpose of 
keeping up freight rates. The farmers and businessmen in the in- 
terior of the State complained bitterly at paying rates which were 
not only high but also fluctuating. The board of railroad commis- 
sioners, controlled by the railways, refused relief; it permitted tariffs 
which were grossly discriminative. The struggle between the Southern 
Pacific and the farmers was long and bitter, leading even to bloodshed 
in Tulare County. 

Also chafing under the burden of the freight rates charged by the 
Transcontinental Association, San Francisco merchants in 1891 or- 
ganized the Atlantic and Pacific Steamship Line with six steamers de- 
signed to compete with the Pacific Mail. In the same period business- 
men of the interior towns and cities joined San Franciscans in form- 
ing the Merchants' Traffic Association. The new organization, besides 
sponsoring the new Atlantic and Pacific Steamship Line, enabled the 
Panama Railway Company to establish a competitive line between New 
York and San Francisco via the Isthmus of Panama. It was chiefly 
responsible for the building in 1895-6 of the San Francisco and San 
Joaquin Valley Railroad from Stockton to Bakersfield. 

On the coast line from San Francisco to Los Angeles, the Southern 
Pacific did not complete the section between Lompoc and Santa Bar- 
bara until 1901, and the Northwestern Pacific road to Eureka was 
not completed until 1914. Even with these lines constructed there 
were (and still are) a number of fair sized towns which have never 
been served by any railroad. In addition to these, many places pop- 


ular for vacations the Geysers, Tassajara Springs, even Yosemite 
until 1907 could be reached only by coach and six. 

The coast country, inaccessible by both sea and land, has remained 
largely cut off from the rest of the State. Santa Monica, Santa Bar- 
bara, Port San Luis, Monterey, Drake's Bay, Fort Bragg none of 
these has deep water facilities or even very safe anchorage in stormy 
weather. Indeed, apart from the superb bay of San Francisco, only 
San Diego and Eureka have good natural harbors. To overcome the 
lack of safe anchorages along the rocky coast, shippers have resorted 
to the ingenious device of the "high line," lowering their goods with 
block and tackle over hawsers strung from the cliffs to waiting ves- 
sels offshore. Up and down the northern coast are lumber towns 
where lumber has been shipped in this fashion since the 1870*8. 

For years Los Angeles was handicapped by the lack of an ade- 
quate harbor. The final selection of San Pedro ended the long "Free 
Harbor Fight" between the people of Los Angeles and the Southern 
Pacific, which had greatly favored the plan for a harbor at Santa 
Monica. The choice also greatly benefited the new San Pedro, Los 
Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad, which followed the old Mormon 
trail across southern Nevada to its western terminus at San Pedro. 
San Pedro's open bay, protected only on the west by a headland, 
seemed not too promising until the completion in 1910 of an 11,000- 
foot breakwater protecting the outer harbor and the excavation of 
a spacious inner harbor from shallow tidal areas. In 1937 it was 
the terminal for 165 steamship lines and three transcontinental rail- 
roads reaching coastwise, intercoastal, and foreign markets. 

Since the opening of the Panama Canal, intercoastal vessels, tramp 
steamers, naval craft, luxury liners in round-the-world service all 
have made California harbors regular ports of call. Today the flags 
of every maritime nation flutter in the winds. During the first quarter 
of the century San Francisco's foreign commerce increased fourfold, 
while traffic in cargo destined to the region west of the Rockies, for 
which both San Francisco and Oakland harbors are particularly de- 
signed, swelled the volume of trade. During the 1920*8, growing fleets 
of lumber freighters and oil tankers passed in and out of Los Angeles 
harbor until it became one of the greatest lumber-importing and oil- 
exporting harbors. In 1937 the Los Angeles- Long Beach tonnage was 
21,208,681, valued at $925,451,543; the San Francisco tonnage 
28,812,967, valued at $1,209,641,226. 

The Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers were almost ruined for 
navigation by silting up with the debris from hydraulic mining along 
their tributaries until legislation halted the destruction. Only by per- 
sistent dredging were they kept open for small steamboats. Though 
floods still fill these rivers with silt, much of the fruit and vegetables 


shipped from the interior goes by water from Sacramento and Stockton. 
The Stockton harbor has been deepened sufficiently to accommodate 
the largest ocean-going freighters. Today California's river-borne com- 
merce reaches an annual total of over 2,000,000 tons of freight, ex- 
ceeded in value only by the trade on the Mississippi, Columbia, and 
Hudson River systems. The Shasta Dam, now (1939) under con- 
struction near Kennet in Shasta County, will keep the flow of the 
Sacramento relatively uniform throughout the year, once more permit- 
ting navigation to Red Bluff as in the steamboating days of the iSso's. 

The ferryboats which for so many years have been as much a 
feature of San Francisco Bay as the islands of Yerba Buena, Angel, 
and Alcatraz, had as their forerunner a whale boat named by some 
flight of the imagination the Pirouette. In 1851 she began running 
as a ferry to San Antonio (now East Oakland) with a tariff of $i 
per person, $3 per horse, $3 per wagon, $5 per two-horse wagon, $3 
per head of meat cattle, $i per sheep, and $i per hog. The appear- 
ance of competitors cut these rates in half within a few years. The 
ferries, which eventually achieved the luxurious air of great floating 
palaces, continued to serve the Bay until completion of the San Fran- 
cisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in November 1936 and the Golden Gate 
Bridge in May 1937. As traffic poured across the two bridges, the 
ferry lines, one by one, began gradually to suspend service. A few 
are still running. 

The development of urban and interurban street railways began 
in 1 86 1, when San Francisco acquired its first street cars, drawn by 
horses whose hoofs clattered loudly over the basalt paving blocks of 
the streets. In one street they continued their anachronistic clatter 
until 1913. When people began to build homes on the steep hills, up 
which the streets of San Francisco climb without compromise, a trans- 
portation problem arose. It was ingeniously solved by Andrew Halla- 
die, who in 1873 produced the first cable-drawn street cars in the 
world. The cable car has continued to accommodate the people of 
San Francisco, arousing mingled delight and distrust in the hearts of 

In 1863 trains ran from the ferry wharf into the center of Oak- 
land. Now an electric interurban system, utilizing the San Francisco- 
Oakland Bay Bridge, connects San Francisco with Oakland, Alameda, 
and Berkeley. An extensive network of urban and interurban lines 
dispatches 3,700 trains daily in and out of Los Angeles over 1,200 
miles of track, serving 45 cities and towns. 

In California, as elsewhere, the automobile led to improvement in 
roads. The counties had for many years kept up a few good mac- 
adamized roads but the general condition of roads was lamentable 
until the legislature created, in 1909, the California Highway Com- 


mission with full authority over the construction of a great system of 
highways. In adopting both the motor bus and the motor truck Cali- 
fornia was a pioneer State, since many communities had either not 
been reached at all or had been inadequately served by the railroads. 
By 1915 trucking had become one of the important means of transpor- 
tation, particularly of farm and dairy produce. Its growth created 
a further demand for better roads which the State met. At present 
( I 939) trucks carry 70 percent of the total intrastate business. In 
November 1937 California had some 40,000 freight trucks in opera- 
tion. They ranged from old Fords carrying supplies into the Sierra 
Nevada camps to lO-ton tractors and trailers costing over $10,000. 

The considerable distance from San Francisco and Los Angeles to 
other centers of population has made California an important State 
in the short but dramatic history of the airplane. In 1883 John J. 
Montgomery, professor of physics at the University of Santa Clara, 
built a glider which soared some 600 feet, but this was only one of 
many abortive attempts to fly in heavier-than-air craft. Among the 
memorable pioneer flights with which California has been associated 
were Silas Christofrerson's first non-stop flight from San Francisco 
to Los Angeles in 1914; Lindbergh's preliminary flight from San Diego 
to New York in 1927; the first non-stop flight over the Pacific to 
Hawaii by Lts. Maitland and Hegenberger in 1927; and the 7,800- 
mile flight from Oakland to Australia by way of Hawaii and the 
Pacific Islands of Kingsford-Smith, Ulm, and Lyon in 1928. From 
the California shore the Pacific was first bridged commercially by 
air. Climaxing six years of intensive preparation by the Pan-American 
Airway system, the world's first trans-Pacific commercial service opened 
in October 1936, when the "China Clipper" made a round-trip pas- 
senger flight between San Francisco and Manila. In July 1937 tne 
"Philippine Clipper," arriving at Cavite Bay, Manila, completed the 
first 1,000,000 miles of commercial flight over the big water. At 
the end of 1937 California had 72 airports and 133 landing fields. The 
airplane has come to be taken as much for granted as were the pack 
mule, the ox-cart, the stage coach, and the wood-burning locomotive in 
their day. 


" ' ^HERE is no state in the Union, no place on earth, where labor 
is so honored and so well rewarded," David C. Broderick 

-- told the United States Senate in his maiden speech in 1858, 
"no time and place since the Almighty doomed the sons of Adam to 
toil, where the curse, if it be a curse, rests so lightly as now upon 
the people of California." 

The vigorous independence of the pioneer has persisted until present 
times as a characteristic of the State's labor movement. Of the men 
who had the hardihood to make the long westward trek in Gold 
Rush days, many were skilled workingmen from trades in which unions 
were being organized. Among the European-born immigrants were 
English Chartists, Irish nationalists, French and German political exiles 
of 1848 men schooled in the labor movement, in struggles for na- 
tional independence, or for democratic liberties. In the new-born 
camps and towns of California, they found no feudal tradition to 
influence social relationships. To people who saw men in overalls win 
or lose fortunes overnight, there was no place for concepts of the 
superiority or special privileges of the wealthy. 

The State's labor movement began in its first big city, San Fran- 
cisco, since early days the trade-union center of California and, until 
later years, of the whole region west of the Rocky Mountains. The 
second great metropolitan center, Los Angeles, remained an open-shop 
stronghold for half a century, the lower labor standards of its compet- 
ing industries threatening the gains won by labor in the north. But, 
as Los Angeles outstripped San Francisco in population, the disparity 



between labor conditions in the two cities began to diminish, for San 
Francisco trade unionists came to realize that labor in the north could 
hold its gains only with the aid of labor in the south. During the 
1930*8 the organized labor movements of both cities began to pool 
their strength in an effort to overcome the sharp contrast between 
urban and rural working conditions and attempted to organize the 
vast numbers of underprivileged migratory workers in the State's domi- 
nant industry, agriculture. 

The swift tempo of San Francisco's growth from village to metrop- 
olis characterized the development of its labor movement. The printers 
organized in 1850; teamsters, draymen, lightermen, riggers and steve- 
dores in 1851; bakers and bricklayers in 1852; calkers, carpenters, 
plasterers, brickmasons, blacksmiths, and shipwrights in 1853; and 
musicians in 1856. Although most of these organizations had to make 
several starts before they achieved stability, they gained better work- 
ing conditions for their members, kept wages balanced with the wildly 
rocketing cost of living, and launched the movement for progressive 
labor legislation. Of the labor laws pushed through in two decades, 
1850-70, by these infant labor unions, the most important were pro- 
visions for payment of wages, a mechanics' lien, and an eight-hour 
day. In no other city in the country, it is said, did so many workers 
enjoy the eight-hour day as in San Francisco during these years. 

The outstanding labor struggle of the i86o's, the molders' and 
boilermakers' strike of 1864, was conducted along lines typical of those 
spacious days. The strikers were opposed by a newly formed iron- 
works employers' association, which threatened to levy a fine of $1,000 
on the first employer to grant the strikers' demands. The association 
wired Portland, New York, Boston, and Providence for strikebreakers 
and paid their fare West. When the strikebreakers arrived at Panama, 
however, they were greeted by a delegation of representatives from the 
striking unions and the San Francisco Trades Union, the city's first 
central labor body. All arrived at San Francisco on friendly terms as 
fellow union members. 

The organization of the first effective State federated labor body, 
the Mechanics' State Council, was the labor movement's defense against 
employers' opposition to the eight-hour day. Forming the "Ten Hour 
League" (1867) to counter labor's "Eight Hour League," the employ- 
ers, following the shipowners' action in discharging all who worked 
on the eight-hour basis on the chief steamship lines, pledged themselves 
to hire no one for less than a ten-hour day. "By so doing," they 
stated, "we believe that we are working for the best interest of the 
journeymen mechanics as well as for the best interests of the city and 
state at large." The Mechanics' State Council, organized in the Los 
Angeles as well as the San Francisco area, responded by affiliating 


with the National Labor Union, America's first great national labor 

An era of comparative protection for labor came abruptly to its 
end with completion of the first transcontinental railroad in 1869. 
Labor, hard hit by the falling wages and the rising unemployment 
of the depression-ridden decade that followed, began to lay the blame 
for its misfortunes on the thousands of Chinese coolie railroad workers 
suddenly turned loose on the labor market. For the next two decades 
the campaign against the use of Chinese labor, pushed to the limit by 
politicians and demagogues, diverted the energies of the trade union 
movement. But labor's fear of being reduced to servitude was well 
founded. Still fresh in men's minds was the struggle against the efforts 
of pro-slavery officials and landowners to introduce slavery to Cali- 
fornia; this had first been brought to the fore in 1852 when railroad 
and landowning interests were prevented, by protest meetings of miners' 
and city workers, from forcing a law permitting importation of con- 
tract labor through the legislature. The anti-Chinese movement, al- 
though accompanied by racial discrimination which gave rise to out- 
breaks of brutal violence, was primarily based on economic interest. In 
ever greater numbers the Chinese were taking over work in the fields, 
in the service trades, in the light manufacturing industries~~until by 
1872 they comprised half of all the factory workers in San Francisco. 
The wages paid them were far below wages of American workers. And 
when Americans refused to have their wages lowered to the pay levels 
of the Chinese, employers threatened to hire Chinese workers instead. 
On the other hand, the builders of the Central Pacific had threatened 
to hire American workers when Chinese construction hands struck 
against $30 monthly for a 1 2-hour day (1867). 

"The Chinese Must Go!" was the slogan that carried Dennis 
Kearney, one of the most widely known figures in the early California 
labor movement, to prominence. Until he appeared on the scene in 
1877 as a saviour of the masses, he had been vociferously anti-labor. 
Joining the "law and order" group formed by nervous businessmen 
in July 1877 when rioters roamed the city denouncing Chinese and 
capitalists, he suddenly left it to lead the rioters. Refused admission 
to the Workingmen's Party of the United States, he set up in October 
1877 a rival organization, the Workingmen's Party of California. At 
Sunday afternoon meetings of workers and unemployed on vacant sand 
lots, where he delivered incendiary speeches, his favorite pose was with 
a noosed rope in his hand. This he declared was his platform. He 
was jailed for advising every man "to own a musket and a hundred 
rounds of ammunition" but was soon released. Eventually, as oppo- 
sition arose within the Workingmen's Party, an investigating committee 
charged him with being a "dictator . . . more than suspected of selling 


out to the enemy" the enemy in this case being railroad and banking 
interests. Discredited, Kearney went back to the draying business he 
had left and devoted himself to getting rich. 

The man who headed the opposition to Kearney, Frank Roney, 
remained an outstanding figure in the State's labor movement long 
after Kearney's retirement. Active as a young man in the movement 
for Irish independence, he had emigrated to the United States to be- 
come a national figure in the iron molder's union. He arrived in San 
Francisco in 1875, wrote the constitution and platform of the Work- 
ingmen's Party, and soon took his place as a leader in the labor organi- 
zation drive of the i88o's. Following the disappearance of the 
Workingmen's Party from the political scene, he was elected president 
of the Federated Trades and Labor Unions of the Pacific Coast, later 
the San Francisco Central Labor Council. To Roney was entrusted 
the job of organizing the seamen of the port of San Prancisco, twice 
previously attempted with no more than short-lived success. 

In what was known as the world's worst shanghaiing port, the 
Seamen's Protective Association, headed by Roney as president, took 
up the fight against wages so low and shipboard conditions so brutal 
that crews could be filled only by kidnapping. The association faced 
the opposition of shipowners, crimps, and underworld elements who 
preyed on sailors. During one meeting held in 1880, according to 
the union's minute book, "there were constant interruptions by the 
boarding-house sharks and their whiskey-brought bummers, going even 
so far as to throw valuable eggs, that did not have time to get the 
proper age and odor, at the agitators; but they made a bad failure, 
for the superior intelligence and calmness of the speakers entirely dis- 
comforted their enemies." The union fought for seamen's civil rights 
by preferring charges against brutal ships' officers in Federal courts. 
It won the backing of progressive San Franciscans, chief among them 
Henry George, single-tax proponent, editor of the San Francisco Post, 
and a consistent supporter of the labor movement. The fight to im- 
prove seamen's working conditions was extended into the legislative 
field when Roney drew up and presented to Congress two laws, one 
embodying the union's demand for punishment of brutal officers and 
the other specifying that two-thirds of the crew of every American 
vessel should be American citizens. The legislative struggle was later 
taken up and carried on for some thirty years by Andrew Furuseth, 
as secretary of the Sailors' Union of the Pacific and (from 1908) of 
the International Seamen's Union of America. 

As a result of the struggle against a sharp wage cut in 1885 a 
stable organization, the Coast Seamen's Union, was at last set up with 
the aid of officers of the Knights of Labor, then at the peak of its 
growth in California, and Socialists from the International Working- 


men's Association, of whom five served on the union's original advisory 
committee. The union halted the drive for wage cuts, organized 
branches at leading ports up and down the Pacific Coast, and launched 
(1887) the Coast Seamen s Journal, for years the Coast's most impor- 
tant labor paper. In 1891 the Coast Seamen's Union and the deep-sea 
steamship sailors' union dropped their jurisdictional differences and 
merged as the present Sailors' Union of the Pacific. 

Following organization of the seamen, the waterfront unions be- 
came an important factor in San Francisco's labor movement, for 
longshoremen, ship calkers, pile drivers, and other waterfront workers 
had already been organized for a period of years. Feeling a bond of 
common interest, the maritime unions made repeated efforts to achieve 
joint organization. The Wharf and Wave Federation (1888), the 
City Front Labor Council (1891), and the Waterfront Federation 
(1914-1923) were predecessors of the present Maritime Federation of 
the Pacific. 

The City Front Federation of 1901, reputed to have been the 
strongest trade federation in the country at the time, grew out of the 
intense organizational drive in all crafts that accompanied the great 
industrial boom at the turn of the century. During the two decades 
that followed its organization, the trade union movement grew at such 
a pace that San Francisco took first place among the unionized cities 
of the United States. But labor's gains were not achieved without 
opposition. To meet what they considered the threat of union domi- 
nation, employers organized on a broader and more effective basis than 
in the past. A complicated and tense situation developed, which culmi- 
nated in the building trades strike of 1900 and the City Front 
Federation strike of 1901. The successful conclusion of the building 
trades strike was followed by organization of the Building Trades 
Council, which became the most powerful factor in the labor move- 
ment. The City Front Federation strike, in which the waterfront 
unions went out in support of locked-out teamsters, was bitterly fought 
because both labor and employers knew that the question of establish- 
ing the open shop in San Francisco was at stake. Although the unions 
partially lost the strike, they checked the open-shop drive and survived. 

Out of the City Front Federation strike grew the Union Labor 
Party, supported by the San Francisco Central Labor Council because 
of its resentment over Mayor James D. Phelan's use of police to 
protect strikebreakers brought into the city. The Union Labor Party's 
candidate for mayor, Eugene Schmitz, was elected in 1902 to succeed 
Phelan. The story of how an alleged alliance of politicians, utilities, 
and vice interests won control of the party has been told by Fremont 
Older, editor of the San Francisco Bulletin, who helped lead the 
reform movement that culminated in the graft prosecutions initiated 


against Schmitz, Abraham Ruef, and a long list of municipal office- 
holders in 1906. Older's story deals, too, with the activities of Patrick 
Calhoun, political boss and United Railroads head, who, it is said, pre- 
cipitated the 1907 traction strike in an effort to halt the prosecution, by 
diverting public attention. Having aroused public indignation against 
labor, on the ground that the strike was holding up reconstruction of 
the earthquake-wrecked city, Calhoun melodramatically broke the 
strike. Those in control of the Union Labor Party had by this time 
been denounced by the San Francisco Central Labor Council in an 
emphatic statement published May 30, 1906, which said, in part: "We 
declare every corruptionist, briber and bribed, should be prosecuted and 
punished according to law and hereby pledge our cooperation to that 
end." In the end Calhoun was brought to trial, but acquitted. 

Despite the rapid growth of the labor movement in San Francisco, 
Los Angeles remained largely a non-union town. The employers of 
San Francisco had stated flatly that unless the unions acted to level 
competition with the south by organizing Los Angeles they would 
begin a new drive for open-shop conditions in the Bay area. Taking 
up the challenge, labor sent a corps of organizers south in June 1910. 
In Los Angeles the Founders and Employers Association was refusing 
to meet with union representatives of some 1,200 workers idle in a 
metal-trades lockout covering all plants in the city. The International 
Molders Union sent its national organizer, George Gunray, to aid 
the Los Angeles drive. As the organizing drive got underway, the pub- 
lic began to develop a sympathetic attitude toward unionism. 

And then occurred the disaster that for many years was to delay 
labor organization in Los Angeles. At one o'clock in the morning of 
October I, 1910, an explosion shattered the plant of the Los Angeles 
Times, owned by General Gray Otis, leader of the city's anti-union 
forces. Twenty-one of the workers in the building were killed and 
many injured. 

Intense excitement followed and while the Labor Council, investi- 
gating, announced that the explosion had been a gas explosion, the 
police, the grand jury, the Mayor's committee, civic bodies, the City 
Council, also investigating, declared that the explosion had been caused 
by dynamite. Otis offered a reward of $300,000 for the finding of 
those responsible. Three groups of detectives began the search. 

On April 14, 1911, James B. McNamara and Ortie McManigal 
were arrested in Detroit by the detective William J. Burns. Ortie 
McManigal in a confession implicated, among others, James Mc- 
Namara's brother John J. McNamara, Secretary of the International 
Association of Bridge and Structural Iron Workers' Union. J. J. 
McNamara was arrested on April 22 in Indianapolis. The Me- 


Namaras were taken to the Los Angeles jail and held; McManigal 
was taken along as prosecution witness. 

Labor, convinced of the innocence of the McNamaras, rose to their 
defense. According to Perlman and Taft (History of Labor in the 
United States 1896-1932, Volume IV) "Los Angeles was at the time 
the battlefield of several simultaneous labor wars. . . . The explosion 
in the morning of October i, 1910 . . . came as a climax in these hard 
fought battles." The American Federation of Labor raised a quarter 
of a million dollar fund, and the famous advocate, Clarence Darrow, 
was retained to defend the men. 

The trial dragged on slowly with labor still certain of the men's 
innocence engaged in a veritable crusade. But Clarence Darrow 
apparently became convinced of the great strength of the State's case. 
Through the journalist Lincoln Stefrens, he began to negotiate with 
the authorities. In retrospect, Steffens wrote in his autobiography that 
his newspaper report of the case "began by saying that both capital and 
labor had pleaded guilty, and showed that the McNamaras had made 
no confession which involved other persons but had entered into an 
agreement by which, without force, the labor problem was to be re- 
considered in the most anti-labor city in America." 

The details of the agreement made with the prosecution have re- 
mained a source of argument. According to Perlman and Taft, "The 
agreement with the prosecution stipulated that both brothers would 
plead guilty, and that J. B. McNamara would receive life imprison- 
ment but John J. McNamara a less severe sentence, and that all other 
prosecutions would be dropped." Influential people of Los Angeles 
and the court officers were won over, and so finally were the Mc- 
Namaras. On December i, 1911, Attorney Darrow rose in court and 
stated that his clients wished to change their plea from "not guilty" to 
"guilty as charged." Four days later James B. McNamara was 
sentenced to life imprisonment and John J. McNamara to a term of 
15 years. In passing sentence the judge verbally castigated the men: 
which action, it is alleged, was against the agreement. Later that part 
of the stipulation concerned with the prosecution of others was also 

The decade that followed saw a rapid growth in the influence on 
California's labor movement of the Industrial Workers of the World, 
central organizing agency in Northwest logging camps and Midwest 
wheat fields, as it began extending its work to the mines, lumber camps, 
ports, and agricultural areas of the State. It came into prominence in 
California at the time of the Wheatland hop field riots of 1913, which 
brought before the Nation for the first time the intolerable conditions 
of field labor in the State and prompted an investigation leading to 
the first Government action in cleaning up these conditions. The 


situation that prompted the riots at the Wheatland hop ranch, said 
to belong to the State's largest single employer of field labor at the 
time, was later described by Carleton W. Parker, executive secretary 
of the State Commission of Immigration and Housing: "Twenty-eight 
hundred pickers were camped on a .treeless hill . . . Some were in 
tents, some in topless squares of sacking . . . there was no provision 
for sanitation, no garbage disposal. The temperature during the week 
of the riot remained near 105 degrees, and though the wells were a 
mile from where the men, women and children were picking ... no 
water was sent into the fields ... It developed in the state investiga- 
tion that the owner of the ranch received half of the net profit earned 
by an alleged independent grocery store, which had been given the 
grocery concession and was located in the center of the camp grounds." 
The overcrowding of the camp was found to have been aggravated by 
the fact that the ranch owner had followed the common practice of 
advertising for tw r ice the necessary number of pickers in order to keep 
down wage levels. In the rioting that began when a sheriff's posse 
broke up a protest meeting, four were killed. A week after the riot, 
the first act regulating California labor camps went into effect. 

The I. W. W. continued to play an important part in the labor 
movement until the early post-war period. Among the causes con- 
tributing to its decline were the anti-union drive and the prosecution 
of many of its members under the State's newly passed criminal syn- 
dicalism laws. Its last important appearance in the State was in the 
1923 seamen's strike at San Pedro, when Upton Sinclair was arrested 
for publicly reading the Declaration of Independence. 

A prominent defender of the two I. W. W. leaders, Richard Ford 
and Herman Suhr, who were arrested in the Wheatland disturbance 
and convicted after a long-fought trial, was a young Irish member of 
the molders' union, Thomas Mooney. The leading part that he played 
in the electrical workers' strike of 1913 and in the attempted organi- 
zation of United Railroads workers in 1916 also brought him to the 
fore in northern California as an aggressive trade unionist. He was 
a leading member of the group that began preparing a new organiza- 
tional drive in southern California to counter a new open-shop campaign 
in the north organized by employers. As such he came particularly to 
the attention of the ''law and order" committee formed by the San 
Francisco Chamber of Commerce to promote adoption of an anti- 
picketing ordinance. 

The newspaper files of the period reveal the combination of anti- 
union and wartime preparedness propaganda in an attempt to label as 
disloyal labor's determination to maintain its organizational lines. In 
the tense atmosphere of the growing struggle a bomb exploded, killing 
ten persons, on the route of the Preparedness Day parade staged in San 


Francisco July 22, 1916. Among those arrested were Mooney, his 
wife Rena, and his friend, Warren K. Billings. Found guilty, Mooney 
was sentenced to be hanged and Billings to life imprisonment. After 
world-wide protests, Governor William D. Stephens, at the behest of 
President Woodrow Wilson, commuted Mooney's sentence to life im- 
prisonment in November 1918. 

The case soon became one of the most celebrated labor controversies 
of modern times. In the course of repeated State hearings and Federal 
inquiries, a picture of corruption was revealed that strengthened the 
conviction held by many people that the case had been a frame-up. 
On the basis of new evidence soon uncovered, and of confessions and 
other evidence exposing the perjury of key prosecution witnesses, the 
jurors who found Mooney guilty and the judge who sentenced him 
publicly reversed their positions. As the years went by, more and 
more evidence indicating Mooney's innocence came to light. In August 
1928 every living person connected with the prosecution, except Dis- 
trict Attorney Charles Fickert and an assistant, recommended Mooney's 
pardon. The trial judge, Judge Griffin, declared in a public address 
in February 1929: "The Mooney case is one of the dirtiest jobs ever 
put over and I resent the fact that my court was used for such a con- 
temptible piece of work." But for 22 years, Mooney remained in 
San Quentin penitentiary while successive Governors resisted appeals 
for a pardon. Throughout these years the case was carried through 
State and Federal Courts as Mooney's defense attorneys asked for a 
review of new evidence and opening of a new trial. Finally in Octo- 
ber 1938, after lengthy hearings in San Francisco before a referee, the 
United States Supreme Court, passing on the case a second time, found 
itself compelled on legal grounds to deny a requested review of the 
case. A month later Culbert L. Olson, who had expressed his firm 
belief in Mooney's innocence while still a State senator, was elected 
Governor of California. One of his first steps on taking office in 
January 1939 was to issue an unconditional pardon. 

In the meantime the wartime anti-union campaign had driven ahead 
to success, initiating a period of open-shop domination that lasted 
throughout the 1920*8. It reached its climax in 1921, when the newly 
formed Industrial Association of San Francisco raised a war chest of 
$1,250,000 to break the building trades strike of that year. With the 
collapse of the building trades unions, too weakened to resist when 
the Industrial Association's wage board cut wages twice within a year, 
the strongest single force in the labor movement of that period was 
rendered helpless. At about the same time, the Metal Trades Council 
was defeated, losing agreements it had held with the employers since 
1907. The seamen's unions, too, went down to defeat in 1921. The 
loss of the dock strike of 1919, called in protest against alleged en- 


dangerment of life and limb by speed-up and excessive loads, had 
already caused the collapse of the riggers' and stevedores' union. In 
the succeeding decade, the "American Plan," substituting individual 
for collective bargaining, prevailed throughout the State. 

The resurgence of the labor movement following enactment of the 
National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933 was marked especially by 
the outburst of latent protest against long-standing grievances on San 
Francisco's waterfront. The conditions that prompted the 1919 strike 
had continued under the agreement signed in December 1919 between 
the Waterfront Employers' Association and the Longshoremen's Asso- 
ciation of the Pacific, organized by longshore gang bosses, which long- 
shoremen designated a "company" union, calling it the Blue Book 
Union (for the color of the membership book) ; the agreement made 
every dock worker who refused to join ineligible for employment. An- 
other basic grievance was the "shape-up" system of hiring from the 
docks, which longshoremen claimed forced them to wait without com- 
pensation for hours at a time, fostered corrupt control of employment 
by hiring agents from whom men had to buy their jobs, and resulted 
in some men working 24 and 36 hours and longer without sleep, while 
others starved for lack of work. As a leader in protests against abuses, 
the lanky young Australian, Harry Bridges, who had been working 
on the docks ever since he had come ashore as a sailor 12 years before, 
was coming to the fore; among longshoremen he was known as "Limo 
Harry," a first-class winch driver and a man who stood up for his 
rights. Within a few weeks after a charter had been secured from 
the International Longshoremen's Association in September 1933, about 
90 per cent of the men on the front had joined the new union. At a 
coastwise convention held in the spring of 1934, the longshoremen for- 
mulated demands to correct the abuses on the docks. When hear- 
ings led to no definite result, they took a strike vote on March 7. 
The seamen's unions, likewise showing a new vitality, had also been 
refused when they presented demands to the shipowners. On May 15, 
1934, tne y voted to join the strike; and the ship clerks and licensed 
officers' organizations followed suit. 

The killing of two waterfront picketers and the clubbing and gas- 
sing of a hundred others by police on Thursday, July 5, 1934 after- 
wards known as "Bloody Thursday" was the incident that swept 
nearly every union in the Bay area into the second important general 
strike up to that time in the Nation's history. From July 17 to July 19 
stores closed, shops and factories shut down, and trucks and street cars 
stopped running in San Francisco as 127,000 workers left their jobs. 
The strike aroused the emphatically expressed opposition of many news- 
papers, individuals, and organizations throughout the Nation. The 
NRA Administrator, General Hugh S. Johnson, appeared on the scene 


to denounce it in a public address. On July 20 the strikers began 
returning to their jobs. The waterfront unions, however, after media- 
tion of the dispute, won agreements with the shipowners which still 
serve as the basis of labor relations in the maritime industry. They 
were enabled to organize in 1935 the Maritime Federation of the 
Pacific, first attempt to apply the principle of joint organization on a 
coastwise basis. It now has 28,000 members, drawn from A. F. of L. 
and C. I. O. unions, and from unions in Canada and the Hawaiian 
Islands. The strong public feeling aroused by the general strike soon 
subsided, but not the opposition to one of its leaders, Bridges, long- 
shoremen's president and later C. I .O. Pacific Coast director. It was 
still being expressed four years later in a controversy involving the 
United States Secretary of Labor over his right (since he had not yet 
been naturalized) to remain in the country. 

As the labor movement began to advance again after its long period 
of decline, the unions weakened in 1919-21 gained renewed strength, 
while new unions staged intensive drives in industries never before 
organized. San Francisco and Oakland recovered more than their old 
union strength; organization extended into Los Angeles from its port 
at San Pedro; it reached even into the inland valleys where the labor 
movement had never before made headway. Throughout the I93o's 
the labor movement has continued to make steady gains. 

In union-minded San Francisco, more than 120,000 of whose in- 
habitants belong to labor unions, the principle of collective bargaining 
has come to be accepted as a matter of fact. In the neighborhood of 
the port, where the outward signs of the labor movement's flourishing 
condition are most apparent, longshoremen swing along the streets with 
union buttons conspicuously displayed on their white (union-made) 
caps. Big Irish teamsters driving their trucks down to the docks wear 
union buttons; so do the Italian fishermen, the taxi drivers, streetcar 
conductors and motormen, newsboys and bootblacks. Almost every 
restaurant, bar, barber shop, drug store, and laundry displays a union 
sign. The A. F. of L. unions are strong among teamsters, streetcar 
employees, and workers in the building trades and service industries, 
including retail store clerks, hotel employees, and others; the C. I. O. 
unions, among longshoremen, warehousemen, newspapermen, and 
smelter and tunnel workers. In recognition of labor's strength, em- 
ployers have organized in distributors', waterfront employers', hotel 
owners', and other associations covering all the major industries. A 
San Francisco Employer's Council, organized in 1938, announced a 
desire for more cooperative relations with labor. A development of 
the same year, tried out with much success during a warehousemen's 
lockout, was the town meeting, at which employers and union leaders 
presented their respective sides of the dispute before a public audience. 


As against 30,000 trade union members in 1933-34, Los Angeles 
today has 200,000. The trade union movement had advanced despite 
the continued open-shop stand of employers, who in 1938 pushed 
through a drastic anti-picketing ordinance. Although a number of 
industries remain largely unorganized, the disparity between labor con- 
ditions in the State's two larger cities no longer exists. A basic factor 
in bringing about this change was the rapid growth of unionization in 
such mass production industries as aircraft, auto, rubber, and oil. In- 
tensive organizational drives have been staged among musicians, team- 
sters, workers in the building trades, and in the motion-picture and 
other industries. The almost complete organization of all trades in 
the harbor district, San Pedro, has given the city's growing labor move- 
ment solid backing. A force to be reckoned with has been the rise of 
unions in the motion-picture industry, which number (1939) some 
12,000 members. To the surprise of many who believed that movie 
people would never step out of their make-believe world, screen actors, 
writers, and directors have come forward as topnotch trade union 

The most important downward pull on California's labor standards 
is exerted today by the rural areas, where some 200,000 almost com- 
pletely unorganized agricultural workers, mostly homeless migrants, 
live and work under conditions generally recognized as sub-standard. 
Of these nomadic workers, the majority are refugees from the Dust 
Bowl area, although Mexicans work in the citrus groves of the 
south and the sugar-beet fields of the north and Filipinos and Japanese 
in the asparagus and celery fields of the Sacramento-San Joaquin delta 
region. Just as labor's weakness in the south once threatened its gains 
in the north, so now its weakness in the rural areas threatens its gains 
in the cities. The sharp divergence between urban and rural labor 
standards has begun to worry city unionists especially because of the 
dominant position in the State's economy of its highly mechanized 
agriculture, which provides most of the freight handled by both rail 
and water and a large proportion of the raw material processed by 
manufacturing plants. 

The sharpest conflicts since the revival of the West Coast labor 
movement in 1933-34 have developed out of what employers have 
termed the "inland march" of city trade unions. To meet it, the 
forces opposing unionism have systematized and extended their organi- 
zation. Led by the Associated Farmers, Inc., representing the corpora- 
tive farm interests of the State, they have induced a number of the 
valley towns to adopt anti-picketing ordinances. The Farmers' Trans- 
portation Association of Southern California, organized in 1938 in 
nine southern counties under the auspices of the Associated Farmers, 
has announced its intention to maintain "the right of every man to 


work without being coerced into joining or not joining a union" ; it 
issues licenses to truck drivers, after questioning them on union affilia- 
tion, only when they have pledged to pick up and deliver cargoes un- 
der all circumstances except when prevented by "acts of God." 

Labor's "inland march" has been blocked increasingly often during 
the last decade, in rural and company towns where trade unions lack 
the support of public opinion which they have won in the cities, by 
the activities of vigilante organizations that have helped themselves to 
the name of groups organized for different purposes in the pioneer 
period. In the 1933-34 wave of agricultural strikes, vigilante methods 
were invoked to break the Imperial Valley lettuce strike and the San 
Joaquin Valley cotton strike, largest strike of field workers in Cali- 
fornia history. In the 1936 Salinas lettuce strike, vigilantism attained 
proportions that shocked public opinion in the State and Nation. Again 
in the spring of 1937 vigilante methods were used to break the Stock- 
ton cannery strike. In April 1938 about 300 men, women, and chil- 
dren (members of the International Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers 
Union) were driven by vigilante raids from their homes in Grass Val- 
ley and Nevada City, site of the country's second largest gold mine. 
Under police escort they returned to their homes, reopened their union 
hall, and carried on. 

When anti-union forces undertook an intensive campaign to secure 
adoption of a State-wide anti-picketing law at the polls in 1938, labor 
unions both A. F. of L. and C. I. O. saw their common danger, 
recognizing the campaign as the prelude to a general open-shop drive, 
and united to defeat it. The proposed law, known as Proposition 
No. One, was considered by many groups to be more stringent than 
any similar act since the anti-conspiracy laws of Colonial days. Com- 
mented the official publication of the California State Grange: "Said 
by its proponents to be needed legislation for industrial peace, this 
initiative proposition would really take away the constitutional rights 
of labor; it is dangerous because the layman does not recognize the 
fascistic provisions hidden within the proposal." Proposition No. One 
became the central issue in the campaign preceding the November elec- 
tions. A. F. of L. and C. I. O. unions, central labor bodies, maritime 
workers, teamsters, steelworkers, newspapermen, carpenters, tunnel 
miners, movie stars, railwaymen, and clergymen joined in a successful 
counter-campaign which defeated the measure. 

Out of the cooperation of A. F. of L. and C. I. O. unions in this 
campaign, strengthened by the victory in the elections of candidates for 
public office endorsed by both, grew a movement for unity of the labor 
movement's two wings. In Stockton and in Sacramento, joint labor 
committees formed by A. F. of L. and C. I. O. locals continued to 


Another influence promoting the unification of the labor movement 
has been the gradual disappearance of the racial discrimination that once 
characterized it. The anti-Chinese and anti-Japanese agitation that 
kept American and Oriental workers apart has largely vanished. Today 
the International Ladies Garment Workers Union, the retail clerks', 
culinary, and other A. F. of L. unions, and all the C. I. O. unions admit 
Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino workers to membership with full 
rights, including eligibility to hold office. The hostility once directed 
against Chinese, Japanese, or Mexican workers is more apt to be 
directed now against native-born Dust Bowl refugees when attempts 
are made to use their labor at wage rates that endanger general 
California standards. 

Organized labor in California shows a growing tendency to welcome 
the help of technical experts in dealing with the complex problems of 
negotiation with employers, arbitration cases, and presenting the union 
point of view to the public. Notable in this field is the work of the 
Pacific Coast Labor Bureau, a non-profit service organization specializ- 
ing in economic counsel to labor unions. It has headquarters in San 
Francisco and branches in other West Coast cities. The bureau repre- 
sents A. F. of L., C. I. O., Railroad Brotherhood, and bona fide inde- 
pendent unions. 

The extension of labor's activities to the political field has enabled 
it to report many legislative gains. California has an old-age assistance 
law, an unemployment compensation act, a 48-hour maximum work 
week law for women workers, and an apprentice law (recently passed). 
The State protects workmen suffering from occupational diseases. In 
order to protect and supplement such legislation, unions have begun to 
participate in politics to an increasing extent. 

Press and Radio 

'"""ir^RUE with his rifle, ready with his pen, and quick at the type 
case" thus Walter Colton, American alcalde at Monterey, 

J- described California's pioneer journalist, Dr. Robert Semple, 
a buckskin-clad Kentucky emigrant, who stood 6 feet 8 inches in his 
stockings. On August 15, 1846, only a month after the American flag 
was raised at Monterey, Semple and Colton printed news of the United 
States' declaration of war on Mexico in the Calif ornian, the first news- 
paper published within the State. "A crowd was waiting when the 
first sheet was thrown from the press," wrote Colton. "Never was 
a bank run upon harder; not, however, by people with paper to get 
specie, but exactly the reverse." For twelve and a half cents the cus- 
tomers got a single sheet a little larger than foolscap, printed half in 
English and half in Spanish. 

A wooden, hand-operated Ramage press ran off this first issue. 
It had been manufactured in New York about 1800, shipped to 
Mexico City for use in the Mexican government printing office, and 
packed on mule-back to Monterey about 1834. Colton described the 
equipment as "old enough to be preserved as a curiosity; the mice had 
burrowed in the balls, there were no rules, no leads, and the types were 
rusty and all in pie." When he and Semple had cleaned the type, 
cut rules and leads out of a sheet of tin with a jack-knife, and hunted 
up part of a keg of ink, they were still faced by their worst problem 
lack of paper. All that could be found was a small supply of the 
coarse stuff used to wrap cigarettes on board a coastwise sailing ship. 
It had to serve. 



The Californian, after appearing intermittently for nearly a year, 
was moved, old press and all, to San Francisco. There, on May 22, 
1847, the paper reappeared in competition with San Francisco's first 
journal, the weekly California Star, which the Mormon pioneer, Samuel 
Brannan, had established on January 9 of the same year. 

Neither paper displayed any interest in what was perhaps the biggest 
news story in California history James Marshall's discovery of gold 
at Coloma. "Great chances here for scientific capitalists," wrote Dr. 
Robert Semple in the Calif ornian of March 15, 1848, seven weeks 
after the event, in a 67-word paragraph which chilled any possible 
excitement. Although the rival Star occasionally devoted its columns 
to unenthusiastic and somewhat technical discussions of gold during the 
next few weeks, it was word-of-mouth rumors of prospectors having 
"struck it rich" that convinced San Francisco's unscientific non-capital- 
ists that Marshall's discovery might concern them too. 

"All sham a superb (sic) take-in, as was ever got up to guzzle 
the gullible," wrote the Star's acting editor, E. C. Kemble, on his 
return from a trip to the mines in April. Unluckily for Kemble, his 
boss, Sam Brannon, who had also gone out to investigate, appeared one 
day on Portsmouth Square flourishing a whisky flask full of gold dust 
and shouting, "Gold! Gold from the American Fork!" Even the 
most apathetic citizens were so fired by Brannan's dramatic proclama- 
tion that hundreds followed him back to the mine. 

Before the stampede of readers and even printers San Francisco's 
two infant newspapers were helpless. The Calif ornian suspended pub- 
lication May 29. Two days earlier the Star had urged its readers: 
"Pay up before you go everybody knows where. Papers can be for- 
warded to Sutter's Fort with all regularity. But pay the printer, if 
you please, all you in arrears." On June 4 it, too, ceased publication, 
and again California was without a single newspaper. 

The gold rush, however, far from stifling journalism, fostered its 
growth. By August 1848 the Calif ornian had resumed its career. It 
was bought the following month, together with the Star, by Kemble, 
who merged the two papers into one which he introduced November 
1 8, 1848, as the Star and Calif ornian, soon to be renamed the Alia 
Calif ornian. So rapid was its growth that two years later it became a 
daily, and soon its publishers were printing it on a steam press. Enlist- 
ing the services of Mark Twain as a contributor and Bret Harte as 
an editor, it became and for more than a generation continued to be 
one of California's leading papers. 

Meanwhile the creaking old Ramage press which had printed the 
original Californian had continued on its travels. Together with an 
assortment of old type and a lot of Spanish foolscap, it was shipped 
by Kemble up the Sacramento River to the settlement of New Helvetia 


(now Sacramento). It was set up in a makeshift office of adobe, wood, 
and cotton cloth, and on April 28, 1849 ran off the first weekly 
issue of the Placer Times, the Sacramento Valley's pioneer paper. 
Kemble soon lost his monopoly of the Sacramento news market, for 
on April I, 1850 the Sacramento Transcript appeared and on August 3 
of the same year the Settler's and Miner s Tribune. After a two- 
months championship of the Squatter's Association, however, the 
Tribune was buried in Sacramento's newspaper graveyard, the first 
of some 70 or 80 short-lived papers which started and discontinued 
publication during a period of 30 years. 

Still farther into the interior, the pioneer Ramage press was packed 
to continue its newspaper-founding exploits. On July 4, 1850 it printed 
the Mother Lode's first paper, the Sonora Herald. It went on running 
off news of fights and gold until the fall of 1851, when it was moved to 
Columbia to print the Columbia Star. In most of the larger mining 
towns, newspapers were soon flourishing. Within ten years after the 
discovery of gold, Jackson and Marysville each had seven papers; 
Columbia, five; and Sonora, Mariposa, and San Andreas, three. Nor 
did all these die with the gold rush. Auburn's Placer Herald has been 
issued ever since 1852, and Downieville's Mountain Messenger since 


Even in the sun-baked adobe village of Los Angeles, newspapers 
were making a place for themselves. The first paper was run off May 
17, 1851 on a hand press brought around the Horn in a windjammer. 
This was the Los Angeles Star or La Estrella de Los Angeles, a four- 
page weekly, printed half in Spanish and half in English. So isolated 
was the sleepy pueblo that the Star's news, which often appeared as 
late as six weeks after the event, was news to nobody when it finally 
saw print. The uncertainties of waiting for the mail once delivered 
as late as 52 days after leaving San Francisco so disgusted the editor 
that eventually he gave up his job. The publishers of the Southern 
Calif ornian, founded July 20, 1854, inherited an old font of Spanish 
type. They struggled along with it, substituting two "V's" for the 
missing letter "W" until a sailor who had heard of their hardships 
strolled in one day with news of a fine font of English type which he 
had seen in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaiian Islands). Overjoyed, 
they solved their difficulties by sending for it. An all-Spanish paper, 
El Clamor Publico, began competing for the Spanish-speaking readers 
in June 1855. 

San Diego, too, was by this time reading its pioneer paper, the 
Herald, established in May 1851. Many a chuckle must have escaped 
its subscribers when they read the writings of "John Phoenix," as the 
irrepressible wag and practical joker, Lieut. George H. Derby, called 
himself. This young Army officer, assigned to the job of diverting 


the San Diego River, which was silting up the bay, found San Diego 
such a dreary hamlet that he began writing for the Herald to relieve 
his boredom. Derby perpetrated his most famous exploit when the 
paper's editor, confident of the victory of the Democratic ticket he 
had been supporting, entrusted Derby with the management of the 
paper while he spent a fortnight in San Francisco. "John Phoenix" 
promptly reversed the Herald's politics. Not content with attacking 
all the candidates his editor had been boosting, he eloquently sang the 
virtues of the rival Whigs. His counter-campaign was so effective that 
the Whigs carried the election in San Diego County by a four-to-three 
majority although the Democrats managed to carry the State. 

Within eight years of the Calif ornians first appearance, 57 news- 
papers and periodicals within the State were serving an average total 
of 290,000 readers. The dreams of sudden riches, with which the 
gold rush had fired men's minds everywhere had transformed Cali- 
fornia into one of the most important news markets of the world. Now, 
as the scramble to lay hands on her wealth bred graft and political 
skulduggery, many of California's newly-born papers became the mouth- 
pieces of the law-and-order citizenry and took the lead in crusades 
against corruption. Their editors needed courage, for in those turbulent 
days the Colt revolver was deemed mightier than the pen. 

Into the turmoil of San Francisco's early political strife stepped the 
most influential of the fighting editors, James King of William, who 
used that signature to distinguish himself from another James King. 
On October 8, 1855, he published the first number of his Daily Evening 
Bulletin. He found much to attack, for San Francisco, after the spas- 
modic outburst of indignation which brought into being the Viligance 
Committee of 1851, had slipped back into lawlessness. King's editorials 
slashed mercilessly at the unholy coalition of grafting officials, financial 
magnates, and gang leaders who were swindling the people through 
political power. These were the forces, as King soon pointed out in 
his stinging attacks, that maintained a reign of terror, encouraging 
robbery and murder, in order to continue stuffing ballot boxes, fixing 
the courts, and plundering the treasury. Not hesitating to print names, 
King boldly exposed a rogue's gallery of public enemies in high places. 
Within a year the Bulletin had out-stripped all other papers in the city, 
winning recognition as the foremost champion of the people's right. 

The Bulletin charged, on May 14, 1856, that political boss James P. 
Casey was an ex-inmate of Sing Sing prison who "had stuffed himself 
through the ballot box ... to the board of supervisors." On the after- 
noon of the same day, Casey shot and mortally wounded King. With- 
out hesitation Casey gave himself up at the police station, confident that 
his friends would protect him. As King lingered between life and 
death, a second Vigilance Committee, led by some of the active members 


of the original committee of 1851, was formed. When King died on 
May 20, the vigilantes brought both Cora, a notorious character, and 
Casey before them for trial, found them guilty, and hanged them both 
at "Fort Gunnybags," the vigilantes' headquarters. Two days later 
King's funeral procession marched by the spot where the bodies were 

San Francisco's other papers were forced to take their stand on 
the most burning issue of the day. The Alia Calif ornians owners 
tossed a half-dollar to decide whether or not to support the Vigilance 
Committee of 1856. The committee won. When the Herald decided 
to oppose the vigilantes, the merchants boycotted it and switched their 
advertisements to the Alia Calif ornian. As a result, the Herald dwin- 
dled and died. A new paper which stood for the people's rights took 
over some of its readers the Morning Call, first published December I, 
1856, by the Associated Practical Printers, a craftsmen's co-operative. 
Of all the San Francisco papers then published, the Call-Bulletin, a 
merger of the Call and James King of William's Bulletin, is the only 
one still appearing. 

As vigilante activity in the north steadily drove gangsters and 
political crooks southward, Los Angeles editors soon found themselves 
confronted with problems long familiar to their San Francisco col- 
leagues. In the face of the most gruesome local disorders, the Los 
Angeles newspapermen displayed an astonishing air of sang-froid. The 
Los Angeles Star in 1855 even published an account of a lynching before 
the lynching happened. Because he wanted to put the paper aboard 
the San Francisco steamer at 10 a.m., hours before the affair was 
scheduled, a young printer-reporter proceeded to write up a first-class 
lynching even including the condemned man's "confession" on the 

Since there were 40 "legal" hangings and 37 impromptu ones in 
Los Angeles between 1850 and 1870, newspapers became adept at 
handling crime news. The following is typical of their reporting 
style: "With the exception of a little legitimate shooting affair last 
Saturday night, by which some fellow had well-nigh the top of his 
head knocked off, and one or two knock-downs and drag-outs, we have 
had a very peaceful week indeed. Nothing has occurred to disturb 
the even tenor of our way, and our good people seem to be given up 
to the quiet enjoyment of delicious fruits and our unequalled climate, 
each one literally under his own vine and fig tree, reveling in fancy's 
flights, or luxuriating among the good things he finds temptingly at 

While metropolitan editors were dealing with lawlessness and cor- 
ruption in the cities, one of California's best known papers was leading 
the struggles of the Sacramento Valley farmers. The Sacramento Bee, 


founded February 3, 1857, took up the cudgels against land monopoly 
under the editorship of James McClatchy. When the cattle interests 
were still powerful, the Bee began agitating for legislation to protect 
farms against injury from cattle and it won the fight. Though it 
seemed hopeless to oppose the rich and influential mining interests, the 
Bee began educating the people of the Sacramento Valley to fight for 
defense of the farming lands against threatened ruin by hydraulic 
mining debris, a struggle that ended with victory for the farmers in 
the courts. 

Of the important metropolitan dailies published in California today, 
most were founded in the two decades beginning with the Civil War 
era. The pro-Confederate Democratic Press of San Francisco, estab- 
lished in 1863, was so violently "secesh" in its sentiments that indignant 
Unionists wrecked its plant and threw its type out the window follow- 
ing the assassination of President Lincoln. In order to resume pub- 
lication with safety on June 12, 1865, it had to change its name to the 
Daily Examiner. The first paper in San Francisco to publish the 
news of the assassination had made its debut only three months earlier 
as a small sheet called the Dramatic Chronicle, "A Daily Record of 
Affairs Local, Critical and Theatrical," written, printed, and dis- 
tributed by two youths of 19 and 17, Charles and M. H. de Young. 
Soon shedding the word "Dramatic," the Chronicle appeared as a 
daily after 1868. 

Los Angeles' oldest newspaper in point of continuous publication 
made its first appearance in 1871, when a group of five printers founded 
the Evening Express. Four years later it passed into the hands of the 
pioneer publisher, Colonel James M. Ayers, one of the founders of 
the Calaveras Chronicle. The rival Daily and Weekly Herald, now 
combined wifh the Express as the Herald-Express, appeared in 1872; 
and this was followed in 1873 by the four-page Weekly Mirror, which 
was distributed free. The Daily Times made its first appearance in 
1 88 1, and within a month was taken over by the Mirror's publishers, 
who printed it on a ramshackle press run by water power from the 
city zanja (ditch). Whenever the pipes became clogged by fish, as 
occasionally happened, the press had to be stopped. In August 1882 
a newcomer to Los Angeles, Colonel (later General) Harrison Gray 
Otis, ex-editor of the Grand Army Journal, took over the management 
of both the Mirror and the Times, put his wife to work as a reporter 
and his daughters as clerks in the business office, and soon afterward 
merged the two papers to found the Los Angeles Times. The day 
after his arrival in Los Angeles in 1884, Charles F. Lummis, who had 
made a 3,507-mile walking trip from Cincinnati in 143 days, con- 
tributing breezy letters to the Times en route, was appointed city editor. 

The era of modern journalism in California was inaugurated in 


1887 when young William Randolph Hearst took over his father's 
chaste and ultra-conservative San Francisco Daily Examiner, installed 
some of his college classmates on the staff, and began to publish Cali- 
fornia's first eight-page daily. Introducing to the Pacific Coast the 
"human interest" style popularized by Joseph Pulitzer's World, the 
Examiner provided its readers with sensational news of strikes, legis- 
lative scandal, hospital abuses, jury briberies. Its reporters were as- 
signed to such spectacular stunts as testing the ferryboats' life-saving 
devices; one of them "fell" overboard, while others stood by with stop 
watches to time the rescue. Circulation boomed, and the Examiner 
became the nucleus of a Nation-wide chain, which today includes in 
California the San Francisco Call-Bulletin, the Los Angeles Examiner 
and Herald-Express, and the Oakland Post-Enquirer. 

The fighting traditions of James King of William seemed to be 
reviving when Fremont Older, whom Oswald Garrison Villard called 
"one of the two first-rate journalists of the Pacific Slope," became 
editor of the San Francisco Bulletin in 1895. Entering vigorously into 
the struggle to oust the all-powerful Southern Pacific Railroad Co. 
from political control of the State, Older became one of the star figures 
along with his famous fellow-Californian, Lincoln Steffens of the 
muckraking era. In 1906 he joined the campaign to expose the graft 
ring headed by Mayor Eugene E. Schmitz and political boss Abraham 
Ruef which ruled from the City Hall. At the height of the campaign, 
when most of the other newspapers were attacking the graft prosecution 
with bitter invective, Older waged his fight so aggressively in the 
Bulletin that his enemies kidnaped him and carried him to Santa 
Barbara. A decade later, when he became convinced that District At- 
torney Fickert had used perjured evidence to convict Thomas J. 
Mooney and Warren K. Billings of the Preparedness Day bombing in 
1916, Older published an extra edition of the Bulletin with the head- 
the first time that the charge had been made by any disinterested person. 

In 1909 the Los Angeles Herald began a reform crusade with a 
series of red-bordered articles entitled "Is Vice Protected in Los 
Angeles?" The movement thus initiated, which was soon joined by 
the Los Angeles Evening Express, the Fresno Republican, the Sacra- 
mento Bee, and the Oakland Tribune, strengthened a political re- 
volt leading to formation of the anti-monopolist Lincoln-Roosevelt 
League. But in Los Angeles the crusade was suddenly swept into the 
background by the dynamiting of the Times building, on October I, 
1910. J. B. McNamara, secretary of the Structural Bridge and Iron 
Workers, and his brother were arrested and tried in a long-drawn-out 
court case which ended in the McNamaras' sudden and unexpected 
plea of guilty. 


Although labor disavowed violence, Governor James N. Gillett 
said, "Whether guilty or not, labor unionists will have to be blamed 
for the crime until it is shown they are not guilty." The San Fran- 
cisco Daily News vehemently sprang to the defense of the unions. This 
little four-page penny paper was started in 1903 in a shabby wooden 
house "south of the slot." The equipment was of the humblest a 
few old chairs and tables, a decrepit linotype machine, and a press 
purchased from a Chinese newspaper. From the start it was a working- 
man's paper, costing but 25 cents a month. The guiding principle of 
the editor, William Wasson, to "cut every item to the bone but increase 
the number of items," made the writing admirably succinct. Greatly 
expanded, it became in 1921 a part of the Scripps-Howard national 
chain, and is now called the News. The Scripps-Howard group in 
California also includes the San Diego Sun. 

Since the appearance of the News, most California papers have 
tended towards increasing conservatism in editorial policy. The People's 
World, youngest of California's 141 English-language dailies, alone 
carries on the militant traditions in editorial policy once followed by 
such papers as the San Francisco Bulletin and News and the Sacramento 
Bee. It was founded in San Francisco on January i, 1938, and at the 
end of its first year it was reaching some 15,000 subscribers. The 
first left-wing daily newspaper to be published in the West, it bears 
on its masthead the slogan: "For Security, Democracy, Peace." 

Since the earliest days of statehood, many of California's racial 
minorities have published their own papers. The oldest Negro news- 
paper still published in the State, the California Eagle, has been ap- 
pearing in Los Angeles since 1879: there are at present eight other 
Negro papers. The first French journals, the Calif ornien (1850) and 
the Gazette Republicaine (1850), were followed by the Courrier du 
Pacifique (1852), which is still published today. Both the first German 
and the first Italian paper, the California Demokrat (1852) and the 
Voce del Popolo (1859), were founded in San Francisco and are still 
appearing. San Francisco's Chinese published the first of many news- 
papers, the Gold Hills News, in 1854; today (i939) they are publish- 
ing five. California's foreign-language journals of today, of which 
15 are dailies, include publications in Spanish, Japanese, Swedish, 
Russian, Greek, and other languages. 



The first California radio station to broadcast the human voice, 
KQW of San Jose, was pioneering for the world, as well as for Cali- 
fornia, when it initiated in 1912 regular broadcasts of speech and 
music. KQW, operated by the Herrold Wireless Laboratories, had 
begun its experiments in 1909, broadcasting from a "carpet" antenna 
11,000 feet of wire strung between two seven-story office build- 
ings connected with a crude arc transmitter. Three years later it 
again took the lead in the use of radio as an entertainment medium, 
when it began sending out the songs and ukelele tunes of two high 
school boys, Al and Clarence Pearce. The Government license granted 
KQW in 1912 was reputedly the first to be issued for actual radio 
telephony. More than a quarter of a century later, in 1938, the station 
was still on the air as was one of its first "stars," Al Pearce. 

KQW was also a pioneer in developing the mechanics of radio. 
Dr. Charles D. Herrold's arc transmitter, the first improvement made 
on Marconi's equipment, was too high-powered for any microphone 
then in use ; so Herrold constructed a microphone by hooking six tele- 
phone transmitter units to a single diaphragm. Using the antenna at 
Mare Island near San Francisco, Herrold's transmitter established in 
1913 what was at the time a world's record for long-distance radio 
transmission, when its broadcast was tuned in by the army transport 
Sherman, 950 miles at sea. In the same year two-way communication 
over a distance of 250 miles was established between Mare Island and 
Point Arguello. Visitors to the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San 
Francisco in 1915 were thrilled at listening through ear phones to music 
broadcast by KQW from San Jose. Soon afterward, this station estab- 
lished two-way communication with KDN in San Francisco and opened 
a studio for the reception of daily concerts broadcast from the Fairmont 
Hotel the first such receiving studio in the world. 

Californians have been contributing their share of radio inventions 
ever since the days when crystal detectors and loose-coupler tuners com- 
prised radio receiving equipment. The so-called "Father of Radio," 
Dr. Lee de Forest, began experimenting in 1912, at his laboratory in 
Palo Alto, with Audion tube "cascade" amplifiers. His success in 
amplifying signal strength led to perfection of the amplifying systems 
used in present-day transmission and reception. Ten years later the 
Magnavox loudspeaker, developed in Oakland, introduced for the first 


time the dynamic principle (moving coil in a magnetic field) which 
loudspeakers on modern receiving sets still use. 

By the early I92o's these inventions and others, freeing radio from 
the crudeness that drew ridicule from early critics, had won for program 
producers an untold number of ardent listeners. New stations began 
competing with KQW and KDN KUO (1922), KPO (1923), and 
KJBS (1925) in San Francisco; KLX (1922) and KGO (1924), 
said to be the "world's largest radio transmitter" at the time, in Oak- 
land; KFI (1922), KHJ (1922), KMTR (1924), and KNX (1924) 
in Los Angeles. During these first years a typical broadcast schedule 
for the day began with a weather report, followed by recorded music 
alternating with more weather reports, and ended with a final announce- 
ment about the weather. 

Since 1922 many of radio's most popular forms of entertainment 
have been developed in California. The earliest "audience show" was 
KFRC's Blue Monday Jamboree, presented as an experiment to deter- 
mine how the song-and-patter show could be given appeal for an air 
audience; its variety technique is still considered to have a more pre- 
dictable popularity than any other type of radio entertainment. One 
Mans Family, inaugurated on KGO in 1932 and still broadcast, was 
the first program to adapt radio's particularly intimate facilities to 
drama by using casual dialogue, unhurriedly delivered, to lend veri- 
similitude to the characters. One of the earliest of the hillbilly folk 
programs, Mac's Haywire Qrchestry, was put together by a California 
cowboy, "Mac" McClintick, who assembled a quartet of guitar, har- 
monica, fiddle, and banjo ukelele. The latter was played by San 
Francisco's now famous critic, Joseph Henry Jackson, whose program 
of book reviews, began in 1922, is the oldest sustaining program heard 
transcontinental^. The first broadcast from an airplane was made in 
a Martin bomber, loaned by the U. S. Army, over Crissey Field, San 
Francisco. In July 1925, KJBS pioneered mobile short-wave radio- 
phone transmission by relaying the band music of California's Diamond 
Jubilee celebration. Broadcasts from the Malolo in 1931 were the 
first regularly scheduled programs from a ship at sea. 

Since 1933 radio has leaned more and more heavily on motion pic- 
ture personalities, a change that has emphasized the star system in radio 
entertainment and caused a westward shift in production. The shift 
began in 1933, when Rudy Vallee broadcast from an improvised studio 
on the RKO lot between scenes in his first motion picture. Commer- 
cial shows, though often financed, planned, and written in the East, 
are staged more and more frequently in California to the discomfort 
of directors needing authorization for changes in the last few frenzied 
moments of rehearsals. The cost of talent and production in Holly- 


wood is high, but many sponsors have found that the extra expense is 
justified by the prestige of a Hollywood "date-line." The ultra-modern 
studios of Columbia and NBC in Hollywood, where these shows are 
staged, are among the few places where tourists may see motion picture 
stars in person. 

Radio has been used more and more as a medium by religious groups 
in California, several organizations having their own broadcasting sta- 
tions. Of importance to the State's agriculture is the broadcasting of 
frost warnings and the agricultural programs sponsored by govern- 
mental agencies. Possibly the most important practical application of 
the radio in California is as an aid to air navigation. A coast visited 
by frequent dense fogs, and mountains subject to violent storms consti- 
tute hazards to air travel that the radio has helped to lessen. 

In 1938 broadcasts were transmitted from 54 California stations, 
10 of which are affiliated with NBC networks, 4 with CBS, n with 
Mutual-Don Lee, and 2 with Hearst. Also within the State are the 
short-wave stations that handle all the Nation's transpacific broad- 
casts to and from Hawaii and the Far East; the 75O-acre Bolinas sta- 
tion, with its 46 transmitting antennas; and the i5OO-acre Point Reyes 
station, with its 21 directive receiving antenna units. 

The Movies 

IT all began so suddenly decorous suburban Hollywood must have 
felt that a strange new race had descended from the sky. One 
actress did alight from on high, unintentionally. She was Pearl 
White, heroine of thriller serials, who had been performing in a "prop" 
balloon before the cameras when it broke its moorings. She was rapidly 
drifting seaward until she pulled the rope that deflated it, landing 
herself and so demonstrating the resourcefulness demanded of movie 
actresses in 1912. 

Hazardous though life might be for performers in the "flickers," 
the trek to Hollywood had started. Any girl could get a job if she 
would ride along in the cab of a runaway locomotive any man if he 
could shoot a rabbit from the back of a galloping horse. The next best 
thing, in 1912, was to be very tall or short or weigh 300 pounds or 30 
or, at the very least, to resemble a tramp or a colonel or a duchess. 
The thrillers of those hectic days told their stories in the main titles: 
The Outlaw and the Child, True Love Never Dies, Mary's Stratagem, 
A Good Turn, Her First False Step. Most of them were advertised 
as having "a strong moral tone." They were expected to have, as well, 
plenty of excitement. As a director of the time expressed it: "Never 
mind the acting we want action!" 

The producers, working at the same speed as the characters in their 
dramas, never stopped to build a stage if they could rent a barn, or a 
dressing room if they could buy a tent. Behind the flimsy walls of 
the mushroom studios, Tom Mix and his director were vying with 
each other to invent stunts dangerous enough for their thrill-fed fans. 



Custard pies were flying between Mack Sennett and Ford Sterling. 
Mae Marsh, in a voluminous grass skirt, was tempting Bobby Herron. 
Hollywood in 1912 a small town carnival! 

A decade and a half before, the cinema industry had got under way 
on the other side of the continent in New York, where Thomas Alva 
Edison's kinetoscope made its first appearance on April 14, 1894. 
The spectators dropped a nickel in the slot and peeped into a cabinet. 
Two years later the first modern screen projector, Thomas Armat's 
vitascope, liberating the moving images from Edison's peepshow, began 
its commercial career at Koster & Bial's music hall in New York. To 
curious spectators the vitascope showed picture sequences of simple 
incidents: a snowstorm raging through a city, a policeman chasing a 
hapless tramp, a fire engine racing to a midnight alarm. Its audiences 
were amused, but as soon as the novelty wore off, they dropped away. 

An Edison cameraman, Edwin S. Porter, had an idea: the motion 
picture should tell a story. The overwhelming success of his first film, 
The Life of an American Fireman, encouraged him to make others, of 
which The Great Train Robbery, released in 1903, was the classic. 
At first the films were exhibited by itinerant showmen on portable pro- 
jectors, but on Thanksgiving Day, 1905, the first theater devoted ex- 
clusively to the showing of motion pictures opened in a Pittsburgh 
storeroom. The price of admission for the 15-minute program was a 
nickel, which gave rise to the name "nickelodeon." Soon scores of 
Bijoux, White Ways, Fairylands, and Lyrics appeared in eastern cities. 

As the "flickers" grew in popularity the chief producers found it 
necessary to safeguard their claims to the promised profits. Since 1897 
Edison had been suing them for pirating his patents. In defense they 
formed, in January 1909, the Motion Picture Patents Company, soon 
widely known as the "movie trust." Their airtight monopoly was 
threatened, however, by the small producers, exhibitors, and exchanges 
excluded from the trust, who began importing bootleg equipment and 
filming their pictures in obscure hide-outs. Against them the trust 
launched a battle of suits and injunctions, raids and riots. They fled 
from one loft to another, to Florida, to Cuba, and finally, to California. 

California had been claimed for the movies when William Selig, 
one of the "patent pirates" fought by Edison, skipped to Los Angeles in 
1908 to complete a film began in his Chicago studio. His picture, The 
Count of Monte Cristo, was the first commercial film produced in the 
State. Two years passed before another picture was made in the West. 
By that time, the patents group were hounding the independent New 
York Motion Picture Company. The flight of this company to Los 
Angeles began a westward movement of independents and, eventually, 
of the trust companies themselves. They opened their studios in Los 
Angeles, Santa Monica, Glendale, and, finally, in Hollywood where 


David Horseley's Nestor Film Company of New Jersey settled in the 
autumn of 1911 to make Hollywood's first movie in a studio at Sunset 
Boulevard and Gower Street. 

The arrival of the trust companies on the Coast brought the war 
with the independents to a new battleground where the independents 
found two weapons which won them victory. The first was the 
"feature" picture; the second was the "star" system. 

The "feature" picture a film of more than one or two reels was 
revolutionary in 1912. While France, Italy, and Germany were experi- 
menting with the long film, the monopolistic Motion Picture Patents 
Company, controlled by financiers, had limited American pictures to 
two-reel elementary treatments of elementary concepts. There was 
no room in this production scheme for artistic experimentation. The 
independents, on the other hand many of whom had been old-clothing, 
jewelry, and junk dealers proved to be better showmen. 

Adolph Zukor imported the first multi-reel picture, Queen Elizabeth 
made in France in 1911 by Louis Mercanton with Sarah Bernhard 
and Lou Tellegen. The enthusiasm of American audiences proved tha 
they were ready for picture drama in the grand style. While othe 
European features were being imported, American producers began 
getting their own long films ready for the market. The first gallan 
attempts included James Young's Cardinal Wolsey with Clara Kimbal 
Young, and D. W. Griffith's Judith of Bethulia with Blanche Sweet 
Within six years appeared other films that critics still remember wit! 
respect: Griffith's The Birth of a Nation, Broken Blossoms, and Intol 
erance; Sennett's Tillies Punctured Romance; Lubitsch's Carmen 
starring Pola Negri; The Squawman; and Chaplin's A Dog's Life. In 
The Birth of a Nation America's first super-feature Griffith revolu 
tionized production technique, creating a picture which attracted th 
attention of the intelligentsia to the cinema for the first time in thi 
country. The picture rolled up an astounding box-office record ; thougl 
the validity of its characterization has since been questioned, it still play 
occasionally in the world's out-of-the-way places. During this perioc 
the trust, persisting on the whole with mass-produced short films 

As Zukor, onetime furrier, introduced the full length picture, so 
Carl Laemmle, onetime clothing dealer, introduced the star system 
The patents trust, pursuing a mass production policy, had paid the 
screen player very low wages, assuming that the public would let him 
remain as anonymous as a bookkeeper. But Carl Laemmle, one o 
the trust's shrewdest foes, noted that patrons were asking at the box 
office when "the cute little girl with the curls" would appear again 
and so he hired the cute little girl from Biograph at double her former 
salary. She was Gladys Smith better known by the name of the 


character she had played in Biograph pictures, "Little Mary." As 
Mary Pickford, she was presently receiving $10,000 a week in salary 
and half the profits on her pictures. 

At about the time the little girl with the curls was attracting notice, 
a young player deserted an English music hall company to work in 
Mack Sennett's Keystone Comedies at $150 a week. His shoes and 
small moustache, his talent for getting into pathetically funny situa- 
tions, and his genius for expressing himself through simple gestures 
soon made Charlie Chaplin a universally beloved character. Producers 
scrambled for him, the successful bidder paying him $150,000 for sign- 
ing a contract which guaranteed him $10,000 a week. 

Now picture patrons were demanding not only feature pictures, 
but "stars." The names of Marguerite Clarke, Blanche Sweet, Pauline 
Frederick, Theda Bara, William Farnum, Tom Mix, Anita Stewart, 
Alice Joyce, Earle Williams, William S. Hart, Norma and Constance 
Talmadge, Lillian and Dorothy Gish, Mae Marsh, Harold Lockwood, 
and May Allison went up in marquee lights. Many of these players 
came to the films from the shipping rooms and offices of large cities, 
others from small town beauty contests and midwestern farms. Many 
had no previous dramatic training of any sort, and some never found 
it necessary to acquire any. Some built hillside mansions with swim- 
ming pools, and Japanese gardens ; hired armies of servants, agents, and 
secretaries; gave parties which lasted for days, stirring the talk of the 
Nation. Some saved their money, helped their relatives, and retired 
wealthy and happy; others died early of drink and drugs; others faded 
back into obscurity. All of them in their hour of glory were sent fan 
mail by the carload and mobbed by hysterical crowds at docks and 
railroad stations. 

The introduction of movie cycles accompanied the rise of movie 
stars. Traffic in Souls inspired a series of "daring" exposes; The 
Miracle Man was responsible for a cycle of heavily moralistic pictures; 
The Spoilers, for two-fisted Northwesterns ; Passion, for costume films. 
Over the Hill started a race for the profits to be made on mother love. 
While critics pleaded for originality and continued pleading for two 
decades successive themes were milked : desert love, crime, war, aero- 
nautics, exploration, the private lives of royalty and geniuses, the gaiety 
of the nineties. The 1930*8 brought in cycles of adaptations of Vic- 
torian novels, Shakespearean dramas, musical farces, and comedies. 

The years from 1912 to 1920 passed without radical improvements 
in mechanical methods although cameramen perfected the dissolve, the 
fade, double exposure, and the close-up but not without an important 
change in the industry's financial structure. The World War had 
ended the competition of European film companies, leaving the huge 
and growing market to the American producers. The conservative 


patents trust let this opportunity escape, and the independents through 
superior showmanship won by 1930 control of the industry an industry 
of world-wide proportions which had grown in a single decade into 
one of the United States' ten largest. 

The independent producers began at once to exhibit imagination" 
and initiative as well as partiality for the grandiloquent. They en- 
larged the studios and gave them ornate facades. Dozens of new stages 
were constructed, many vast enough to house skating rinks in one end 
and ballrooms in the other. Outgrowing the informality of the early 
years when householders were generally glad to lend their fishponds 
for the swimming party in Mabel Normand's latest farce they built 
their own sets. One producer erected a range of lath-and-plaster moun- 
tains, and another, a canvas desert diorama half-a-mile in length, while 
Paramount built a full-size steamship to lie forever at anchor on the 
lot. Million-dollar "prop" and wardrobe departments were organized. 
Every studio amassed its library. One acquired a zoo. And each 
opened a laboratory for developing a new art that of illusion. Here 
ingenious craftsmen built miniature models of clippers and cathedrals, 
painted foregrounds on glass, engineered filming of underwater scenes 
on dry land through a thin tank of moving water, and discovered an 
effective imitation fog in sprayed mineral oil. Studio staffs were 
augmented by architects, decorators, gag men, publicity writers, script 
girls, couturiers, research directors, and technical experts. 

As expansion of the industry attracted new thousands to Hollywood, 
until the crowds outside the casting offices overflowed the streets and 
"still pictures" overflowed the files inside, the studios formed the Cen- 
tral Casting Bureau. Within a short time 10,000 would-be stars had 
applied. A clearing house for extras, "Central Casting" began filling 
the studios' daily talent needs. For each registered applicant was 
assembled a record of physical characteristics height, weight, color and 
type of hair, color of eyes, and health; abilities driving a car, swim- 
ming, diving, dancing, riding; history former residence, marital status, 
court record (if any), income from other sources. A complete inven- 
tory of the applicant's wardrobe with the interviewer's critical com- 
ments went into the file, and finally the answer to the question : Can the 
applicant act ? Only a few dozen were able to make an adequate living. 
In 1928 and 1929, with production at its height, but 194 registered 
extras worked two days or more a week. Fifty-four of these were 
women, whose incomes averaged $14.25 weekly. The men earned 
$14.52 weekly. 

Meanwhile the industry's expenditures, if not the wages paid the 
extras, were mounting dizzily. Salaries kept pace with expansion as 
studio executives paid themselves up to $500,000 a year and their top 
flight stars even more. If Hollywood in 1912 was a carnival, by 1925. 





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4r .A 






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it resembled an extravaganza, mad and merry. In one picture the star 
wore a $30,000 chinchilla coat; since it could never be used again, of 
course, the fur was cut up and sewed on bathing suits. Greta Garbo 
was reported to be getting 90,000 fan letters every month. 

Lavish too were the pictures of this decade in conception, plot, and 
background. In 1920 audiences were impressed by Way Down East 
and in 1921 by The Three Musketeers. In the five years following 
they were successively staggered by Robin Hood, The Covered Wagon, 
Scaramouche, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, The Iron Horse, The 
Ten Commandments, The Merry Widow, Beau Geste, and by Ben 
Hur, which took three years to film and cost more than $4,000,000. 
Producers hoped the public would be staggered. Actually, there were 
dawning signs of boredom. The public was giving unanimous approval 
to an unpretentious little film called Nanook of the North, to the slow- 
paced, realistic A Woman of Paris, and strangest of all to the 
German film The Last Laugh, a simple story about the heartbreak of 
a doorman. 

During these years the producers were expanding in still another 
direction, the ownership of theaters. Chains were organized and battles 
fought for the control of first-run houses. In an effort to eliminate 
all competition, the producers bought hundreds of legitimate theaters 
and either dismantled them or remodeled them for screen showings. 
A public that had been devoted to its stock, its big and small time 
vaudeville, and its weekly visits from touring companies began making 
its choice in theatrical entertainment among the productions of Uni- 
versal, Paramount, Fox, Warner Brothers, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. 

The general extravagance required money, money required bankers, 
bankers demanded boards of hard-headed directors. And so it hap- 
pened that the one-time independents, grown powerful (Adolph Zukor, 
Carl Laemmle, William Fox, Sam Goldwyn, and others), now found 
themselves taking orders from Wall Street. Under banker control 
began an effort to wed efficiency and showmanship. Stage producers 
had always recognized it as the very essence of harlequinade to be 
spontaneous, unpredictable but now Pierrot was regimented. Sharp 
eyes in New York grew very sharp indeed when they read that Erich 
von Stroheim kept 5,000 extras waiting all day in a square while he 
rehearsed an actress in the grand manner of royalty descending from a 
coach. Over the stages hung the smoke of the battle between showmen 
and efficiency experts. 

In this decade it was a mechanical invention that caused the in- 
evitable upheaval. Agents of the Bell laboratories were knocking on 
producers' doors in 1925 with a device for synchronizing the images of 
the projector with the sounds of a talking machine, but with box office 
returns bad and getting worse, the picture executives shook their heads. 


Finally the salesmen took their device to Warner Brothers, a second- 
string studio which had fallen behind in the theater-building race. The 
Warners were desperately interested and, after a demonstration, hope- 
ful. In April 1926 they formed the Vitaphone Corporation for sound 
experimentation and production. Don Juan, their first full-length 
picture with recorded musical accompaniment, caused a stir. Soon after 
the release in 1927 of The Jazz Singer, starring Al Jolson, the public 
began to demand sound films. 

By autumn of 1929 the talkie trend had become a stampede. In 
the scramble to revamp production methods, First National was ab- 
sorbed by Warner Brothers, and William Fox himself a pioneer in 
the talkie field was forced into retirement. Other major producers 
survived, but not all their studio personnel. Writers and directors of 
"silent days" were scrapped along with equipment and techniques, 
while strange new faces song writers and musicians hustled out from 
New York's Tin Pan Alley began appearing on the lots. Old acting 
favorites who lacked the pleasing voice which talkies demanded quietly 
disappeared, and new stars rose in their places. 

From the talkie revolution the movie industry went into the depres- 
sion of the 1930*8, a crisis that affected mechanical techniques, produc- 
tion methods, financial structures, and even the type of entertainment. 

In the effort to attract depression audiences, perfection of the color 
process was speeded. The Toll of the Sea, one of the early experiments 
in color, was filmed in 1921, though not very satisfactorily, since the 
blues failed to register. Later Jack Warner had experimented with 
color somewhat more successfully in The Desert Song and On With 
the Show. Becky Sharp, produced by an affiliate of the Technicolor 
Corporation, demonstrated the possibilities in color movies but was itself 
a failure. Use of color is still limited because of its extremely high 
cost. The Technicolor Corporation, which has a virtual monopoly on 
patents, controls use of the color process by leasing the $15,000 color 
cameras and selling, developing, and printing color film. Production 
of color films is complicated by the necessity of shooting them on three 
negatives. Besides the color cameras, a staff of experts is required to 
harmonize settings and costumes and plan lighting. Actors must be 
found who are handsome even without hair dye, grease paint, eye 
shadow, and mascara, because the increased intensity of light used 
reveals any camouflage in make-up. 

Walt Disney, the most outstanding figure in the development of the 
animated cartoon, contracted with the corporation in 1934 to make his 
Mickey Mouse and Silly Symphonies cartoon films in color. He began 
work the same year on the first feature-length animated cartoon, Snow 
White and the Seven Dwarfs. A new type $75,000 camera was em- 
ployed to lend a three-dimensional illusion to the 250,000 separate 


paintings which went into the making of the film. Three years later, 
when Snow White was released, audiences delighted in the large sur- 
faces of rich, clear color. In no previous cartoon film had there been 
such successful treatment of running water, clouds, dust, steam, and 
the glint of sunlight on a steel blade. The success of Snow White and 
such feature films as A Star Is Born indicates the tremendous strides 
made in the color medium during recent years. 

The end of the fourth decade finds the industry's use of illusion 
developed to extraordinary lengths. Window glass is generally made 
of rock candy; stones of tar paper, balsa wood, and cork; snow of 
gypsum and bleached corn flakes; icicles of fibre hair dipped in plaster 
of Paris. Strawberry gelatine is the usual substitute for blood. Since 
about 80 percent of all pictures are shot indoors on the studio stages, 
the prop shop must stock many sorts of artificial flowers and trees. 
(One studio has enough daisies to cover a ranch meadow and apple 
blossoms for 28 trees.) Each studio has a library of at least 10,000 
sound effects and the equipment for producing them. An important 
member of the sound staff is the scream expert. 

During the IQSO'S, bankers have tended more and more to leave 
production details in the hands of professional showmen. Neverthe- 
less financial control has left its mark on Hollywood. Even the pro- 
ducers of "Poverty Row" have junked the helter-skelter production in 
which carpenters doubled as gladiators, leading ladies made their own 
costumes, and one man might finance, write, direct, cut, and sell a 
motion picture film. The movies that reach the first-run houses today 
are produced by a streamlined system in which all efforts are organized 
and specialized. 

Before a film is shipped away in its round tin cans, it passes through 
approximately 25 studio departments. First a staff writer takes the 
story usually a purchased magazine story, novel, or play and tailors 
it to fit the stars assigned to the leading roles. After one or many 
"adaptations" have been made, a continuity writer breaks down the 
story into scenes, a gag man may insert funny business, and a dialogue 
expert snaps up the actors' lines. Working closely with the writers 
are the director and a corps of research workers who answer such ques- 
tions as : what kind of calling cards did women use at the period of the 
story, what sort of buttons did men wear on their coats, what did the 
streetcar transfer of the time look like ? 

Talent scouts now assist the casting office in the search for actors. 
Location scouts select settings for the outdoor scenes, which may be 
found 50 miles away or 5,000. The music director prepares his score, 
costume designers make sketches for the dressmakers, set designers fabri- 
cate miniature sets for the draftsmen and carpenters. The prop depart- 
ment, too, has its scouts, whose task is to produce such unlikely mer- 


chandise as nineteenth-century velocipedes, authentic duplicates of the 
Lichtenstein crown jewels, Cleopatra's tablewear, or a live boa con- 
strictor. The make-up department is studying the proposed lighting 
effects, the production department is making innumerable charts: cos- 
tume charts, weather charts, charts to indicate set and shooting sched- 
ules from the first day to the last. Meanwhile the director, besides 
consulting with all these assisting departments, is studying the hundreds 
of scenes in the final script and creating in his mind each bit of action. 

The average picture is "shot" in about six weeks. During this time 
a new crew of workers joins the staff cameramen, electricians, sound 
men, "grips," script girl, cutter, and technicians who produce mechanical 
effects. The picture is photographed not in its proper sequence but in 
whatever order is best adapted to the actors and sets involved. Each 
day's "takes" are developed in the laboratory and run through the pro- 
jection machine at the close of the day for supervisor, director, cutter, 
and assistants who pick the most effective. As shooting progresses, the 
cutter patches together the chosen "takes," gradually fitting in the 
missing scenes. Upon his work, seemingly mechanical but actually 
creative, largely depends the picture's "pace." 

When the cutter's work is finished and approved, a print of the 
picture is taken into a suburban theater for a "sneak preview." Mem- 
bers of the production staff clock laughs, yawns, fidgeting, and other 
audience reactions, from which the director decides whether to add or 
delete. Finally, from the miles of exposed negative, two master nega- 
tives are put together one for domestic and one for foreign showings. 
The prints shipped to the theaters are made from these. 

The studio lots of today combine the efficiency of the factory with 
the irrationality of the theater. A small town in itself, each studio has 
its network of paved streets, lined with stucco buildings that house the 
various departments the huge stages, the prop warehouses, the car- 
penter and machine shops. In the shadow of a planing mill may stand 
a star's "quaint" dressing room, and behind the barnlike structure that 
houses the wardrobe, a piece of Venice, complete with canal, gondolas, 
and flower-strewn balconies. 

Perfection of mechanical technique and streamlining of picture pro- 
duction are two of the industry's answers to depression problems. 
Anothe-r answer has been the general improvement in the quality of 

Some producers, believing that audiences wanted to forget their 
troubles, gave them farces ; others became aware of a plea, grown more 
insistent, for realism. "Authentic," "natural," "unexaggerated" dur- 
ing the thirties these adjectives were heard, almost for the first time, at 
studio conferences. As a result, fans have had the pleasure of giving 
box-office laurels to such lifelike films as / Am a Fugitive from a Chain 


Gang, Of Human Bondage, The Informer, Dead End, and It Hap- 
pened One Night. And even the romantic films have achieved greater 
fidelity to essential truth and significance of theme. 

Important in raising the standards of motion picture writing, direct- 
ing, and acting have been the annual awards of the Academy of Moving 
Picture Arts and Sciences, first bestowed in 1927-1928. Actors and 
actresses so honored include Emil Jannings, Janet Gaynor, Warner 
Baxter, Mary Pickford, George Arliss, Norma Shearer, Lionel Barry- 
more, Marie Dressier, Frederic March, Helen Hayes, Charles Laugh- 
ton, Katharine Hepburn, Clark Gable, Claudette Colbert, Victor 
McLaglen, Bette Davis, Paul Muni, Louise Rainer (twice), and 
Spencer Tracy. Among directors and writers to receive two awards 
have been directors Franz Borzage, Frank Lloyd, Frank Capra, and 
writers Ben Hecht and Frances Marion. The list of films selected by 
the Academy for distinction includes All Quiet on the Western Front, 
Cavalcade, Grand Hotel, Mutiny on the Bounty, The Life of Louis 
Pasteur, and The Life of Emil Zola. 

The social and artistic significance of motion pictures has increas- 
ingly concerned educators, church groups, women's clubs, and critics of 
American life. Because the average weekly attendance of 75,000,000 
gives the movies an influence equalled only by newspapers and radio, the 
Payne Fund, in 1929, financed several surveys to estimate what that 
influence might be. The 115 films examined were found to portray a 
world where 33 percent of the heroines, 34 percent of the villains, and 
63 percent of the sirens and villainesses were either wealthy or mil- 
lionaires only 5 percent of the characters were poor. If the population 
of the United States were arranged as indicated in these films, "there 
would be no farming, no manufacturing, almost no industry, no vital 
statistics (except murders), no economic problems and no economics," 
wrote Mr. Henry James Forman, analyzing the survey. It was pointed 
out that pictures of the type studied portray a world unreal in funda- 
mentals, yet so like the world outside the theater in superficial details 
that movie-goers fail to distinguish clearly between the two and carry 
home a sense of grievance at their similar but much more dreary lot. 

The artists directors, writers, actors whose creative efforts go 
into picture making have long felt hampered by the fact that, as Walter 
Wanger said, "any minority group, any individual, any rag, any nation 
could dictate to us." In July 1938, a distributors' boycott of Blockade 
crystallized their discontent. At a meeting of 300 delegates, represent- 
ing 150,000 members of motion picture unions, guilds, and other organ- 
izations, these artists demanded that "gag rule" be removed from the 
industry, so that motion pictures may become, as they rightfully should 
be, "a very important pillar in the democratic structure." 

The newest "independents" are the group of scenarists and camera- 


men who recently organized the non-profit Frontier Films. Other 
groups whose aim is to revitalize the content of the motion picture in- 
clude Triple-A (One-Third of a Nation) in the East and in Hollywood 
the George Randol Productions, the latter a unit interested solely in 
producing Negro films. Since there are more than 600 theaters in the 
country that cater largely to Negro audiences, the significance of 
pioneering attempts in the field, such as Spirit of Youth featuring Joe 
Louis, may be readily appreciated. 

In dodging realism American film producers have also avoided 
censorship to some extent. A clamor for laws to regulate the subject 
matter of films arose, following the white slave pictures and the sex and 
crime films of the igao's. Formation of the Motion Picture Producers 
and Distributors of America, Inc., headed by Will Hays, was the 
industry's effort to police itself. Ten years later, under the pressure of 
various groups, the Hays organization imposed further taboos. The 
distributors' export departments added their prohibitions: there must 
be no American flag-waving, no propaganda for peace which might 
offend warrior nations, and no villains of foreign nationality except 
Russian. (Soviet Russia imports few American films.) 

Many an endeavor is indebted to the motion picture art, or craft. 
Schools use motion pictures in visual education, sports for the record- 
ing of finishes, science in a multitude of ways. Movies are taken of 
the heavens and of babies learning to walk. X-ray movies are made 
of ailing human beings, microscopic and color movies of almost every 
sort of living organism. Metallurgists, experts in acoustics, and spe- 
cialists in other applied sciences have benefited as well as the thou- 
sands of amateur photographers who have acquired a hobby. 


FRANCISCAN friars, the first white settlers who plodded north- 
ward into California, came with books in their hands, for the 
purpose of their pilgrimage was to educate the heathen Indians. 
Their pioneer successors fur trappers and gold miners were often 
men of action rather than learning, but they had an extraordinary 
respect for the wealth bound between the covers of books. With 
first-hand knowledge of the many miles from California to the older 
institutions of learning in New England and Europe, they voted gen- 
erous expenditures for schools. 

For California's native Indians, five decades of rigorous training 
planned to make them civilized tax-paying subjects of the Spanish 
king were in store when the Franciscan missionaries arrived in the 
spring of 1769. Beyond manual and religious training they did not 
aspire, however. Mission authorities feared the growth of learning 
among the Spanish, as well as the Indian population, claiming that 
education had no purpose but to breed discontent in the common people. 
They excommunicated two of the province's most illustrious citizens, 
Juan Bautista Alvarado and Mariano G. Vallejo, for reading Jean 
Jacques Rousseau. 

The first efforts to found secular schools were made by the Spanish 
Governor, Diego de Borica (1794-1800). During his administration, 
schoolmasters mostly retired soldiers who could wield the disciplines 
(cat-o'-nine-tails) began teaching reading, writing, and figuring in 
one-room schools at San Jose, Santa Barbara, San Francisco, San Diego, 
and Monterey. No sooner had Borica left the territory, however, than 


his educational system collapsed. The schools established during the 
next thirty years were also short-lived. 

Governor Jose Figueroa (1833-1835) reported, soon after his 
arrival, that only three schools were in existence, taught by incompetent 
and ill-paid teachers ; he established six more schools and ordered higher 
salaries for the teachers. Juan Bautista Alvarado (1836-1842) im- 
ported teachers from Mexico to give instruction in reading, writing, 
arithmetic, and the catechism; girls were also taught needlework and 
boys typesetting and printing. Attendance was compulsory for children 
between the ages of six and eleven. The schools were handicapped by 
their lack of funds and equipment. Despite the meager opportunities 
and the opposition of most of the clergy, some of the more ambitious 
sons of the land-owning families acquired a fair classical education, 
but only with the private tutoring of educated military officers, foreign- 
ers, or priests. 

The American immigrants of the 1 840*3 followed eastern and mid- 
western rather than Californian precedents in education. In December 
1864 California's first American school was founded in a dilapidated 
structure, once a stable, on the grounds of Mission Santa Clara. Here 
an overland immigrant, Mrs. Olive Mann Isbell, taught two dozen 
pupils, sitting on boxes around a fire in the center of the earthen floor. 
In the following year a schoolroom was equipped with desks and benches 
in the Monterey customhouse, and Mrs. Isbell tried to teach 56 
scholars, although she could speak no Spanish and they no English. 
San Francisco's first American school was opened April 3, 1848 in a 
redwood schoolhouse on Portsmouth Square. The building was also 
used for town hall, court house, church and jail. The schoolmaster, 
Thomas Douglass, a Yale graduate, began with a class of six pupils 
which soon increased to 38, but six weeks later the gold rush excite- 
ment swept him off to the mines. On April 8, 1850 the first free 
public schools were established by an ordinance of the city council in 
San Francisco. This was California's first public school ordinance. 

The educational needs of children in mining towns, lumber camps, 
ports, and rural villages were recognized by the State when California's 
first constitution provided, that a school "be kept up in every school 
district at least three months in every year." Fabulous revenues were 
expected from the sale of Federal Government land grants, "inviolably 
appropriated to the support of the common schools" ; but since the total 
proceeds from grants of 500,000 acres were only about $250,000, that 
early ambition had to be curtailed. Gradually State school legislation 
was extended until by 1860 it provided for levying of city and school 
district taxes, appointment or election of county and city school super- 
intendents and city boards of education, and authorization of boards 
of examination to grant teachers' certificates. Finally, in 1866, Call- 


fornia's legislators adopted the Revised School Law, drafted by the far- 
seeing superintendent of public instruction, John Swett, which fixed 
State and county school taxes at adequate levels and established district 
school libraries, county teachers' institutes, and city boards of exam- 
ination. For the first time in the State's history, public schools in 
rural as well as urban areas were free for every child. 

The State's first colleges were established almost as early as its 
first public schools. Santa Clara College (now the University of Santa 
Clara), founded by Jesuit Fathers Giovanni Noboli and Michele 
Accolti, and California Wesleyan College (now the College of the 
Pacific at Stockton), founded by the Reverend Isaac Owen of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, were both opened at Santa Clara in 1851. 
A year later the town of Benicia welcomed girls, who came to attend 
opening classes of the Young Ladies' Seminary. Southern California's 
first institution of higher learning, St. Vincent's College (now Loyola 
University), was opened in Don Vincente Lugo's adobe home on the 
Los Angeles Plaza in 1865 by Fathers of the St. Vincent de Paul 

The first State constitution called for establishment of a State 
university to promote "literature, the arts, and sciences." But the 
nucleus of the University of California was a private institution, known 
at first as Contra Costa Academy and later as the College of California. 
Opened by the Reverend Henry Durant at Oakland in 1853, it began 
collegiate instruction in 1860. On March 23, 1868, Governor Henry 
H. Haight signed the legislative act creating the University of Cali- 
fornia. The institution was formally opened September 23 of the next 
year on the College of California's campus. In 1873, the year in 
which the first 12 graduates ("the twelve disciples") received their 
diplomas, the university moved to its present site on the slopes of the 
Berkeley hills. 

Although the first public high school was opened in San Francisco 
in 1856, the legislature declined to support secondary institutions for 
more than half a century. The more thickly settled communities were 
obliged to conduct high schools at their own expense. In 1884 tne 
University of California inaugurated the "accrediting system," which 
admits pupils with excellent high school records to the university 
without examination. The result of university supervision under this 
system was to raise secondary school standards to a uniformly high 
level. Finally, in 1903, the legislature amended the school law by 
passage of an act providing for State support of high schools. 

The legislature in 1907 authorized high school boards to prescribe 
postgraduate courses of study. First to take advantage of the new 
regulation was Fresno, followed soon by Los Angeles and Santa 
Barbara. By 1910 the number of these "upward extensions of high 


schools" had grown to ten. A law enacted in 1917 recognized junior 
colleges as an integral part of the State's secondary school system. 
Today California has 42 such institutions. 

Colleges as well as high schools multiplied in the late nineteenth 
century. The University of Southern California, founded under the 
auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1880, has grown into 
an institution with a faculty of 1,000. Other colleges established in 
Southern California were Pomona College (now a unit of Claremont 
Colleges, Inc.), Occidental College, Whittier College, the University 
of Redlands, and the California Institute of Technology. Leland Stan- 
ford Junior University, wealthiest privately endowed university in 
the West, and now the State's second largest institution of higher 
learning, was opened at Palo Alto in 1891. Public normal schools 
were established the first at San Francisco in 1862 (moved in 1870 
to San Jose), and others at San Francisco, San Diego, Chico, Fresno, 
Santa Barbara, and Arcata. By legislative enactment these became in 
1921 State teachers' colleges. 

Today citizens of all ages find in California's educational system 
every sort of practical and theoretical training. In the 6,500 public 
schools, with their more than 1,000,000 pupils, $135,000,000 is spent 
yearly. The University of California registered 25,806 full-time resi- 
dent students in 1938. This institution includes universities in Berkeley 
and Los Angeles, the agricultural colleges at Davis and Riverside, 
colleges of oceanography at La Jolla and of astronomy at Mount Ham- 
ilton, and affiliated colleges of law, medicine, pharmacy, and art. By 
the expansion of its facilities to include study centers, lecture courses, 
traveling libraries, correspondence study, and scientific and technical 
instruction at various points throughout the State, the university is 
extending the advantages of higher education to many who have hitherto 
been denied college training. 

In addition to the State university, 7 State colleges, and 42 junior 
colleges, California today has 7 schools rated as junior colleges, and 
23 publicly or privately endowed universities and colleges including 
three noted women's colleges: Mills College in Oakland, Scripps Col- 
lege in Claremont, and Dominican College in San Rafael. 

California's educators have faced the problem, common to educators 
everywhere, of adapting traditional schoolroom methods to a swiftly 
changing social structure. A State curriculum study, made in 1925, 
led two years later to formation of a permanent curriculum commission 
to evaluate school study courses and recommend minimum standards. 
In a detailed Teachers' Guide to Child Development, the commission 
expounded the philosophy and methods of the new education used in 
California's more progressive schools. The publication of the guide 
gave a strong impetus to the modernizing of California's entire school 


system. Progressive communities began to eliminate the old, formal, 
coercive teaching of subjects, and to substitute activity programs. 

Under the new methods the class is no longer treated as a group of 
artificially isolated units, but rather as a world in miniature, where 
enterprises are undertaken by children and teacher, all working to- 
gether. The requirement that a child shall behave co-operatively is 
accented in order to check the tendency toward ''self-expression of all 
types, at all times, in all places," favored by some of the earlier pro- 
gressive educators. The Sequoia Union High School at Redwood City 
and the Alexandria Demonstration School at Los Angeles are progres- 
sive schools in which standards formulated in the Teachers' Guide 
are being realized. 

As soon as California's schools were conspicuously committed to a 
changed procedure, the public, as well as teachers and administrators, 
began to question and appraise. In 1930 the California Commission 
for the Study of Education Problems, composed of nine lay citizens, 
reported on a year's study and a post-card survey of public opinion. 
The activity type of program was criticized as failing to train pupils 
in the use of the "tools" of learning spelling, arithmetic, punctuation, 
sentence and paragraph structure, and penmanship and in habits of 
precision and promptness. On the other hand, young people educated 
under the newer methods were found to excel former generations in 
intelligence, initiative, and physical fitness. 

In accepting and applying the newer conceptions of education, Cali- 
fornia has kept pace with the rest of the country and in some respects 
stepped ahead. Even in early days, the California high school teacher 
of mathematics was likely to stress the value of original demonstrations, 
while California high schools led from the beginning in adoption of 
laboratory methods in teaching natural sciences. Today California's 
public schools teach scientific subjects integrated into the social studies 
unit in the elementary grades. Los Angeles high school students have 
built and are operating a seismological station, school weather stations, 
astronomical observatories, amateur radio stations, and sound-recording 

The general tendency to emphasize functional knowledge has been 
marked in the State. The department of education's commission for 
vocational education directs an extensive vocational training program 
in agriculture, business, homemaking, trade and industry, and vocational 
rehabilitation. Its bureau of agricultural education, in 1935-36, was 
supervising 137 vocational agricultural departments in the schools and 
a teacher-training course. The bureau of business education oversees 
courses of training adjusted to the needs of merchants and businessmen, 
in which specially selected students are taught. All except 13 of the 
State's 519 high schools conduct classes in homemaking, a third for 


boys as well as girls, under supervision of the bureau of homemaking 
education. The bureau of trade and industrial education supervises 
apprentice training programs, organizes trade advisory committees of 
employer, employee, and public school representatives in many com- 
munities, and conducts State-wide conferences of foremen, personnel 
managers, salesmanagers, and other executives. 

In the California Polytechnical Institute at San Luis Obispo, estab- 
lished in 1901, agriculture students conduct their own farm enterprises 
and aeronautics students operate a Government-approved commercial 
airplane repair station. The California Nautical School, conducted on 
board the U.S.S. California State with Tiburon as its home port, trains 
personnel for the coast's merchant marine. Three months nautical 
courses are given on three-masted, square-rigged ships, the Tusitala and 
the Joseph Conrad, sailing from Government Island off Alameda. 

In carrying out the new curriculum, California schools have taken 
advantage of the State's many opportunities for outdoor play to stress 
their physical training and recreation programs. During the four 
depression years, 1932-1936, more gymnasiums, tennis courts, play- 
grounds, and swimming pools were constructed than in any previous 
four-year period. The recreation program is supplemented in many 
schools by health supervision. Both the construction and the recreation 
programs were conducted largely with the aid of the Works Progress 

The Co-ordinating Council has been operating in California cities 
for more than 15 years. Originating with Virgil E. Dickson, now 
superintendent of schools in Berkeley, the plan sets up a voluntary 
board of members from school, police, health, and recreation depart- 
ments, welfare societies, and research and guidance bureaus, to pool 
ideas, information, and mutual support in all matters pertaining to 
the welfare of youth. Not only are problem children given under- 
standing aid, but also the gifted are sought out and provided with 
special opportunities. The work of California's co-ordinating councils, 
particularly those in Berkeley, San Francisco, and Los Angeles, has so 
materially decreased juvenile "delinquency that scores of communities 
in other States have organized similar bodies. In 1933 tne National 
Committee on Crime Prevention reported: "Your Committee believes 
that there is no other single step that could be put into operation that 
would be as far-reaching and as quickly beneficial as the widespread 
use of the co-ordinating council." 

The handicapped child in California, if completely disabled, is 
taught at home or in a hospital or preventorium ; if crippled, he is 
transported to special classes; if handicapped by vision, hearing, or 
speech defects he receives remedial instruction. California is the only 
State that carries on a program of speech correction with adequate 


State aid. Classes have been established in 54 cities, with more than 
14,000 students and 150 speech-correction teachers. The State's method 
of training mentally subnormal children may be seen applied in San 
Francisco's Ungraded School. When the handicapped child is 16 
years of age, responsibility for his further instruction is transferred 
to the bureau of vocational rehabilitation. 

Rural school children in California enjoy special attention, thanks 
to general recognition of the concept that "a child in the rural district 
is worth as much to the future of a state as one in the city." Con- 
stitutional amendment No. 16 (passed in 1920) provides for collection 
of school money where the wealth is and expenditure of it where the 
pupils are. The task of instructional supervisors, working from the 
county superintendent's office, is to weld the isolated rural schools into 
one closely co-ordinated county school system. Their "supervision," 
as the department of education likes to call it, does as much for the 
rural school as the automobile and radio do for the rural home. They 
are aided by the periodicals issued by the department of education's 
division of textbooks and publications: the Science Guide, the monthly 
California Schools, the quarterly California Journal of Elementary 
Education, and the bi-monthly children's magazine, The California 
Nugget. Another aid to rural pupil and teacher alike is the county 
library system, established in 1911, under which county libraries in 
46 of the State's 58 counties bring to the children of 2,313 rural 
districts collections of the best modern books and classics, as well as 
phonograph records, motion picture films, prints, globes, maps, and 
exhibits. Acting as advisor to the libraries of the entire State is the 
State Library at Sacramento, with its nearly 500,000 volumes. Rural 
children are also given the benefits of health education. Most counties 
employ traveling health nurses to examine children, remedy defects, 
advise in nutritional problems, and conduct health clinics. The chil- 
dren travel to and from school by means of tax-supported school trans- 
portation systems in most rural districts. 

California was one of the first States to set up a division of adult 
education and to finance adult classes from its public education fund. 
In 1938 enrollment in adult classes equalled more than a tenth of the 
State's total population. So complete is the curriculum that entrants 
may study even the chemistry of lubrication or the Cantonese language. 
Among the most popular of many vocational training courses are the 
San Francisco classes in aeronautics, which are attended by about half 
as many women as men; these classes own two planes and study navi- 
gation, theory of flight, meteorology, air law, and solo flying. Courses 
in homemaking and consumer education are always in demand. But 
most popular of all are the classes in sociology, economics, and public 
affairs, conducted in accord with the department of education's belief 


that "if this civilization survives it will do so because of the wisdom 
expressed in adult activities. If it disintegrates, adult incompetence 
will have to carry the onus." 

A modern school system calls for well-trained teachers as well as a 
modern curriculum. California elementary school teachers, certified 
by county examinations, are now decreasing in numbers, and those 
certified by the State which require a four year university or college 
course, including practice in directed teaching are increasing. Unique 
in California is the requirement that high school teachers be university 
graduates with at least one additional year of graduate study. 

The planners of California's activity program believe that an eager 
exploring spirit is stifled by the old-type schoolroom, with its desks 
nailed in stiff rows and its walls covered with black slate. The State 
division of schoolhouse planning finds architects whose inspiration 
coincides with its own. The educators and architects of this division 
have worked out a one-story functional plan in which each schoolroom 
has an activity alcove and an outdoor terrace for class sessions on 
pleasant days. The old desks have been replaced by movable chairs 
and tables, the * 'blackboards" by light-colored slate. Flowers, pictures, 
and curtains give charm to the room. In the activity alcove are a 
workbench, tools, a gas plate, a sink, and built-in cupboards for raw 
materials. Assembly rooms in these new schoolhouses have level floors 
so that they can be used as playrooms in rainy weather. In the two 
years from 1934 to 1936 more than 500 sets of plans for new and 
remodeled school buildings were submitted by school districts to the 
State division of schoolhouse planning; and as finally approved, 75 per 
cent of the elementary classrooms provided a proper setting for activity 
programs. The men and women who guide the development of Cali- 
fornia children believe, that "the chief purpose in organizing a school 
is not to obtain economy in effort ; it is to give to each little child within 
its doors as nearly as possible the best environment in which to grow." 

The Arts 

I LEARNED that there were a number of artists in the city who 
had sought to try Dame Fortune in the gold-fields, but with such 
scant success that they returned to the harbor ... to seek 
patrons in ... gilded temples of chance," wrote Prince Paul of Wurt- 
temberg in his unpublished account (in the Stuttgart Archives) of his 
visit to the gambling halls of brawling, new-grown San Francisco in 
1850. "Here we were regaled with very good music," he wrote. "In 
order to allure the public the owners of these gambling places em- 
ployed musicians, among these many real orchestral artists and singers." 
He found the walls covered with a "great number of copper prints and 
oil paintings." And through the open doorways of saloons and public 
houses he saw "Mexicans dancing old California steps to the tunes of 
their national airs. The dancers carried out many very different move- 
ments and steps, and all with a certain haunting charm of grace and 
rhythm. . . ." 

An earlier visitor to California would have gone to the mission 
churches to satisfy an interest in the arts, for the mission fathers were 
the first art patrons, decorating their chapels with paintings, instructing 
their Indian neophytes in music and church drama, and writing accounts 
of their missionary labors. But in 1850, Prince Paul mapped the best 
itinerary for the art lover when he visited San Francisco's "gilded 
temples of chance." If he had come later, he might have visited the 
cramped newspaper and magazine offices where Bret Harte and Mark 
Twain worked or the crude gas-lit theaters where Lotta Crabtree and 
Lola Montez performed. Later still, he might have paid calls to the 



art galleries and grand opera houses founded and endowed by the 
millionaire "bonanza kings." Today the arts flourish in so many 
places throughout California in seaside artists' colonies, in big city 
garrets and studios, "little" theaters and concert halls, and in the sound- 
proofed stages of Hollywood lots that Prince Paul, if he were visiting 
California now, would find it much more difficult to decide where to 
go. Perhaps he would find it more difficult still to understand how all 
the many activities of California's artists, musicians, painters, and 
writers arose from humble beginnings in gambling halls only ninety 
years ago. 



The history of California letters begins long before the gold rush 
and Bret Harte and Mark Twain. During the Spanish and Mexican 
periods a number of able men, to whom authorship was but one of 
many tasks, were recording their experiences and observations, with 
little reward in money or fame. Their writing consists mostly of 
diaries and reports, with detailed descriptions of the country; but much 
of it bears the impress of unconscious artistry. 

When in 1542 Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo explored the coast of Cali- 
fornia, one of the members of his expedition, Juan Paez, wrote a 
Relation or narrative of the voyage. Later in the same century, Chap- 
lain Francis Fletcher and others accompanying Francis Drake, the 
dashing English buccaneer, wrote of the northwest coast of California 
and its red-skinned inhabitants near whose primitive villages Drake 
anchored his ship, the Golden Hind. These accounts were included in 
The World Encompassed (1628), compiled by Drake's nephew. The 
expeditions organized by Sebastian Vizcaino in 1602 were described 
in journals kept by Father Antonio de la Ascension and an unknown 
scrivener. From these journals the history of the Vizcaino expeditions 
was retold by Father Juan de Torquemada in his Monarquia Indiana 
(1615) and later by Martin Fernandez de Navarrete and Jeronimo 
Martin Palacios in their collected accounts of voyages of discovery, 
published a few years later. 

The true father of California literature, however, did not appear 
until after the middle of the eighteenth century. Junipero Serra was 
then president of the new missions in upper California, and Francisco 


Palou was his most highly-valued associate. Out of devotion to the 
Father President, Palou wrote the memorable Life and Apostolic 
Labors of the Venerable Father Junipero Serra (1787) ; and during his 
ten years at Mission Carmel and Mission Dolores, he wrote his His- 
torical Memoirs of New California (1857), recording the work of the 
Franciscans in the new province and describing with dramatic power 
the gradual conquest of a wild land. 

The expeditions of Juan Bautista de Anza, trail-maker and the 
founder of San Francisco, had several chroniclers, foremost of whom 
was Father Pedro Font, astronomer with the expedition of I775"7^. 
Font's complete diary, which he compiled at leisure from notes written 
during his laborious 3,OOO-mile journey from Mexico to Monterey and 
to the site of present San Francisco, was published in 1930 in an English 
translation by Herbert Eugene Bolton. The journals of Juan Crespi 
and Pedro Fages also depict faithfully the new land as it appeared in 
the latter half of the eighteenth century. 

In 1798 two books containing descriptions of California during the 
mission period were published in London A Voyage Round the World, 
from the French of Jean Francois de Galup, Comte de la Perouse, the 
distinguished navigator, and A Voyage of Discovery, by Capt. George 
Vancouver, the English explorer. Other seafaring travelers who wrote 
on Spanish California were George von Langsdorff and Otto von 
Kotzebue, who came on behalf of the Russian Government. When 
Kotzebue visited San Francisco in 1816, he was accompanied by the 
German poet and naturalist, Adelbert von Chamisso, who wrote a 
curiously gloomy description of the presidio. 

California's first printing press was brought to Monterey by Gov- 
ernor Jose Figueroa in 1833 and taken over by Augustin V. Zamorano, 
California's first printer, who in 1834 issued the Reglamento provincial. 
The 55 separate items published by this press were mostly Hispano- 
Californian official documents, but they also included proclamations of 
the United States officials, a commercial paper, and at least two cate- 

Several accounts of the province were written by foreigners during 
the Mexican period. The History of Upper and Lower California 
(1839) by Alexander Forbes, a British merchant in Mexico, was the 
first book in English dealing exclusively with California. Explorations 
du territoire de VOregon, des Calif ornies, etc. (1844) by Duflot de 
Mofras reflects much enjoyment found in the province by a young 
French traveler. Alfred Robinson, an American trader who arrived 
in California in 1829 and married into the aristocratic De la Guerra 
family, wrote Life in California (1846), a pleasant and informative 
work. Richard Henry Dana, then a young sailor on the Alert, was 
in Santa Barbara at the time of Robinson's marriage, and he described 


the wedding in his famous Two Years Before the Mast (1840), other 
parts of which throw a vivid light on contemporary Monterey, San 
Francisco, and San Diego. 

Of all early American accounts of the region during this period 
the journal of the indefatigable explorer and fur scout, Jedediah 
Strang Smith, is the most entertaining. His journeys through Cali- 
fornia in 1826 and 1828 were faithfully recorded in sketches and 
diaries, thought to have been burned in San Francisco until they were 
discovered, edited by Maurice Sullivan, and published in 1934. 

Sixty Years in California (1889) by William Heath Davis, an- 
other Yankee who married into an important California family, is an 
excellent account of experiences in the new country before and after 
the gold rush. Other books by early American ^arrivals in the terri- 
tory are James O. Pattie's A Personal Narrative (1833) and David 
H. Coyner's The Lost Trappers (1847). John Charles Fremont, who 
played such a conspicuous role in the American occupation of Cali- 
fornia, wrote several books dealing in part with the late pastoral era, 
which ended with the discovery of gold. 

Most of the chronicles written in California during the Spanish 
and Mexican periods remain unpublished; many of the manuscripts, 
however, survive in various collections notably the Bancroft Library 
at the University of California, which contains the lengthy Historias 
of Antonio Mario Osio, Juan Bautista Alvarado, and Gen. Mariano 
Guadalupe Vallejo, the Memorias of Jose Maria Amador, and the 
Reminiscencias of Estevan de la Torre. 

Within the new society created by the gold rush, journalists, story 
writers, and verse makers soon began to flourish. Among the many 
enthusiastic commentators of this period was Bayard Taylor, poet and 
globe-trotter, whose California ballads and high-flown prose work, 
Eldorado , or Adventures in the Path of Empire (1850), gave eastern- 
ers an idealized picture of life in the gold fields. 

Meanwhile the grotesque humor peculiar to the West was making 
its appearance in southern California, where Lieutenant (later Colonel) 
George H. Derby, writing in the San Diego Herald, spun his webs of 
satirical nonsense under the pen names of "John P. Squibob" and 
"John Phoenix." Derby's hilarious and often vitriolic commentaries, 
some of which were later compiled in the two volumes, Phoenixiana 
(1856) and The Squibob Papers (1859), have remained dear to the 
hearts of many Californians to this day. 

But the literature of American California did not begin officially, so 
to speak, until 1852. In that year J. Macdonough Foard and Rollin 
M. Daggett founded the Golden Era, a journal devoted to mining, 
commerce, education, agriculture, local and foreign news, fine arts, and 
literature. It attained a large circulation not only in San Francisco, its 


place of publication, but also throughout the mining districts, and 
acquired many contributors who later became famous. The Pioneer, 
established in the same city two years later, was more strictly a literary 
magazine, but it lasted only two years, while the Golden Era survived 
until 1882. The Pioneer is remembered for the brilliant series of papers 
contributed to it by Colonel Derby and for the letters of "Shirley" 
(Mrs. Laura A. K. Clapp). The Illustrated California Magazine and 
the Hesperian were other short-lived periodicals established in the 

In 1857 tne Golden Era printed a few verses signed "Bret"; and 
three years later their author, Francis Bret Harte, a young man from 
Albany, New York, found a badly needed job in the Era's composing 
room. Many of his early sketches were published in the journal. An- 
other contributor to the Era was Samuel L. Clemens, a young eagle-eyed 
Missourian with a skeptical drawl, who had recently quitted Nevada to 
become a reporter on the San Francisco Call. In 1864 Clemens met 
Bret Harte, by this time a clerk in the local United States Branch Mint 
and star contributor to a new literary magazine, the Californian. A 
little later, when Harte was temporarily in editorial charge of the Cali- 
fornian, he engaged his new acquaintance as a regular contributor. 
Clemens' first sketch for the magazine was "A Notable Conundrum," 
signed with his usual pen-name of "Mark Twain." It was through 
Harte's influence and encouragement that Mark Twain, according to 
his own testimony, was changed "from an awkward utterer of coarse 
grotesqueries to a writer of paragraphs and chapters that have found a 
certain favor." Besides these two, the Californian numbered among its 
contributors Charles Warren Stoddard and Ina D. Coolbrith, both 
destined to more than local literary fame. 

Mark Twain's first book, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Cala- 
veras County and Other Sketches, published in 1867, marked the true 
beginning of the California school. Twain soon became known outside 
the borders of the State. He visited the Sandwich Islands and then 
made a journey to Europe and the Holy Land, which he described in 
50 letters to the Alta Californian, one of the oldest of San Francisco 
newspapers. These letters later became Innocents Abroad, which to- 
gether with Roughing It (based upon his experiences in Nevada) estab- 
lished his reputation throughout the English-speaking world. 

In 1868 Bret Harte became the editor of the Overland Monthly, 
which had just been established in San Francisco. In the second issue 
he published, after considerable hesitation, "The Luck of Roaring 
Camp." With the exception of "The Work on Red Mountain" (later 
rewritten and called "M'liss"), which lay forgotten in the Golden Era, 
the fastidious Harte had previously ignored the mining camps as back- 
ground for his fiction. Many Californians now derided the story as 


unworthy of the author and of their home State. But when the com- 
ments of the eastern critics began to arrive, Harte knew that, like some 
of his miners and gamblers, he had struck it rich. This, with such 
subsequent stories as "The Outcasts of Poker Flat" and "Tennessee's 
Partner," made Bret Harte and, the Overland Monthly household words 
among readers at home and abroad. Harte was embarrassed by the 
fame of his "Heathen Chinee" and other humorous verse, but gratified 
by the success of his stories. He left the Coast in a blaze of glory, never 
to return. His later years were spent abroad, chiefly in England. 

Before Harte's arrival in London, another California writer, 
"Joaquin" (Cincinnatus Heine) Miller, had created a sensation there, 
both as a poet and as a picturesque personality, addicted to high top- 
boots and long flowing hair. Born in Indiana, Miller had been an 
Oregon editor and judge and a gold-miner before becoming a poet. The 
poems that brought him fame were written mostly on the Pacific Coast 
and published in England in 1871. After extensive wanderings abroad, 
he settled down in Oakland in 1885 and died there in 1913. His Songs 
of the Sierras (1871) and Songs of the Sunlands (1873) deal for the 
most part with the turbulent exploits of pioneers, outlaws, and Indians, 
and with the scenic marvels of the West. 

Henry George came to California in 1858, and for more than two 
decades made a precarious living through his work for Sacramento and 
San Francisco newspapers. Here he wrote his famous treatise on the 
single tax, Progress and Poverty (1879). Other, though less dis- 
tinguished, California authors of the same general period were Prentice 
Mulford, the humorist; Noah Brooks, journalist, historian, and writer 
of books for boys ; and John Vance Cheney, poet and essayist. 

None of the outstanding writers of the pioneering days was born in 
the State; few of them became permanent residents there. Reflecting 
the excitement and shifting character of the period, much of their fiction 
and poetry consists of broad caricature and sentimental melodrama ; but 
the regionalism expressed in their work was complete, self-contained, 
and solidly founded. Their humor, irreverent and lusty, was charac- 
teristically American. 

On the cover of Harte's Overland Monthly a grizzly bear stands on 
a railroad track, apparently defying an approaching train. But the 
strongest grizzly is no match for a locomotive; neither could the sec- 
tional character of California's culture long resist the influences that 
came with the completion of the railroad. Nevertheless, in the closing 
decades of the nineteenth century, California literature partly retained 
its regional character. A new literary magazine, the Argonaut, estab- 
lished in 1877 by Frank M. Pixley, had numerous able contributors and 
long maintained high standards. Many literary works produced in the 
State still dealt with the local scene. Helen Hunt Jackson's well-known 


romance of southern California, Ramona (1884), presented a touching 
picture of the interrelations of the whites and the Indians. Gertrude 
Atherton, who was born in San Francisco in 1857 an d began her literary 
career in the late i88o's, gathered material for her early novels by visit- 
ing old towns and talking to the descendants of old Spanish settlers. In 
The Doomswoman (1892), The Californians (1898), The Splendid 
Idle Forties (1902), and Rezanov (1906), she embodied her knowledge 
of the Spanish era. Her California an Intimate History (1914) is an 
unconventional treatment of the subject. 

Ina Coolbrith, still retaining the lyrical fervor that had impressed 
Bret Harte, published A Perfect Day and Other Poems (1884), The 
Sinffer of the Sea (1894), and Songs of the Golden Gate (1895), all 
three full of local color. The Mountains of California (1894), the 
first book to appear from the pen of John Muir, scientist and prose 
poet, was permeated by a deep love for nature in the spectacular aspects 
that she displays in California. A less gifted nature-lover, George 
Wharton James, published his Picturesque Southern California and 
Nature Sermons. 

Southern California and its Spanish and Indian backgrounds was the 
milieu of Charles Fletcher Lummis, who died in 1928. Author of such 
charming studies as The Enchanted Burro, The Land of Poco Tiempo, 
and the collected Spanish Songs of Old California, he is lovingly re- 
membered for his long editorship of the California magazine Out West. 

But the work of Ambrose Bierce, acknowledged leader of California 
letters during this period, is in no sense regional. His stories deal with 
the corpse-strewn battlefields of the Civil War, the nameless places of 
morbid fancy. They are meticulously finished; and in them, as in his 
other writings, his satire stings like the scorpion. In connection with 
the brilliant tales collected in Black Beetles in Amber (1892), Can Such 
Things Be! ( 1893), and In the Midst of Life ( 1898), Gertrude Ather- 
ton said that Bierce had "the best brutal imagination of any man in the 
English-speaking race." Through his columns in the Wasp, the Argo- 
naut, and the San Francisco Examiner, Bierce became a power in Cali- 
fornia journalism. Some of his stories are still reprinted, while his 
invective has by no means lost its biting force. The strange disappear- 
ance of Bierce in Mexico, just before the World War, lent a dramatic 
touch to his career. 

Charles Warren Stoddard, continuing the literary labors begun in 
company with Bret Harte, Mark Twain, and Ina Coolbrith for the 
Calif ornian, added the Pacific and the South Seas to his domain. One 
of his last books deals with the California missions. Edward Rowland 
Sill, author of The Hermitage (1868) and other volumes of verse, 
taught for a number of years at the University of California. His 
"Opportunity" and "The Fool's Prayer" are still often reprinted. 


Gelett Burgess, that friendly humorist, lived in California for several 
years before and after the turn of the century. In 1895-97 he edited 
The Lark for a San Francisco publisher, gaining renown that was later 
to embarrass him with his "Purple Cow" : 

I never saw a PURPLE COW, 
I never hope to see one; 
But I can tell you, anyhow, 
I'd rather SEE than BE one ! 

Hubert Howe Bancroft collected a library of 60,000 books, maps, 
and manuscripts (now lodged in the Bancroft Library of the University 
of California), and working with a large corps of assistants produced 
in 30 years nearly 40 volumes of history, biography, and essays, includ- 
ing a History of the Pacific States of North America (1882-90) in 28 
volumes. Bancroft has been accused of "factory" methods in writing 
history and of perpetrating many errors as a result, yet some authorities 
consider the History of the Pacific States to be the greatest feat of 
historiography in modern times. No serious student of Western history 
can wisely ignore it, and many general readers find it enjoyable. The 
four-volume History of California (1885-97) by Theodore Hittell, 
however, holds a greater fascination for the lay reader. 

Notable in the literary annals of California was the visit in 1879-80 
of Robert Louis Stevenson, then on the threshold of his literary career. 
He lived for a while in Monterey and later in San Francisco, where 
his marriage to Mrs. Osbourne took place. The Silverado Squatters 
(1883), The Wrecker (1892), The Amateur Emigrant (1894), and 
many of his published letters have to do in whole or part with the Cali- 
fornia scene. Ten years later a young British journalist named Rud- 
yard Kipling paid a brief visit to San Francisco, and endeavored without 
success to sell some of his writings to the editors of that city. 

With the beginning of the present century came a third period in 
California literature. Increased facility of communication and increased 
centralization of cultural activities on the eastern seaboard had finally 
broken down the old regionalism. The local scene was no longer the 
chief source of inspiration. Many young Westerners, dreaming of a 
career in literature, yearned to reverse Horace Greeley's dictum and go 
East in search of fame and fortune. The work of some of these writers 
bespoke an awakening social consciousness. Edwin Markham, a fervent 
champion of democracy, stands at the threshold of the new era. "The 
Man with the Hoe," a poem published in a San Francisco newspaper 
near the turn of the century, made Markham famous in a single day. 

Of principal importance in this pre-war period were Frank Norris 
and Jack London and the literary colony founded at Carmel by the poet 
George Sterling in 1905. Norris, leaving the University of California, 
had studied art in Paris and there had fallen under the influence of Zola 


and the naturalistic school. Abandoning the brush for the pen and 
returning to California, he began to write novels conceived on a gigantic 
scale. The unforgettable McTeague (1899) was followed by The 
Octopus (1901) and The Pit (1903) the first two volumes of a 
trilogy the "epic of wheat." Norris died at the age of 32, with the 
trilogy unfinished; but in McTeague and The Octopus he left two 
pioneering books that, despite their extravagance of expression, remain 
distinguished landmarks in American fiction. 

In the Carmel group, besides George Sterling, were : James Hopper, 
a short-story writer of distinction; Mary Austin, author of The Land 
of Little Rain (1903) and several other notable books; Nora May 
French, a young lyric poet; and Frederick R. Bechdoldt, a writer of 
western stories. Jack London and Herman Scheffauer were regular 
visitors. Sinclair Lewis came a little later and with William Rose 
Benet spent a year there, as did Upton Sinclair. Michael Williams, 
author of The Book of the High Romance (1918), lived at Carmel for 
several years; and Harry Leon Wilson, who wrote his Ruggles of Red 
Gap (1915), is still a resident. 

Rupert Hughes, popular author and playwright, lives in Los An- 
geles. Both Will and Wallace Irwin studied at Stanford, were editors 
in San Francisco, and celebrated before-the-fire Chinatown, Wallace in 
Chinatown Ballads (1905) and Will in Old Chinatown (1908). 
Stewart Edward White is known in California chiefly for his Story of 
California (a trilogy, 1927) and for his novels of the gold rush and 
vigilante days, The Gray Dawn (1915) and The Forty Niners 

But the most spectacular literary figure of the time and the most 
widely read of California authors was Jack London, born at San Fran- 
cisco in 1876. An "oyster pirate" and longshoreman, he turned to 
literature in his teens. After an arduous apprenticeship, he began to 
produce short stories, novels, autobiographical and sociological works 
that were enthusiastically received throughout the western world. As a 
fiction writer he glorified the elemental in men ; as a socialist he foresaw 
a merciless "war of the classes." Supermen and superwomen stalk 
through his stories, many of which are based upon his own experience, 
interpreted through an intensely romantic imagination. London's 
peregrinations took him to many places, and even on his great ranch in 
Sonoma County he managed to live dramatically, with an air of gran- 
deur. His fight with alcohol, as described in John Barleycorn (1913), 
was in itself a desperate adventure. The doctrine of crude force and 
the purely materialistic philosophy that he expounded have fallen into 
disfavor, his stories of blond primitive brutes now find fewer readers 
(though The Call of the Wild, The Sea Wolf, and many of his short 
stories still remain popular, especially in Europe) ; but as adventurer 


and storyteller, as a powerful and unique voice of his time and his 
region, Jack London will long be remembered. 

George Sterling was a poet whose brilliant imagination and poignant 
sense of beauty were held tightly within classic forms. His poetic 
dramas, odes, and sonnets are now somewhat at variance with the pre- 
vailing taste. But The Testimony of the Suns (1903), several of the 
sonnets, and certain shorter poems such as "Autumn in Carmel," possess 
enduring beauty. Sterling, for many years well known in Carmel and 
San Francisco, has become an almost legendary figure since his death in 
1927. Herman Scheffauer, like Sterling a disciple of Ambrose Bierce, 
was another lyric poet of similar talent and expression ; and Clark Ash- 
ton Smith, younger in years than either Sterling or Scheffauer, is never- 
theless akin to them in his search for verbal beauty and his aloofness 
from the modern scene. 

The era of disillusionment following the World War has been a 
period of change and experiment. Cross-currents and divergent tend- 
encies make it impossible any longer to divide California writers into 
definite groups. Today the State has no literary magazine of impor- 
tance (although the Overland Monthly and the Argonaut still exist in 
name), and no group of contemporary authors constitutes a distinctive 
California school. 

Nevertheless, many prominent writers of the post-war era are Cali- 
fornians by birth or residence. Gertrude Atherton, who has continued 
to write fiction, published in 1932 her autobiographical Adventures of a 
Novelist. Kathleen Norris, prolific chronicler of middle-class family 
life, is a Calif ornian; as is her husband, Charles Norris (a brother of 
Frank Norris), who writes realistic problem novels. Charles Caldwell 
Dobie has skilfully depicted San Francisco and its people in his short 
stories and in San Francisco: A Pageant (1933). Gertrude Stein spent 
her early girlhood in the Bay region. Robert Frost, the New England 
poet, is a Californian by birth. Lincoln Steffens, journalist of the muck- 
raking era and author of The Shame of the Cities (1904), was born in 
Sacramento; he left California soon after graduating from the State 
University, but came back to it ten years before his death to write his 
now famed autobiography. 

Upton Sinclair, socialist and reformer, wrote The Jungle (1906) 
before he came West to settle in Pasadena. Of his many later books, 
some have been printed and published, as well as written in that city. 
Such novels as Oil (1927), Boston (1928) and Mountain City (1930), 
though they lack the youthful fire evident in The Jungle, are shot 
through with fierce indignation against various industrial and political 
evils. Sinclair's controversial and somewhat raucous sociological treat- 
ises, such as The Brass Check (1919), The Goose-Step (1923), and 
The Goslings (1924), criticizing the nation's newspapers and schools, 

THE ARTS 1 49 

have had reverberations far beyond the Pacific Coast. In Mammonart 
(1925) and Money Writes! (1927) he maintains that in the present 
social system writers in general, especially the most successful, are 
directly or indirectly subservient to those who control the important 
publishing outlets. Southern California and its Spanish and Indian 
backgrounds was the milieu of Charles Fletcher Lummis, who died in 
1928. Author of such charming studies as The Enchanted Burro, The 
Land of Poco Tiempo, and the collected Spanish Songs of Old Cali- 
fornia, he is lovingly remembered for his long editorship of the Cali- 
fornia magazine Out West. 

Although several authors and artists still live in Carmel, that com- 
munity is now famous chiefly because of Robinson JefTers and the stone 
tower that he built there. Jeffers' first book to gain wide notice was 
Roan Stallion (1925). Since then he has published several other 
narrative poems of similar provocative and startling intensity, leaving 
little serious doubt that as a poet he stands considerably above all his 
California predecessors. He perceives the non-human world to be 
inherently noble and sees great beauty in the sea, the mountains, and 
the hawks and eagles soaring above them. But man's place in this 
beauty is always unsure and often "curiously ignoble or curiously vile." 
Much of Jeffers' poetic appeal lies in the intensity of his feeling for 
dramatic conflict, for the terrible and the unusual, and for the Carmel 
coast region whose beauty and grandeur permeate virtually all his 

Among other present-day poets deserving of mention is Yvor Win- 
ters of Stanford University, who for a time edited a now defunct 
literary periodical called The Gyroscope. The lyrics of Hildegarde 
Planner, Marie de L. Welch, and Helen Hoyt are well known to 
readers of contemporary anthologies. Sara Bard Field is the author of 
Barabbas (1932) and other volumes of verse. Charles Scott Erskine 
Wood, who came to California from Portland, Oregon, is known for 
his Heavenly Discourse (1927) and Earthly Discourse (1937). 

Within the walls of San Quentin penitentiary there has been for 
years a group of convict writers, at least two of whom (both now out 
of prison) have gained national recognition. They are Ernest Booth, 
author of Stealing through Life (1929), and Robert Tasker, who wrote 
Grimhaven (1928). It was in San Quentin, too, that David Lamson 
went through the ordeal that resulted in his noted book, We Who Are 
about to Die (1935). 

John Steinbeck, a native of Pacific Grove on Monterey Bay, writes 
of the common people of the State. His Tortilla Flat (1935) te ^ s of 
life and death among light-hearted Monterey panhandlers, members of 
a California racial group called paisanos because of their mixed Indian 


and Spanish origin. In Dubious Battle (1936) is a novel of agricultural 
workers on strike. Of Mice and Men (1937) is a brief and tragic tale 
of two homeless laborers, wandering up and down the rich central 
California farming district. William Saroyan, born of Armenian 
parents in the San Joaquin Valley, is the author of a large number of 
discursive, almost plotless, short stories, some hilarious and others sad, 
which have appeared in book form under the titles of The Daring 
Young Man on the Flying Trapeze (1934), Inhale and Exhale (1936), 
and Little Children (1937). Robin Lampson, grandson of a pioneer 
couple, wrote Laughter out of the Ground (1935), a long novel ii 
verse, giving the life story of a typical forty-niner who remained tc 
found a family in the State. In recent years many prominent writer* 
have made their homes more or less permanently in the State. Amonj 
these are the novelist, Hamlin Garland ; Max Miller, author of / Covei 
the Waterfront; and Jim Tully, the blunt-spoken author of autobi( 
graphical and documentary fiction such as Beggars of Life, Jarnegan, 
Circus Parade, and Blood on the Moon. 

The present is too much a time of transition to justify any dogmatic 
predictions about the future of literature in California. Many ex- 
traneous traditions and influences are at work. Although the State 
more than its share of poetasters, local orators, businesslike students oi 
short-story manuals, manipulators of plot machines, and members oJ 
amateur literary clubs, it has also many writers of distinction, botl 
native Californians and immigrants from the East and Middle West. 
Their work, only a small part of which has been mentioned here, canm 
entirely fail to uphold the State's literary reputation, originally created, 
under conditions much less complex than those existing today, in th< 
pages of the Golden Era and Harte's Overland Monthly. 



Centuries ago California Indians were acting out primitive music 
drama celebrating triumph over enemies, invoking rain and plentiful 
harvest, dramatizing deeds of wonder. Drums of different timbre, 
flutes, rattles made from gourds to turtle shells, and bone whistles froi 
the forelegs of deer were among their important instruments. Then 
ritual chants dealt with birth and death, the succession of the seasoi 


cursing enemies, instructing young boys, invoking the spirits. The 
Luiseno and Diegueno of San Diego and the Cahuilla of Riverside 
County still observe annual fiestas. 

With the coming of the Franciscan friars in 1769, the Indians heard 
a new kind of music the thousand-year-old music of the Roman Cath- 
olic mass. A great illuminated vellum volume of Gregorian chants, 
brought from Spain, may still be seen at the Mission of San Juan 
Bautista. The notes for the tenor, bass, and baritone were written in 
different colored inks in some of the scores, to help the natives dis- 
tinguish their parts. Patiently the California Indians were taught to 
sing the sacred melodies. When Robert Louis Stevenson was living in 
Monterey, toward the end of the nineteenth century, he went to the 
annual festival in honor of San Carlos, held in the ruins of the Mission 
San Carlos Borromeo, and heard aged Indians, who had come many 
miles to attend the ceremony, sing the Latin words and music with good 
accent. Even today some Indians in San Diego County assist in church 
services by chanting medieval Latin hymns. 

The appearance of Spanish-Mexican folk music in California brought 
to pueblo and rancho the passionate rhythms of the fandango, piquant 
serenades, amorous Andalusian ditties, and grim and tragic ballads of 
wandering singers. At the dwelling houses on the great ranchos, the 
strains of the jarabe, the fandango, the zorrita, the contradanza, or any 
of a dozen other excitingly lively dances were heard. Great lovers of 
color and rhythm, the Spanish colonists were forever, it seems, dancing, 
singing, and improvising ballads on their guitars, which were as much a 
part of their costume as their sombreros and scrapes. Troubadours from 
Monterey and Santa Barbara used to wander northward to visit the 
great hospitable ranchos around the village of Yerba Buena. Their 
songs were long popular, and their descendants today in many places 
still delight in the tradition. The picturesque fiestas held annually in 
Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, Monterey, and other towns are popular 
reminders of this period. 

No sooner had American conquest put an end to the slow, feudal 
life of the ranchos than the forty-niners began swarming into the new 
El Dorado from all over the world. On the long journey overland 
across the plains or by sea around the Horn, they whiled the time away 
with song and dance. The chorus of "Oh! Susanna!" sung on the 
way, runs: 

"I'm going to California, 

With my banjo on my knee!" 

In the "diggin's," around the camp fire at night, the miners sang 
pre-Civil War songs "Ben Bolt," "The Last Rose of Summer," "Pop 
Goes the Weasel" often improvising new words for the old airs, or 
making up new melodies. A stick beat out the accompaniment on a tin 


wash-pan. A universal favorite was the picturesque ballad celebrating 
the exploits of Joe Bowers, a Ulysses among the adventurous riffraff of 
the "diggin's." Two of its printable stanzas read: 

"There's New York Jake a butcher boy 
That was always gettin' tight; 
Whenever Jake got on a spree, 
He was spoilin' for a fight. 

One day he ran against a knife 
In the hands of old Bob Cline 
So over Jake we held a wake 
In the days of Forty-nine!" 

The folk music of the 1850'$ included old English and Scotch 
ballads, fiddle tunes, singing games and play-party songs from the 
Atlantic seaboard and the Appalachians, native American hymns, ballads 
and love ditties, Cornish miners' chants and old Irish airs. Sailors sang 
their chanteys, or "shanties" as the old salts call them, and according to 
Joseph Conrad the best chanteys in the world came from San Francisco. 
Immigrants from all over the world brought their own songs with 
them: Basque shepherds' tunes and German stein songs, Hindu ragas 
and Hawaiian melodies, Tagalog chants, and Sicilian pastoral airs. 
Put's Original California Songster (1854), which ran into five editions 
and sold 25,000 copies, was the forerunner of a flood of similar collec- 
tions. Many of them have a distinctly Californian flavor, suggesting 
contemporary incidents when feeling ran high regarding navigation 01 
the Sacramento, stage-coach bandits, the California Legislature, thf 
miner's hard lot, living conditions in San Francisco, or John Chinaman. 
In later years the armies of migratory workers, who still wander up and 
down the inland valleys of California and pitch their wretched camps 
to harvest the seasonal crops, sang Joe Hill's songs, the famous parody 
on Casey Jones, and other ballads, which spread all over the country. 
The little red I. W. W. songbooks that many of them carried, once 
passports to jail, have since become collectors' items. 

Opera French, German, and Italian made its appearance in Cali- 
fornia almost as early as the forty-niners. Regular performances were 
given in San Francisco in 1851. In Los Angeles traveling companic 
that wandered up from Mexico gave performances. Often these com- 
panies came to grief, leaving their stranded artists to settle where lucl 
had left them. The famous old Tivoli Opera House was a result oi 
their congregating in San Francisco. Starting as a public beer gardei 
in 1877, where citizens drank to the strains of the Vienna Ladies' 
Orchestra, the establishment decided to put on Gilbert and Sullivan's 
H.M.S. Pinafore in 1879. The Tivoli continued until 1906 with ai 
unbroken run of comic and grand opera, directed by impresario "Doc" 
Leahy. With its low prices 25 to 50 cents and its democratic at- 


mosphere, the Tivoli did more perhaps to popularize opera than almost 
any other American theater. Its contemporary, the Grand Opera 
House, was built in 1876 as "a new and elegant temple of the drama" 
seating over 3,000, with a handsome proscenium and mezzanine boxes. 
Here a long line of famous singers appeared in an operatic career 
culminating in a brilliant performance of Carmen with Sembrich and 
Fremstad, Scotti and Caruso, on the night before that memorable date 
in the history of San Francisco, April 18, 1906. Among the singers 
who began their careers in California were Emma Nevada, Luisa 
Tetrazzini, and Lawrence Tibbett. 

Opera is still popular in California kept alive by the San Francisco 
Opera Association under the direction of Gaetano Merola though the 
season lasts only a few weeks. Here the Nation's only municipal opera 
house, completed in 1932, offers a standard operatic repertoire. The 
Federal Music Project, established in 1935, has presented such classics 
as Hansel and Gretel, Faust, Aida, and Lohengrin in Los Angeles, 
Santa Barbara, San Diego, and San Francisco. Operas, operettas and 
musical satires by modern composers, some of whom are connected with 
the project, have also been given. 

Because of the mildness of the seasons, al fresco music has become 
an integral part of California culture. In the Hollywood Bowl, audi- 
ences of 25,000 people listen to a six-weeks' summer series of symphonies 
under the stars. Its establishment in 1921 was chiefly due to the efforts 
of Artie Mason Carter, unpaid enthusiast who built the Bowl on the 
nickels of the people when the rich failed to grasp the significance of her 
vision. Audiences are never lacking at the Woodland Theater in Hills- 
borough, the Dominican College performances at San Rafael, the Greek 
Theater in Berkeley, and the Ford Bowl in San Diego. 

San Francisco, which heard its first symphony concert in 1865, now 
subsidizes its symphony orchestra. The Los Angeles Philharmonic, 
founded in 1919, has become an outstanding orchestra thanks to the 
generosity of the late W. A. Clark. To the development of California's 
metropolitan symphony orchestras, conductors Walter Henry Rothwell, 
Alfred Hertz, Issay Dobrowen, Artur Rodzinski, Pierre Monteux, and 
Otto Klemperer, among others, have contributed much. In Stockton, 
San Jose, Sacramento, Santa Rosa, San Bernardino, and Pasadena, 
smaller orchestras perform symphony music. 

Since pioneer days, there have been choral societies in California 
cities and towns. The choir of Trinity Church in San Francisco sang 
most of the standard oratorios over a period of many years, but there 
was no large municipal chorus in San Francisco until the coming of Dr. 
Hans Leschke, whose success with the choral works of Bach, Beethoven, 
Brahms, Handel, and Stravinski has amply justified his labors. Through 
the annual November Bach festival, inaugurated by Director John 


Smallman in 1934, the First Congregational Church Choir has estab- 
lished a notable place for itself in the Los Angeles musical season. The 
Negro choral group conducted by Hall Johnson has won an important 
place in the State's musical life. Sacramento, Glendale, Santa Barbara, 
and San Diego all have well-supported choruses. The Federal Music 
Project gives California audiences an opportunity to enjoy many rare, 
new, or seldom heard choral compositions. 

When celluloid became audible in Hollywood, Tin-pan Alley began 
to move West. Theme song inventors, "hot" jazz arrangers, and mod- 
ernistic orchestrate rs were at a premium. The early history of jazz 
or ragtime, to use the term that came into vogue about 1910 had been 
closely connected with San Francisco. "They've got a dance out there, 
they call the grizzly bear" so went the lyric. One of the original 
popularizers of the jazz tempo was Art Hickman, whose first contact 
with ragtime had been on the Barbary Coast. But Hollywood was 
destined to become the jazz center as musicians, emulating the prospec- 
tors of '49, began their trek to California. In the early days of tl 
talkies most musical scores were patchworks of themes from familial 
classics. Then Hollywood began importing the better composers oi 
popular songs men like Irving Berlin and George Gershwin to write 
melodies which were inserted with infinite labor into film drama plot 

Only recently have American producers begun to follow the example 
of their European confreres by commissioning serious composers to writ 
synchronized musical scores. Today composers of reputation, such 
Werner Janssen, George Antheil, Ferde Grofe, Jerome Kern, and Ericl 
Korngold, have begun writing directly for the screen. Kurt Weill's 
score for You and Me, George Antheil's for The Buccaneer, and Wer- 
ner Janssen's for The General Died at Dawn and Blockade have ei 
hanced the artistic quality of the films. Conductors and performers as 
well as composers of international prestige have been summoned tc 
Hollywood, as producers have lavished greater and greater sums 01 
their music budgets. 

California composers include Ernst Bacon, whose Symphony in 
Minor won the 1932 Pulitzer Prize; Charles Wakefield Cadman, notee 
for his use of Indian themes, and William Grant Still, well-knowi 
Negro composer and conductor. Henry Hadley, for some years c< 
ductor of the San Francisco Symphony, did much of his work in tl 
State; Ernest Bloch wrote his symphonic suite America in the hills oi 
Marin County; and Arnold Schoenberg, in exile from Germany, is 
chairman of the department of music at the University of California at 
Los Angeles. Among the moderns are Gerald Strang, Roy Harris, 
Frederick Jacobi, and Henry Cowell, leader of an experimental sch< 
of composition. 




In the days before the Civil War, the Rocky Mountains were a 
favored subject among American landscape painters. The artists who 
came to the Western territories were stirred by the magnificence, 
grandeur, and sheer size of the new country. To them, as to the gold 
seekers, America had suddenly opened extravagant possibilities. Here 
was a land of prodigies: mountains, precipices, cataracts, dead craters, 
snowy ascents, vertiginous cliffs. It seemed to the pioneer artists that 
this wild country was prepared to yield limitless esthetic rewards. 

California art of this period succeeded in exciting eastern imagina- 
tions and in disclosing the scenic marvels of the virgin territory. 
Artistically, however, it overshot its mark in attempting to reproduce in 
pictorial terms the gigantic proportions of the mountains, canyons, and 
forests of the West. Many of the huge canvases of that time, techni- 
cally weak and devoid of emotional content, today seem of dubious 

The painters of spectacular scenery were not, however, the first 
artists to reach California. Before their arrival, a unique artistic de- 
velopment had taken place in connection with the Spanish Missions 
which administered California territory for the larger part of a century. 
The Indians whom the padres found in the locality had practiced handi- 
crafts and pictorial art according to traditions extending back to pre- 
historic times the "rock paintings" discovered in California mountains 
and caves are evidence of this early skill. The missions, which exploited 
the labor of the natives, brought them under the influence of Spanish 
teachings in religion and the crafts. The indigenous art, with its motifs 
and symbols representing the sun, men, animals, and nature mysteries, 
thus became oddly intermingled with the old World tradition. For 
example, in the "Stations of the Cross" series painted on sail-cloth at 
the San Gabriel Mission before 1779, Indian neophytes working under 
direction of their Spanish masters repeated a centuries-old Christian 
theme. Most of the early mission murals were later covered with 
whitewash and plaster; they are being reclaimed today, chiefly through 
the efforts of the Index of American Design division of the Federal Art 
Project. Indian craftsmen, and on occasion the padres themselves, also 
produced carved and painted statues and figurines, plaques, iron grille 
work, church implements, costumes, stamped and colored leatherwork, 
textiles, metalwork, and embroideries. An exceptionally rich and varied 
"folk art" was thus contributed to early California. 


During this era numerous paintings and sculptures were brought 
into California from Spain and Mexico, and wandering artists from 
those countries painted panels and altarpieces and portraits of the Span- 
ish gentry. While somewhat primitive technically, the unsigned por- 
traits, a few of which are still owned by descendants of the haciendados 
and by California museums, are often charming and esthetically satis- 
fying in their direct, literal treatment. 

By the end of the eighteenth century books of travel and exploration 
began to include illustrations of California. Perhaps the first of these 
is Vancouver's A Voyage of Discovery, published in London in 1798, 
which contains two sketches of mission and presidio buildings "taken on 
the spot" by J. Sykes. Interesting aquatints of California scenes are to 
be found in other volumes of the first half of the nineteenth century. 
The first painter to remain and practice in California, whose name is 
known, is W. S. Jewett. Early in 1850 he executed a large oil, which, 
according to the first issue of the famous Overland Monthly, July 
1868, "properly ought to begin the record of California art production." 
The painting represents a newly arrived immigrant family on a summit 
of the Sierra Nevada. 

The discovery of gold brought, along with members of the othei 
professions, a few painters, and for some 30 years their chief aim was to 
reproduce the California scene. One of the most successful was Charl( 
C. Nahl, born in Germany of a family of accomplished artists. His 
work, little known outside of California, shows a familiarity witl 
European traditions. His The Fandango and Sunday in the Mines ai 
excellent pictorial documents. 

Of the school of heroic landscape, Albert Bierstadt (18301902), 
Thomas Hill (1829-1913) and Thomas Moran (1837-1926) achieved 
the widest popularity both at home and abroad. Bierstadt, born in 
Diisseldorf, was brought to America as a child. His Landers' Peak, 
drew an enthusiastic response from his contemporaries. Bierstadt spent 
much time in California among the natural wonders of the Yosemite 
Valley, the Sierra, and the great valleys of the Sacramento and San 

Thomas Hill started his career as a coach painter. His canvas 
like those of Bierstadt, were enormous panoramic views of mountaii 
ranges, which seemed in their day to express the "magnificent scenery oi 
that marvelous region, where the roar of the whirlwind and the roll ol 
thunder reverberate like the tread of countless millions who evermore 
march westward." Later generations, however, have found less sul 
stance in Hill's paintings. 

Thomas Moran, a man of extraordinary versatility, had profitec 
from study abroad. The influence of Turner enriched his canvases, an< 
though in his own time he was less eagerly acclaimed than Bierstadt 01 

THE A RTS 157 

Hill, his solid talent has since given him a higher rank. Like others of 
the California group, Moran devoted much of his work to the dramatic 
scenery of the West ; he also was considered one of the best etchers of 
his day. Moran painted with ease and fluency, and his composition was 
masterly; yet, on the whole, his work lacks subtlety of handling and is 
too solid and inert for modern taste. 

Notable among the many lesser painters who followed Bierstadt, 
Hill, and Moran, are Raymond A. Yelland, marine painter and art 
educator; Jules Tavernier, whose work includes numerous paintings of 
Indian life as well as many landscapes ; Thaddeus Welch, painter of the 
Mount Tamalpais region; and Charles D. Robinson, who celebrated 
the scenic marvels of the Yosemite Valley. 

Of special distinction among California landscapists was William 
Keith (1838-1911), who came to California in 1859. Like the painters 
of the French Barbizon school and his friend George Inness, Keith 
sought subjective harmony and poetic mood in his painting. He avoided 
the grandiose, and in his work the theatrical naturalism of Moran and 
Bierstadt gave way to brooding and tranquil scenes serene groves of 
live oak, clearings in the interior of woods, hillsides, brooks remarkable 
for their play of light and shade. Toby Edward Rosenthal (1848- 
1917), a native of Connecticut, was brought as a child to San Fran- 
cisco, where he studied under the Mexican painter, Fortunate Arriola. 
Rosenthal spent much time in Europe, maintaining a studio in Munich. 
In its literary themes and scrupulous craftsmanship, his work reflected 
the styles of the Munich and older Diisseldorf schools. His method 
was laborious and scholarly; it was not exceptional for him to spend 
three years in research, travel, and sketching, to produce a single canvas 
like The Trial of Constance of Beverley, now owned by Stanford Uni- 
versity. Rosenthal's documentary paintings brought to his studio many 
admirers and buyers, while lithographers bid against one another for 
permission to reproduce them, even before they were dry. 

With the decline of the heroic school new influences from the East 
and from abroad began to affect California painting and sculpture. In 
the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the currents of impressionism, 
Munich genre painting, eclecticism, and French romanticism mingled 
with the local development. Public interest in art during this period 
was stimulated by the organization of the San Francisco Institute of 
Arts in 1874; the founding of the E. B. Crocker Art Gallery in Sacra- 
mento in 1884; the exhibition of 60 local artists at the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition in Chicago in 1893; the establishment of the M. H. de 
Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco in 1895, an d of the South- 
west Museum in Los Angeles in 1903. 

The Bohemian Club of San Francisco, founded in 1872, reflected 
the diversity of interests animating the newer art. Among its members 


during the decades that followed were Arthur Matthews, painter, 
architect, and decorator, examples of whose works may be seen on the 
walls of many public buildings in the State ; Bruce Porter who executed 
stained glass and mural paintings for California churches and public 
buildings; Gottardo Piazzoni, landscapist, who contributed the murals 
at the San Francisco Public Library; Xavier Martinez, born in Mexico, 
who has lived for many years in the Bay region, where many of his 
works are in the possession of the Oakland Art Gallery ; Charles Dick- 
man, painter of landscapes and marines; and Henry Joseph Breuer, 
landscapist. Arthur Atkins, who despite his early death left a number 
of excellent landscapes, was close to the Bohemian Club. 

Having moved to Monterey in 1895 Francis McComas, Bohemian 
Club painter of oils, water colors, and murals, became one of the 
Monterey-Carmel group which included Charles Rollo Peters, widely 
known as the painter of the "nocturnal witchery and glamour of Cali- 
fornia," and Armin Hansen, colorist and etcher. William Ritschel 
painted many landscapes of the Monterey-Carmel coast line. 

By the turn of the century notable artists were working in Los 
Angeles, where the painting of William Wendt exerted an early influ- 
ence. The hills of this region, drenched in sunlight for the greater 
part of the year, furnish the subject matter of most Southern California 
landscapists. Soon Los Angeles was no longer the only Southern Cali- 
fornia art center : groups were formed in Santa Barbara, Laguna Beach, 
San Diego, La Jolla, and other localities. 

California's first eminent sculptor was Douglas Tilden, born in 
1860. He received his early education at Berkeley and later studied 
sculpture in Paris. Among his best known works are The Football 
Players in Berkeley and the Mechanics' Fountain in San Francisco. 
Robert I. Aitken, whose many monuments in the State have received 
high praise, was one of Tilden's pupils. Edgar Walter and Earl Cum- 
mings were also influenced by Tilden. Other California sculptors of 
the period are Roger Noble Burnham, Frank Happersburger, Marion 
F. Wells, Chester Beach, and Haig Patigian. The figures of wild life 
executed by Arthur Putnam, who died in 1930, received wide appre- 

The San Francisco Exposition of 1915 brought the work of the 
French moderns to the attention of a considerable number of Cali- 
fornians. As elsewhere, the immediate response to this new art 
mainly one of bewilderment and irritation. In the next decades, hoi 
ever, the aims of Cezanne, Van Gogh, Seurat, Gaugin, and then 
twentieth century followers gradually became more intelligible both t( 
California artists and to the public. Modern influences entered th< 
California School of Fine Arts, founded in 1874, through courses b} 
Arnold Blanch and Maurice Sterne. New decorative and experiment; 


techniques began to be applied by an increasing number of local artists. 
Abstract and surrealist art, regionalism, and social realism became major 
trends. The Mexicans, Rivera, Orozco, and Siqueiros, inspired in many 
artists of the San Francisco and Los Angeles areas a new interest in 
the problems of mural painting. 

Today there are so many artists in California, working in such a 
profusion of styles and aims, that the State has become one of the 
leading centers of art activity in the Nation. It is, unfortunately, 
impossible to describe here the scores of personalities and accomplish- 
ments that merit attention. 

In sculpture, too, new possibilities were explored : the massive figures 
of workmen produced by the social realists; the archaic formalism 
favored in architectural ornament; the suggestive shapes of the abstrac- 
tionists ; and the controversial experiments of the pioneers of new media. 

Important museums and galleries have appeared in California since 
the beginning of the twentieth century. Among these are: the Los 
Angeles Museum of History, Science and Art, founded in 1913; the 
Los Angeles Art Association, organized in 1925; the Fine Arts Society 
of San Diego, 1925; the Henry E. Huntington Art Gallery at San 
Marino, opened in 1928; the Louis Terah Haggin Memorial Galleries 
at Stockton, 1928. 

The Federal Arts Projects of the WPA have developed an extensive 
program for bringing art and the general public into closer relation. 
Murals, sculpture, easel painting, and graphic work executed under its 
auspices have been allocated to public buildings throughout the State, 
Its Index of Design Division and art teaching staffs have performed 
broad services in popular education. Another Federal Agency, the 
Treasury Department Art Project, has commissioned murals for govern- 
ment buildings on a competitive basis. 

The plan of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition includes 
a comprehensive art program which may have important effects upon 
the local development of art. California painters and sculptors, includ- 
ing representatives of the newer styles, are reaching a larger public with 
murals and sculptures for the fair grounds. The vast exhibition of old 
masters assembled at the Palace of Fine Arts will make available for 
study examples of the Italian, Flemish, Dutch and English schools; 
various governments are loaning to this exhibition masterpieces never 
before seen on this continent. The Exposition's decorative arts and 
crafts exhibit, comprising work from many countries and periods, will 
endeavor to show the parts played by machine and handmade products 
in daily life. 

Art in California today, attentive to new creative impulses from 
every part of the world, is striving to overcome passive imitation and to 
make a contribution of its own to the progress of art. Whether it will 


be possible, or even desirable, to distinguish in the future a distinct 
"California style" no one can state with assurance. In the meantime, 
art in the State has discovered in such essentially public genres as mural 
painting and reliefs, sculptured monuments, and government-sponsored 
exhibitions a deeper orientation with respect to the social life of the 



The fiesta, the pageant, and the outdoor theater were natural 
developments in California, where people have always spent much of 
their time in the open. When Americans first came to California, they 
found a people who amused themselves with singing and dancing, and 
on fiesta days watched the fandango danced to the accompaniment of 
choruses. This essentially Mediterranean type of entertainment has 
survived in such diverse forms as the Ramona Pageant, La Fiesta de 
Los Angeles, the Bohemian Club's "high jinks" and the Mt. Tamalpais 
Mountain Play. But for fifty years after the influx of Americans Cali- 
fornia was, in general, not very conscious of its Spanish heritage, and 
the theater as elsewhere in the United States, followed the British and 
French tradition. 

In 1846 the wing of an adobe house in Monterey, surviving today as 
the oldest theater in California, became an amusement hall for Steven- 
son's New York Regiment. Minstrel shows, old English farces, and 
even Shakespearean plays were produced. American soldiers at the 
Sonoma garrison played Benjamin Webster's The Golden Farmer in 
an improvised theater for four months in the following year, and 
minstrel shows were given by the American soldiers in Santa Barbara. 

The forty niners most of them without families were enthusiastic 
and generous patrons of any kind of entertainment. The gold rush 
brought actors from the Mississippi showboats; from the theaters of 
New Orleans, Galveston, Mobile, and New York; from Europe and 
Australia. Dramatic actors, "Ethiopian serenaders," minstrels, circus 
clowns, acrobats, performed in tents and crudely contrived temporary 
halls, or in the gambling rooms of the hotels and saloons, surrounded by 
French mirrors, French pictures, and blazing chandeliers, while faro, 
monte, rouge et noir, vingt-et-un, ronda, and roulette games went on 
night and day. Female performers, who were extremely rare at first, 


met with sure success. Home melodies sung by women had a powerful 
effect on the miners, who frequently showered the performer with 
nuggets and small pouches of gold dust. 

In Sacramento The Bandit Chief was performed by professionals 
at the Eagle Theater, the first building erected in California especially 
for theatrical performances. It was a wooden frame with canvas walls 
and a roof of tin and sheet iron. Estimates of its cost ranged from 
$30,000 to $85,000. It was formally opened October 18, 1849, al- 
though the "Stockton Minstrels" had played in it to a full house the 
month before. 

Driven from Sacramento by floods, the Eagle Theater Company 
went to San Francisco in January 1850, and in a second-floor hall 
performed The Wije, a touching tale in blank verse. San Francisco 
had already, on June 22, 1849, witnessed its first theatrical perform- 
ance. In a rickety schoolroom, crowded to suffocation, Stephen C. 
Massett, a stout, red-faced little Englishman, with a great mop of curls, 
sang original ditties and burlesqued famous singers of the day. The 
front seats were reserved for ladies, of whom there were four present. 
Rowe's Olympic Circus and several minstrel companies appeared during 
the same year. Most of the halls erected in San Francisco were de- 
stroyed by the fires of 1850 and 1851, but new theaters were rapidly 
built, including the Museum and the famous Jenny Lind. The Mu- 
seum's first play, Seeing the Elephant, ridiculed the gold rush, and, in 
general, performances at this theater had local flavor. The Jenny Lind, 
twice burned to the ground and rebuilt by Tom Maguire, was more 
ambitious and gave many Shakespearean plays. In 1853 there were 
seven theaters in San Francisco, among them the American, the Adelphi 
(built by the French), and the costly and massive Metropolitan. 

Junius Brutus Booth, the elder, came to San Francisco with his 
19-year-old son, Edwin, in 1852; on the death of his father young 
Edwin remained for a while in California laying a firm foundation for 
his later fame. Kate Hayes, "the willowy swan of Erin," arrived in 
the same year, "fresh from triumphs at the Covent Garden." Other 
actors came James Stark, Anna Thillon, Signora Elise Biscaccianti 
and many more. Shortly afterwards Lotta Crabtree, aged nine, made 
her first dramatic appearance, in Petaluma as Gertrude in A Loan of a 
Lover. Breaking into an occasional jig and roll in the midst of the 
performance, she won her audience ; thereafter, whether playing her 
banjo, dancing, and making merry, or acting scenes of overwhelming 
pathos as "Little Nell," Lotta could do no wrong. She attained ex- 
traordinary popularity throughout northern California, 

"Because in Lotta we can see 
Artistic concentration 
Of sweetness, strength and piquancy, 
A pungent combination." 


and to many Californians her legend remains alive to this day. The 
celebrated Lola Montez, favorite of kings, made her home for a time at 
Grass Valley, and danced there and at other camps and slumgullion 

In San Francisco the opening of the California Theater in 1869, 
under the joint direction of the two great actors, Lawrence Barrett and 
John McCullough, dimmed the glory of the Metropolitan. The first 
plays were Bulwer-Lytton's Money, followed by Marie Antoinette and 
Richelieu. In 1877 Helene Modjeska, the Polish actress, came from 
the southern California bee ranch where she and her husband had spent 
several months in political exile, and appeared at the California in 
Adrienne Lecouvreur, the first of her successes on the English-speaking 
stage. The California, rebuilt in 1888, remained a popular playhouse 
until destroyed by the fire in 1906. Among its competitors was the 
Baldwin Theater, for a time managed by young David Belasco, later to 
become a world-famous actor-manager and producer. His direction, at 
the Grand Opera House in 1878, of The Story of the Passion, based on 
the birth of Christianity, aroused a storm of controversy. 

Although minstrel companies and circuses frequently went to 
Southern California, Los Angeles did not see its first complete troupe 
until November 1860, when the Stark and Ryer Company played to 
enthusiastic audiences in a ramshackle hall called the Temple Theater. 
San Diego was visited by a professional troupe as early as 1868 and 
plays were performed in both Spanish and English. The leading actors 
usually came from the north and more than one performance was de- 
layed when a steamer from San Francisco failed to arrive on time. In 
Los Angeles the Merced was opened in the late sixties, but the first 
theaters of consequence Child's Opera House, Tivoli Opera House, 
and the Burbank Theater were not built until the great real estate 
boom in the i88o's. It long remained difficult to engage the best road 
companies for southern California, and Los Angeles did not become a 
good theater town until after 1900. 

By the turn of the century the management of most theaters was in 
the hands of national syndicates. San Francisco was an important 
theatrical center, with many road attractions, frequent productions of 
new plays, opera, and large spectacles. At the Alcazar, which had 
housed Belasco's famous company after the Baldwin Theater burned 
down, and at the Savoy, Henry Duffy's stock companies played for 
many years in spite of the growing pressure of the movies. During the 
decade preceding the World War, the professional theater in Los 
Angeles largely centered on three houses managed by the Morosco- 
Blackwood Company. The new plays produced in Los Angeles during 
this period included Richard Walton Tully's The Bird of Paradise, 
and Kindling, with Margaret Illington in the lead. Henry Duffy's 


chain of theaters later extended to Los Angeles. Linden E. Behymer, 
Simeon Gest, and Ellis Reid opened theaters where good plays were 
acted by movie professionals "at liberty." There is no independent pro- 
fessional theatrical activity, though many Broadway importations reach 
the city. 

While accepting the Broadway diet, Calif ornians can boast of the 
stars who began their careers in the old Coast theaters. The roll 
includes in addition to those already mentioned the names of Nance 
O'Neill, Maude Allan, Isadora Duncan, Minnie Maddern Fiske, 
Maude Adams, Marjorie Rambeau, Holbrook Blinn, Blanche Bates, 
Pauline Lord, and Edna Wallace Hopper. Mary Anderson was a 
native of Sacramento; Frank Mayo made his debut in San Francisco; 
David Warfield once worked as an usher in a San Francisco theater. 
Like Belasco, William A. Brady, the eminent producer, was born in 
California and had his first professional experience in San Francisco, 
while Morris Mayerfeld, who built the Orpheum circuit, was prominent 
in the rapid development of vaudeville entertainment. 

At about the turn of the century, California rediscovered its Spanish 
heritage of outdoor drama. San Francisco's Bohemian Club presented 
the first of its annual plays in 1902 in its private redwood grove near 
Monte Rio. Usually poetic in form with musical accompaniment, the 
play is written, staged, and acted by club members. About the same 
time the Forest Theater in the Carmel artists' colony began to give 
plays. Typical of the many mission spectacles was the San Gabriel 
Mission Play, given annually for about two decades after 1912, which 
interspersed historical episodes with dances, songs, and ceremonies. The 
Ramona Pageant, presented in April and May in the Ramona Bowl, 
near Hemet, is a dramatization of Helen Hunt Jackson's Ramona; the 
cast is made up of local people, many of whom are Spanish Californians. 
Tahquitz, dealing with the traditions of the Coahuila Indians, the 
Pilgrimage Play, at Hollywood, and La Fiesta de Los Angeles are 
among the many pageants now given annually in natural amphitheaters. 

California also has several outdoor theaters,, modeled on Greek or 
Roman forms. The best known is the Greek Theater of the University 
of California in Berkeley. Many celebrities have appeared here, includ- 
ing Sarah Bernhardt in Racine's Phedre, Maude Adams as Rosalind in 
As You Like It, and Margaret Anglin, who in 1910-15 revived Soph- 
ocles' Antigone, and Electra, and Euripedes' Medea. Sam Hume and 
later Irving Pichel directed the Greek Theater and gave notable pro- 
ductions. There are other Greek Theaters in Los Angeles, Bakersfield, 
and Pomona College, and many garden theaters, modeled after the 
Italian and German types, throughout the State. 

The little theater movement in California, as elsewhere in America, 
developed in the second decade of the present century, when road com- 


panics ceased to be commercially profitable. Small local theaters were 
built in many places; elsewhere performances were given in private 
homes, school auditoriums, halls of fraternal lodges, and converted 
barns. Little theaters have a large following in the State, community 
drama associations flourish, and high school and college students take 
active interest in the stage. 

In 1916 Gilmor Brown, director of a financially unsuccessful road 
company, induced a number of Pasadena citizens to support a local 
theater. In 1918 the Pasadena Community Playhouse Association was 
organized on a non-profit basis, with Brown as manager and director. 
One of the theater's most spectacular productions was Eugene O'Neill's 
Lazarus Laughed. The performance of this religious drama required 
over 350 masks (designed and made by college students in Los An- 
geles), 350 costumes, and 6 sets. The present building of the Pasadena 
Playhouse was opened in 1925. In 1937 tne house was drawing its 
performers, aside from occasional well-known stars, from a list of 1,000 
players and had a school of dramatics with 200 students. 

The Lobero Theater in Santa Barbara was founded in 1872 by the 
popular Jose Lobero, an Italian saloonkeeper and musician, whose fling 
at the production of grand opera proved financially calamitous; rebuilt 
in 1924, and now controlled by the Community Arts Association, the 
theater houses community drama, road shows, and concerts. 

Sacramento, Palo Alto, Laguna Beach, and Escondido, and other 
California towns have well-organized groups of community players. 
Oakland, in 1934, had more than 60 separate producing organizations. 
Among the San Francisco groups are the Players Club, the Wayfarers, 
the Golden Bough, and Theater Union. At the Gaite Franchise, Andre 
Ferrier carries on the long tradition of French theaters in the city. 

In Los Angeles professional players take part in little theater activi- 
ties, while waiting for their chance in the movies, or between jobs. The 
Cordova Playhouse, the Beverly Hills Community Players, the Little 
Theater of Beverly Hills, the Contemporary Theater, and the Spotlight 
Theater Club are semi-professional community theaters. A group of 
Mexican players has recently organized the Padua Hills Theater in 
Claremont, Los Angeles County. 

The University of California Little Theater in Berkeley, directed 
by Edwin Duerr, gave the first performance of Robinson Jeffer's Tower 
Beyond Tragedy and the American premiere of Intermezzo by Jean 
Giradoux. At Stanford several noteworthy productions have been given, 
including that of T. S. Eliot's Murder in the Cathedral, elaborately 
staged late in 1937. Students at the University of California at Los 
Angeles co-operate with the Pasadena Community Playhouse in design- 
ing scenery and costumes for many productions. Several of the little 
theater groups have laid stress on encouraging local playwrights. 


The Federal Theater Project of the Works Progress Administration 
has acting groups in many cities and towns in the State. One of their 
first ventures was Follow the Parade, a semitopical revue, which in 1936 
ran six months in Los Angeles. Later came such plays as // Cant Hap- 
pen Here, Chalk Dust, Battle Hymn, Class of '29, and Triple A 
Plowed Under. The Negro group has produced Black Empire, Mac- 
beth, Androcles and the Lion, and Run Lil Chillun. The project at its 
peak has employed approximately 2,000 persons in the State, and has 
played to an aggregate audience of 2,000,000. 

ORIENTAL THEATERS: There were enough Chinese in Cali- 
fornia in the 1850*8 to support a company of 123 actors, which opened 
at a San Francisco theater in October, 1852. At one time as many 
as six companies were playing in San Francisco, though at present 
(i939) only one, the Mandarin Theater, presents legitimate drama; 
the Great China Theater is devoted to the Chinese motion picture. 
Almost without exception Chinese drama in America is Cantonese; but 
occasionally an example of the North China, or Mandarin, drama is 
presented when an artist such as Mei Lan-fang makes a tour. The 
plots are generally stories from the Chinese classics well known to the 
average auditor. 

Each Chinese play, though complete in itself, is only a fragment of 
the total story, and usually a cycle of plays is closely knit around one 
legend. The average play lasts five hours, and the bulk of the audience 
arrives for the third and fourth hour. They come for the high spots of 
the particular play much as the cultured Westerner would go to the 
Metropolitan in time to hear Lily Pons sing the mad scene from Lucia. 
The first hour of the play, given over to explanations which connect it 
with the cycle, is considered unimportant by the authors. Another factor 
which accounts for the empty theater during the first hour is that the 
highest admission prices prevail at the opening, and each hour thereafter 
they are reduced. The Chinese who cannot afford 75^ or $i at the 
beginning, can usually afford 25^ after 10 o'clock. 

The Westerner who goes to a Chinese theater unprepared may well 
believe that pandemonium has broken loose. But a definite pattern lies 
back of the seemingly endless blare of gongs, one-stringed fiddles, snake- 
skin drums, and wailing woodwinds. It would seem that the actor in 
superb bejeweled silken costumes is it a man or a woman? screams, 
or whines more or less in company with the orchestra. In the front of 
the house the audience sits stolidly watching the stage. In the rear, 
small groups cluster together, eating and gossiping, but they rarely miss 
an important moment in the play. The food stall in the foyer does a 
brisk business in candies, oranges, pickled duck feet, ice cream, lichee 
nuts, and the ever-present watermelon seeds the cracking of which 
adds an interesting counterpoint to the opera's music. Children, who 


are always admitted free, scurry up and down the aisles, dash between 
seats, and generally add to the hurly-burly of the stage, yet appear to 
disturb no one. 

Unbelievably, the full five-hour performance is produced without a 
rehearsal. Because the actor begins his profession at about the age of 
ten and plays and replays the classics for many years, he needs very little 
time to brush up in any part. Furthermore, the actor must be rigidly 
word-perfect only in the high spots of the play. The balance follows a 
pattern which is loose enough to allow extemporaneous speeches, and an 
actor's ability is judged by his facility in improvising. But woe betide 
the actor who falls down on a set aria ; the audience becomes hawk-like 
in its attention during the classic moments. 

Since 1912 women have been allowed to act a thing forbidden 
throughout the Manchu rule and in recent years stage properties such 
as back drops, curtains, and realistic props have replaced the former 
pantomime and imaginative handling of stage accessories. Yet the 
magnificent costumes, many of which cost more than a thousand dollars, 
the grotesque facial makeup for traditional characters, the intricate 
sword dances continue despite changes, and even the uninitiated West- 
erner is fascinated by this art, centuries older than his own civilization. 

Prominent actors from Japan occasionally visit the principal Cali- 
fornia cities and towns, and with local help present some of the favored 
Kabuki and Ken-Geki plays, founded on the epic legends of feudalism 
and involving traditionally set roles and action. These events take place 
in local Japanese meeting halls, also used for amateur dramatics, dances, 
and funerals. In Los Angeles there is a Japanese theater that occa- 
sionally gives performances with imported Japanese companies, and a 
motion picture house that shows imported Japanese films. 


THE EARLIEST architecture in California was that of the Span- 
ish Franciscans. These missionary friars, led by Fra Junipero 
Serra, founded 21 missions along the coastwise Camino Real 
between 1769 and 1823 the first at San Diego, the last at Sonoma. 
It has been said that the poverty to which the Franciscan monks were 
pledged is the virtue of their mission churches. In comparison with 
eighteenth century Spanish Colonial architecture in Mexico and the 
Southwest, they exhibit simplicity of form and humility in treatment. 
The relative austerity of the missions was due mainly to the limited 
resources in materials and skilled labor. 

There are three general types of plans in mission churches: those 
having only a simple nave without side aisles, as San Miguel and 
Dolores; those of rectangular plan with a single bell tower on the 
front, as San Buenaventura and San Luis Rey de Francia; and those 
with two belfried towers, as admirably exemplified by Mission Santa 
Barbara. Typically, the missions w r ere planned around a patio quad- 
rangle, usually enclosed by the church and minor buildings the cells 
of the friars, quarters for the Indian workmen, servants and soldiers, 
guest rooms, work shops, refectory, kitchen, and convent for young 
Indian women. These minor buildings were arranged in two and 
sometimes three rows of chambers with arcaded cloisters fronting the 
patio and sometimes the outer plaza. The arches were carried on heavy 
piers rather than columns. 

The missions were constructed of stone and adobe, finished inside 
and out with mud plaster and frequently strengthened on the outside 



with heavy buttresses. The whitewasned exterior walls, with their 
simple architectural adornments and deeply recessed wall openings, are 
in striking contrast to contemporary Churrigueresque style of vice- 
regal Mexico. They were relieved only by the typical grouping of 
detail around the doors and windows pilasters, classic trim, paneling, 
and an occasional iron or wooden grille. The most characteristic fea- 
tures, however, are the pitched roofs of hewn timber covered with red 
tile; the square towers with their domed and arched belfries, usually 
in two stages; and the curvilinear gables rising above the peak of the 
roof to give a more elaborate silhouette and added height to the facade. 
Frequently the gable ends were adorned with a niched figure of a saint 
or pierced with arched belfries, as at Mission San Gabriel. Occa- 
sionally they were designed in the form of a classic pediment. Perhaps 
the most notable mission church in California is Santa Barbara. The 
design of its strictly classic facade with columns and pediments, based 
upon a drawing in the Spanish edition of Vitruvius, is entirely in keep- 
ing with the earliest phase of the Spanish Renaissance. The restored 
San Juan Capistrano Mission with its ruined sanctuary and cloistered 
arcades is architecturally one of the most pretentious of the chain. 
Other notable missions in California are San Carlos de Borromeo at 
Carmel, San Gabriel Arcangel near Los Angeles, San Diego Alcala 
in San Diego, and San Antonio de Padua near Jolon. 

Generally free of the emotionalism and excesses of the Spanish 
baroque, the interiors of the missions reflect the simple taste of the 
Franciscan order. They are characterized by long narrow naves with 
whitewashed walls and painted ornaments, low dados, slender pilasters 
naively rendered in imitation of marble, occasional festoons and drap- 
eries, and timber ceilings with dark hand-carved, stenciled beams sup- 
ported at the walls by scrolled brackets. Forming the focal point at 
one end is the sanctuary with its high altar, decorative reredos and 
wine glass pulpit. The altar and reredos were often freely embellished 
with colorful paintings, draped figures and gilded carvings executed by 
the padres and Indian craftsmen in the manner of both the Plateresque 
and Churrigueresque Spanish tradition. The fine detail of the facade 
of San Carlos near Monterey, the delicately carved reredos of San 
Juan Capistrano and the ornate retable of the mortuary chapel of San 
Luis Rey de Francia are striking but not isolated examples of Fran- 
ciscan decoration. The monks also acquired ornate and gilded furnish- 
ings from Mexico and Spain and enriched their walls with paintings, 
as exemplified by the elaborate reredos of the Mission Dolores and the 
murals at San Miguel. 

Within a few years of the coming of the Franciscans the Spanish 
Government made vast grants of land, where the Spanish and Mexican 
rancheros built their homes and established themselves with their fami- 


lies, their vaqueros, and their herds. Like the builders of the missions 
they used adobe, but whereas the monks wished to put up churches as 
nearly as possible in a style traditionally ecclesiastical, the Spanish dons 
were concerned only with comfort and convenience. The charm of 
these adobe houses lies in their simplicity, their admirable proportions, 
and their fitness with the landscape. 

Many Spanish Colonial houses are still standing. In southern Cali- 
fornia they are usually one story in height and rectangular in plan, 
occasionally with a wing forming an "L." Their timber roofs, covered 
with hand-riven shingles or tile, frequently extend over a long veranda 
supported by wooden posts along one or sometimes three sides of the 
house. The interiors are planned with and without corridors; circula- 
tion from one room to another in the case of the latter is provided by 
way of the veranda. The thick adobe walls are covered with white- 
washed mud plaster and pierced with small double-hung windows, set 
flush with the outside wall surface and frequently protected by simple 
iron or wooden grilles. The interiors, also finished in plaster, have 
tile and wooden floors, ceilings with exposed hewn beams of pine or 
redwood, and deep splayed and paneled windows, often having seats 
and inner shutters. 

Farther north the houses are frequently two stories in height with 
massive first story walls, three feet thick, and thinner second-story walls 
generally offset from the inside. The two-story dwellings have bal- 
conies at the front and rear, occasionally extending around the entire 
house. The balconies are generally of two types: two storied, with 
posts extending from ground to roof of upper gallery ; and cantilevered, 
with posts at the second story supporting an overhanging roof. Due to 
the weight of tile roofing, the balconies are frequently covered with 
wood shakes or hand-split shingles. 

Numerous adobe structures erected by the Spanish dons during 
the prosperous 1830'$ and 1 840'$ are still found along the streets of 
small coast towns, in the old sections of the large cities, and scattered 
over the valleys and plains. By far the greatest number are in Mon- 
terey. Among the most notable of these Colonial structures in this 
historic town are the Larkin house, the Old Customs House, the 
Pacific Building (one of the early hotels), the Eldorado House, the 
Escolas House, and the Old Whaling Station. Perhaps one of the 
most picturesque ranch houses is the Olivos House near Ventura with 
its two-story porch, outer stairway and belfried gate. Other notable 
examples are found in the Paseo de la Guerra in Santa Barbara, on 
Olvera Street in Los Angeles, and along the picturesque streets of Old 
Town in San Diego. 

Many of the first American settlers were from New England and 
they brought with them the stern architectural traditions of that 


region. Even before 1850 an architectural fusion had begun. The 
Americans combined their sound workmanship and feeling for good 
design with the traditions of Spanish California. In the coast counties 
already settled by the Spanish, they frequently used adobe, but added 
early nineteenth-century American detail in the form of clapboard sid- 
ing, green blinds and double-hung windows and paneled doors flanked 
by small side lights. Some of the intrepid pioneers from the East dis- 
mantled the homes they had occupied, brought the material with them 
around the Horn, and reconstructed their dwellings in California. One 
of these structures, erected in 1852, is on the Sherwood ranch near 
Salinas. , 

During the eighteen thirties and eighteen forties, while the first 
overland immigrants were arriving in the Sacramento Valley, Russian 
pioneers were also attempting to establish a permanent settlement in 
Sonoma County. Little remains of the pioneer structures of these two 
groups except the quaint timbered Russian church at Fort Ross with 
its two silo-like cupolas and adjoining stockade, and the Old Bale Mill 
in Napa County, built in 1846. The latter, covered with narrow clap- 
boards, is a notable example of American pioneer architecture with its 
high "false front" and huge mill wheel. 

With the discovery of gold in 1848 and the mushroom growth of 
the older cities (especially in the north) and of the mining towns, the 
orderly development of the Spanish-American style of architecture was 
pushed into the background. The older inhabitants in the south and 
in the rural districts continued to build in the traditional manner, 
sometimes crudely imitated by the newcomers. But most of the build- 
ings of the mining towns in Sierra, Amador, El Dorado, and Tuo- 
lumne Counties, many of which are still in use today, frankly record 
the restless and temporary aspects of the era. Here are found num- 
erous dilapidated structures of frame, brick, and stone, one and two 
stories in height; some with steep gable roofs and overhanging eaves, 
others with front porches with rickety plank floors, slender wood posts 
and sagging shed roofs, while many are characterized by their "false 
fronts" with straight and saw-tooth silhouettes. Answering the needs 
of these mushroom towns countless general stores, makeshift hotels, 
rooming houses, banks, and saloons were erected. Many of these 
buildings may be seen in the vicinity of Downieville, El Dorado, Colum- 
bia, Knight's Ferry, and Weaverville. With their iron doors and 
window shutters, they still stand sometimes gutted with fire as at El 
Dorado; sometimes deserted as in the ghost towns of Old Shasta or 
Hornitos; but sometimes, as at Sonora or Angels Camp, they continue 
to serve the purposes for which they were built. 

Until the building of the transcontinental railroad in 1869, new 
fashions in architecture, as in other spheres, came slowly across the 


plains or around the Horn. The railroad was not an unmixed bless- 
ing, architecturally, for not only did it bring the lumber mill closer 
to every town, it brought the silver of the fabulous Comstock Lode, 
which meant wealth and wealth meant ever larger buildings with 
more and more fantastic architectural elements. An epidemic of the 
Victorian pestilence in aggravated form seized California. Whether 
it was the American version of Victorian Gothic with its pointed arches, 
battlements, and crestings or the vagaries of the French style of Na- 
poleon III with its mansard roofs and cupolas, bracketed pediments, 
iron crestings, and the addition of interminable jigsaw work, the re- 
sults were lamentable and are obvious enough in all the older towns 
and cities. In San Francisco thousands of Victorian horrors were de- 
stroyed in the earthquake of 1906; but many remain, their lines 
sometimes a little softened by shrubs and vines, sometimes stark and 
bare in their shabby decay. The architecture of San Francisco, prior to 
the great fire and earthquake, was predominantly a product of this 
period and taste. Notable among the city's remaining mid-nineteenth 
century buildings are the Octagon House near the corner of Union and 
Gough Streets, the Hoataling Store on Jackson Street, standing among 
a number of earlier structures, and Fort Winfield Scott in the Presidio. 
Other examples of this era are the old schoolhouse at Almaden; a 
quaint hillside house with a broad veranda adorned with jigsaw orna- 
ments, at the corner of Dodge and Stuart Streets in Sonora; and the 
pretentious gabled and bracketed Carson House, built by a wealthy 
lumberman in Eureka. 

During the late nineties a number of buildings were erected along 
more academic lines: the State Capitol in Sacramento with its Italian 
Renaissance dome and Corinthian porticos, the Fresno County Court- 
house, and the Ferry Terminal Building in San Francisco, with its 
slender tower pleasantly recalling the Giralda in Seville. At this time 
the architecture of California was influenced in a relatively minor way 
by the Romanesque Revival of H. H. Richardson. At Palo Alto the 
buildings for Stanford University afforded a group of his followers a 
fine opportunity to adapt the massive stonework, arcades, and mosaics 
of the Romanesque style to the design of the Memorial Church and the 
adjoining quadrangle. Other examples of this stylistic phase are the 
Mills Building in San Francisco, designed by Daniel Burnham, and 
the old Santa Fe Station in Los Angeles. 

At the turn of the century an improved but somewhat eclectic taste 
became manifest in California as elsewhere. The Neoclassic and Italian 
Renaissance styles, popularized in the East by McKim, Mead and 
White and by the grandiose buildings of the Chicago World's Fair in 
1893, were freely adapted to the designs of monumental public build- 
ings. In 1915 the buildings of the Panama Pacific Exposition in San 


Francisco contributed a lasting impetus to these traditional and stylistic 
trends. The Palace of Fine Arts, with its monumental colonnades and 
great rotunda, still standing on a lagoon in the old exposition grounds, 
admirably illustrates the academic formula of the Neoclassic style. And 
so, also, does a charming circular water temple at Sunol. 

More recent adaptations of classic architecture are the buildings of 
the formal civic group in San Francisco: the Renaissance City Hall by 
Bakewell and Brown, the Opera House, and the War Memorial Build- 
ing. The Neoclassic California Palace of the Legion of Honor, by 
George Applegarth and H. Guillaume, is another example of formal 
design in this city. The Public Library, the State Building and the 
new Federal Building, with its long colonnade leading up to the plaza, 
all show the academic training of their architects in the Beaux-Arts 
tradition. In Berkeley the buildings of the University of California are 
of white granite in the Neoclassic style. Correct and academic, they 
indicate a high order of talent, but perhaps only the tall campanile and 
the highly stylized Life Sciences Building by Arthur Brown show a 
touch of genius. The United States Post Office at Sacramento, en- 
riched by a fine Doric colonnade, follows the classic tradition with a 
rugged modern simplicity. At San Marino is the Huntington Library, 
by Myron Hunt, suggesting a more feminine rendering with coupled 
Ionic columns, and enhanced by formal landscaping. Perhaps the most 
modern adaptations of the Neoclassic style in civic buildings are the 
massive new Civic Center in San Diego, and the lofty Los Angeles City 
Hall, by Parkinson, Martin, and Austin, with its skyscraper tower and 
crowning pyramidal roof. 

Bertram Goodhue's California Building erected in San Diego 
(1915) displays a masterly handling of the highly ornate Spanish 
Churrigueresque style of old Mexico and has been a guiding influence 
in the development of the modern California Mission style. Of the 
modern Spanish Colonial buildings, many are frankly reminiscent, direct 
copies or close modifications of existing Spanish or Mexican structures, 
while others show considerable change and development. One of the 
most consistent examples of the former is the palatial City Hall of 
Santa Barbara, the work of Thomas Mooser, Jr. Other instances are 
to be found in the numerous buildings of Morgan, Walls and Clements. 
Although there exists no rule or ordinance governing architectural de- 
sign in the city of Santa Barbara, the art commission and the county 
regional planning board have encouraged and regulated the use of 
Spanish designs throughout the city. Various college buildings, in- 
cluding those at Occidental, Mills, and Scripps, display an admirable use 
of Spanish forms. The buildings making up the Pasadena Civic Center, 
the most notable of which is the library by Myron Hunt, are grouped 
about a terraced square. Their style is a formal expression of the Span- 


ish Renaissance, florid in its detail but admirable in its unity and mass. 
The individual buildings, held together by a consistent handling of the 
architectural elements, are dominated by the reddish gold dome of the 
City Hall. Several buildings of the California Institute of Technology 
in Pasadena, the Henry Data House and the Country Club in Monte- 
cito, the W. K. Kellogg Ranch buildings near Pomona, and in San 
Diego the Serra Museum, the permanent buildings of the Panama- 
California Exposition, the U. S. Marine Corps Base, and the U. S. 
Naval Air Station demonstrate the validity of the style to all but 

In recent years a number of outstanding works have been designed 
in a more modern version of the Romanesque style than that of H. H. 
Richardson. The University of California at Los Angeles has a fine 
group of buildings designed in this manner. Smaller but no less ad- 
mirable Romanesque designs are seen in the junior college building and 
Sacred Heart Church in Sacramento, the Church of the Precious Blood 
and St. John's Church in Los Angeles, and, surprisingly enough, in the 
tower of a wholesale coffee establishment near the San Francisco 
waterfront. Splendid examples of the ecclesiastical Gothic tradition, 
all adapted with a freshness and vigor of style, are St. Dominic's in San 
Francisco, the First Presbyterian Church in Oakland, Emanuel Pres- 
byterian Church in Los Angeles, and the unfinished Grace Cathedral 
in San Francisco. There are also occasional examples of the more 
colorful Byzantine style in such buildings as the Temple Emanuel in 
San Francisco and the B'nai B'rith Temple in Los Angeles. 

Since the beginning of the twentieth century one of the chief de- 
velopments in California domestic architecture has been the bungalow, 
which derives its name, and, rather remotely, its structure from the 
domestic architecture of the white population of southeast Asia. The 
bungalow was first developed in southern California, where its wide 
overhanging eaves, flat pitched roof extending over broad porches, and 
low windows were admirably adapted to the climate. Cheap and easy 
to build, the type soon swept the State and later the country. Well-to- 
do clients demanded two- and even three-story bungalows, and these 
buildings are often handsome as well as homelike. Berkeley and the 
residential areas of Los Angeles, which were most fashionable prior to 
the World War, contain many fine examples. 

The truly encouraging element in contemporary domestic architec- 
ture is the return to a simple interpretation of the Spanish Colonial 
type of house. The fusion of the Spanish adobe with the early eight- 
eenth and nineteenth century traditional American wooden types with 
the addition of such modern features as corner windows, has come to 
be called the "Monterey" style. It is admirably suited to modest liv- 
ing and today, for the first time since 1870, great numbers of well- 


designed houses are being erected in this manner. The David Selznick 
House in Beverly Hills and the Edward Heath House in San Marino, 
both by Roland E. Coate, and the Gregory Farm, near Santa Cruz, by 
William W. Wurster, are excellent examples of this modification of a 
traditional style. 

The development of modern domestic architecture in California 
stems from the International Style, established immediately after the 
World War in France, Holland, and Germany by such men as Le 
Corbusier, Gropius, Van der Rohe, and Oud, as well as from the 
highly radical innovations of Frank Lloyd Wright. The international 
phase has been enthusiastically adapted in California by Richard Neu- 
tra, William Lescaze, R. M. Schindler and others. Independently, 
both Wright and Neutra follow the dictum, "Form follows function." 
Both have envisaged a new architecture designed to conform with 
twentieth century industrial society. Following the epigram of Le 
Corbusier, "A house is a machine for living," the work of the ultra- 
modern practitioners demands the use of both modern building ma- 
terials and engineering methods: the use of synthetic plastics, ferro- 
concrete, cantilevers; the blending of interior arid exterior construc- 
tion, and, subsequently, built-in furniture; and finally the complete lack 
of applied ornament and decoration. 

Wright, however, developed from the earlier Chicago School of 
Louis Sullivan in a direction of his own. His work, recognized in 
Europe before it was widely accepted at home, is romantic, full of 
imaginative flights, very daring structurally, and highly personal. 
Among his finest homes in California are the Freeman House in Los 
Angeles, and the home of George Millard in Pasadena, both with low 
massive exterior walls constructed of decorated blocks ; the Aline Barns- 
dall House in Hollywood, with its tapering walls and its geometric 
ornaments suggesting an Aztec or Mayan temple; and the Dr. Paul 
Hanna House at Stanford. 

Perhaps no one has been more courageous in carrying the principles 
of functionalism to their final conclusions than Richard Neutra. His 
earlier work in Los Angeles, including his Garden Apartments, the 
Lovell House, the All-Plywood House, and his own Research House 
has been the subject of wide discussion. Because of his rigorous en- 
gineering training and his awareness of social issues, he has stressed 
the use of prefabricated building materials, engineering devices derived 
from utilitarian structures, economy and efficiency of construction, and 
constant emphasis on the relation of the house to the movement of its 
occupants. He has dealt admirably with the problems of mass housing 
and community planning. R. M. Schindler, another exponent of this 
modern school, has designed many "outdoor" houses of prefabricated 
materials, revealing the mingling of interior and exterior in his "gar- 


den with walls and roof," his use of disjunct planes, sun walls, and 
open areas. The beach house of Professor Alexander Kaun at Rich- 
mond and the V. McAlmon House on Waverly Drive, Los Angeles, are 
notable examples of his domestic work. 

No survey of the contemporary architectural scene is complete with- 
out mention of the steady growth and improvement of commercial 
buildings. The office building exhibits a development from the steel 
skeleton structure embellished with various stylistic forms (as exempli- 
fied by the Mills Building and Hunter-Dulin Building, both in San 
Francisco) to the modern version of the skyscraper, with its simple mass 
and emphasis upon vertical and horizontal lines. Splendid examples of 
the latter are Timothy Fleuger's Four-Fifty Sutter, the Russ Building, 
and the Empire Hotel, originally built to house the Temple Methodist 
Episcopal Church and the William Taylor Hotel, in San Francisco. 
Excellent if less soaring are the Oakland Courthouse, fronting Lake 
Merritt, and the Times Building in Los Angeles. The United States 
Post Office in Stockton, the Los Angeles County Hospital and the new 
San Francisco Mint are both modern and monumental. The Los 
Angeles Public Library by Goodhue a towering buttressed structure 
of modern design, set in a beautifully landscaped tract is a note- 
worthy example of highly stylized traditional architecture. 

Business has made further use of the modern formula. The dis- 
pensers of oil and gasoline are taking advantage of its possibilities, 
while many industrial plants, such as the Chrysler Motors of California 
and the United Aircraft Corporation in Los Angeles, have housed them- 
selves in buildings that are modern in the best sense. Even bankers 
have discovered that a bank need not resemble a Greek temple or a 
Roman bath. Shops, bars, cocktail lounges, and theaters have all too 
frequently become ready outlets for the more tasteless examples of the 
modern mode. As elsewhere fashionable shopping districts have been 
remodeled with polished steel, chromium, glass bricks, and synthetic 
onyx. Hollywood and Wilshire Boulevards in Los Angeles, despite 
these modern innovations, are somewhat depressing. Better examples 
of modern commercial architecture are the Columbia Broadcasting Sys- 
tem Center in Hollywood, by Howe and Lescaze, and the expansive but 
somewhat too colorful National Broadcasting Company Studios nearby. 

Following the earthquake in 1934, which revealed the poor construc- 
tion of many public schools in southern California, the State embarked 
on an extensive program of construction and remodeling of its public 
schools. The trim, rambling, well-lighted experimental schools in 
Santa Monica and Los Angeles, with their outdoor classrooms and 
ample play areas, ably illustrate the principles of modern planning. 
Other notable examples of efficient and economical planning are the 
Emerson junior and the Corona senior high schools in Los Angeles, by 


Richard Neutra, and the John Adams junior high school in Santa 
Monica, by Marsh, Smith and Powell. 

The mild climate of southern California affords unusual oppor- 
tunities for the construction of numerous outdoor theaters and stadia. 
Among the most notable of these are the huge Hollywood Bowl, the 
Spreckels outdoor organ and amphitheater in Balboa Park at San 
Diego, the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, and the celebrated Rose 
Bowl in Pasadena. 

The opening of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, designed by 
C. H. Purcell of the State Department of Public Works, and the 
Golden Gate Bridge, by Joseph B. Strauss, mark the completion of out- 
standing engineering projects of modern times. The Bay Bridge is 
over eight miles long, with carefully planned approaches, two decks of 
traffic and an island tunnel; the Golden Gate Bridge, with its 6-lane 
roadway suspended from giant cables strung between two lofty steel 
towers, is the longest single-span suspension bridge in the world. 

The 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure 
Island in San Francisco Bay is a compelling example of architectural 
phantasy. Compared to the World's Fair in New York its architec- 
tural and decorative scheme is imaginative rather than realistic. The 
general scheme, not unlike that of the San Francisco Fair of 1915, is 
highly concentrated; it consists of long ranges of monumental build- 
ings surrounding broad open areas and courts. The principal element 
is T-shaped with minor adjoining exhibits of the Pacific countries, and 
amusement areas, each designed with the same symmetry, formality and 
focalization of interest as the principal group. The architectural theme 
of the Exposition is drawn principally from the Far East. The design 
of the buildings with their log walls and pinnacles encrusted with 
elaborate sculpture, the massive pylons and gates and finally a massive 
spired tower forming the lofty climax of the group, is at once playful 
and impressive. 


Signposts to City Scenes 


Railroad Stations: University Ave. and 3rd St. for Southern Pacific Lines; 

University Ave. and West St. for Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. 

Interurban Stations: Shattuck Sq. for Interurban Electric Ry. transbay service; 

Bancroft and Telegraph Ave., main Berkeley station for Key System. All trains 

make frequent stops throughout the city; fare to San Francisco, 21^. 

Bus Station: University and San Pablo Aves. for Pacific Greyhound Lines, and 

National Trailways, 

Airport: Berkeley Airport, Harrison and 4th Sts., no scheduled service. 

Bridge: San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge approach, Ashby Ave. and East 

Shore Highway, toll 50^, i to 5 passengers. 

Streetcars: Within Berkeley and Oakland, fare 10^ or one token, 7 tokens for 

50^; free transfers. 

Taxis: 20$ first *4 m., iotf each % m. thereafter, 10^ each 2 minutes waiting. 

Accommodations: Eleven hotels. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, American Trust Bldg., Shattuck 
Ave. and Center St.; Berkeley Travel Bureau, 81 Shattuck Sq. ; University 
general office, U. C. campus. 

Radio Station: KRE (1370 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Campus Little Theater, 2440 Bancroft 
Way; Women's City Club Little Theater, 3315 Durant Ave.; eight motion pic- 
ture nouses. 

Golf: Tilden Park in Wildcat Canyon, Grizzly Peak Blvd. and Shasta Rd. 
18 holes, greens fee $i. 

Tennis: Sixteen public courts, at Grove, Garfield, Cordonices, Live Oak, James 
Kenney, and San Pablo playgrounds. 

Swimming: Aquatic Park, Eastshore Highway, between University and Ashby 
Aves., swimming and boating facilities. 

Boating: Berkeley municipal yacht harbor, W. end of University Ave., row- 
boats 30^ per hour, sail and power boats $i per hour. 

Fishing: Shore line of San Francisco Bay, and yacht harbor wharf, bass and 
smelt; license required for adults; information and licenses at sporting goods 

Annual Events: Night Tennis Tournament, August, Live Oak Park; Cali- 
fornia-Stanford football game on even-numbered years. 



BERKELEY (0-1,300 alt., 82,109 pop.), on a wide plain that stretches 
gently upward to a low range of hills, borders on the east shore of San 
Francisco Bay, facing the Golden Gate. At the upper edge of the city, 
against protective hills and wooded canyons, stand the buildings of the 
University of California. Viewed from the bay, the city seems to radi- 
ate from the white campus buildings. 

Berkeley, however, is more than a college town. It is an industrial 
center, a business city, a suburban home for thousands of workers. 
Upward from the industrial waterfront extend myriads of small homes 
occupied by those who man the factories in East Bay cities and San 
Francisco. Office workers whose jobs are in San Francisco reside chiefly 
in north and southeast Berkeley. According to a 1937 survey, Berkeley 
has 1 1 ,000 residents who commute daily to San Francisco. 

The two main shopping districts exemplify characteristic differences 
between the two parts of town. The Shattuck Avenue district, just 
west of the university campus, bears all the signs of ordinary commer- 
cial development. The Telegraph Avenue shopping area, extending 
southward from the main campus entrance, is full of young people and 
of shops reflecting their needs and interests. 

South of the campus is a residential section with old homes of an 
architecture peculiar to Berkeley. The early inhabitants, aware of the 
corrosive effect of sea air on paint, utilized pitched roofs, walls of un- 
painted shingles, and vines to cover them, and built rustic houses that 
blended with a background of hills overgrown with oak, boxwood, man- 
zanita, and bay. Bordering the campus on three sides are fraternity 
and sorority houses, some in the old tradition of Berkeley architecture, 
some designed in modern fashion. Vying with them in importance as 
student dwellings are modern stucco apartment buildings and old- 
fashioned boarding houses. On steep hills to the north, rising above 
the campus, cling those homes which have given Berkeley the right to 
be compared to Amain* and Naples. Here every residence has a pros- 
pect of the bay, and some have canyon views as well ; gardens hang to 
the edge of rock banks or trail in terraces down the hillside. 

Along the waterfront, from Emeryville on the south to Albany on 
the north, is Berkeley's factory district where industrial plants produce 
$50,000,000 worth of commodities yearly, employ approximately 
5,ooo persons, and have an annual payroll of $5,000,000. 

Berkeley took its name from George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne 
(1685-1753), the Irish philosopher who crossed the Atlantic to found 
an institution for evangelizing and educating the Indians, and who 
wrote "Westward, the course of empire takes it way." Henry Durant, 
one of the trustees of the College of California, nailed the words as 
prophetic. Bishop Berkeley's ideals were thought so proper for a young 
college town that the trustees adopted his name. 

Originally, Berkeley was part of the 46,8oo-acre Rancho San Antonio 
granted to the Peralta family in 1820 by the Spanish Governor de Sola. 
American squatters had a false survey made in the 1850*8, cutting off 
7,000 acres of redwood timber and all the waterfront. They drove off 


Peralta cattle, and had Jose Domingo Peralta jailed for trying to eject 
them from his land. In 1853, title to what is now Berkeley was pur- 
chased by American speculators for $82,000. The first American build- 
ing in Berkeley was a roadhouse erected in 1853 near San Pablo Ave- 
nue and Delaware Street. 

Foundation of the university gave impetus to Berkeley's growth, but 
other factors contributed. In 1874 there were only a few residences 
south of the campus, and two years later the population was only 948. 
Following 1884, however, when a large reservoir was built and water 
pipes were laid, growth was rapid. By 1906 streets were paved and 
huge residential tracts had been opened; the Santa Fe built a station, 
and the Key Route established 38-minute service to San Francisco, 
opening the way for large scale commuting. A determined effort failed 
to make Berkeley the State capital, but attracted notice to the town. 
Following the San Francisco earthquake and fire in 1906, many refu- 
gees moved permanently to Berkeley. In 1905 the population was 
23,378; in 1907 it was 38,117. 

A fire, starting in the hills and fanned by a strong wind, destroyed 
most of the city north of the campus in September, 1923. The disaster 
resulted in the creation of one of the most efficient fire-prevention sys- 
tems in the United States and in a Disaster-Preparedness Plan. A 
deputy fire warden is on duty day and night in a Berkeley hills tower 
to insure against a repetition of the fire. 

Berkeley's civic pride expresses itseFf in municipal administration, 
law enforcement, and education. In 1923 the city adopted the council- 
manager form of government and since has been regarded as a model in 
municipal administration. August Vollmer, Professor of Police Ad- 
ministration in the Department of Political Science at the University of 
California, as head of the police department, brought Berkeley national 
notice for his effective law enforcement. The department has estab- 
lished an unusually amicable relationship between citizenry and police, 
who are locally known as "Ph.D. policemen" or "supercops." 

In addition to its other institutions, Berkeley has State schools for 
the deaf and blind. 


The 53O-acre University of California campus extends across Ber- 
keley from Oxford St. east to the hills and from Hearst Ave. south to 
Bancroft Way, on rising land that affords a splendid view of San Fran- 
cisco Bay. The campus, originally a plain of oaks cut through by 
Strawberry Canyon, is now a beautifully landscaped park, with spacious 
white buildings, groves of eucalyptus, oak, and pine, lawns planted with 
shrubs and flowering trees, and brilliant gardens. Against the hills 
stand the Big C and the Campanile, visible for miles. 

In 1896 Mrs. Phoebe Apperson Hearst financed an international 
competition for a comprehensive university building plan. The win- 
ning plan by Emile Benard was subsequently modified by himself and by 


John Galen Howard, brought from New York as university architect. 
The Hellenic style of architecture and the main lines and vistas, with 
modifications, were determined by the original plan. Gaunt old South 
Hall, the first campus building, and sturdy old Bacon, once the library 
and art gallery, were built before the plan. 

The State constitution of 1849 provided for the university, but it 
owes its inception largely to the efforts of two zealous educators and 
clergymen. The founding of the university was delayed for two dec- 
ades by legislative disagreement, but Henry Durant and Samuel Hop- 
kins Willey prepared privately for its coming. In 1853 Mr. Durant 
opened the Contra Costa Academy in Oakland, grandparent of the un- 
born institution; in 1860 the academy became the College of Cali- 
fornia under Mr. Willey 's leadership; and finally in 1869 the college 
became the nucleus of the new university. 

A charter was granted in 1868, but the College of California car- 
ried on instruction for 18 months until the work of organization was 
complete. By that time a faculty of 10 was ready to serve 40 students 
entering the new university. Registration and public interest increased 
in 1870 when a co-education plan was adopted. 

In 1937-38 there were 14,672 students registered at Berkeley and 
8,238 at the University of California at Los Angeles and at the 
branches. The principal branches are the Agricultural School at Davis, 
Lick Observatory, the Affiliated Colleges (medical and dental) in San 
Francisco, Scripps Institution of Biology at La Jolla, and Hastings Col- 
lege of the Law in San Francisco. There are also large graduate 
schools in Berkeley and Los Angeles, and a far-spread extension di- 
vision. There was in the same year a faculty of 1,132 members. A 
home of celebrated scholars and a brilliant center of research, California 
has never, in recent qualitative ratings of American universities, ranked 
lower than fourth. Fifteen of its present faculty (1939) are listed in 
American Men of Science. 

The Associated Students of the University of California, a non- 
profit organization, is responsible for extracurricular activities on the 
campus. It operates a store and restaurant in Stephens Union, the stu- 
dents' building. It arranges intercollegiate athletic contests, using the 
funds to support debating, dramatics, sport, student publications, and 
many other activities. The A.S.U.C. building contains offices for 
the athletic coaches and student executives and clubrooms for the 

The University of California has its student customs and traditions. 
The freshman wears his "beanie" and smokes only a corncob pipe on 
the campus. The other classes give wide berth to sophomore lawn, 
and none but a senior may sit in peace on senior bench. Each year 
three large rallies are held in the Greek Theater around a bonfire for 
which freshmen haul wood all day. Close to the fire in the diasome 
(the section around the pit) the men students sit by classes, the sopho- 
mores and seniors opposite the freshmen and juniors. A sophomore 
vigilance committee sees that all the men are with their classes. Those 


caught above, among the women and visitors, are tossed down to their 

Among its graduates noted businessmen, educators, and scientists 
seem to be in greatest abundance, although many gifted writers, engi- 
neers, and public servants have studied at California. Among Alumni 
rising to the highest places are many from Latin America and the 
Orient. President Madero of Mexico, President Capina of Colombia, 
World Court Judge and Premier Wang Chung-Hui of China, and 
Sun Fo, Chinese Minister of Communications and son of Dr. Sun Yat- 
Sen, were all students at the university. Notable in America are former 
Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane, former U. S. Commissioner 
of National Parks Stephen Mather, former Director of the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines Frederick Cottrell, and several U. S. Senators and 
California Governors. Novelists Irving Stone and Charles Norris, play- 
wrights Richard Tully and Sidney Howard, cartoonist Rube Goldberg, 
and composer John Seymour are University of California alumni, and 
the names of others appear on Broadway and on the motion picture 


(Buildings are open during class hours unless otherwise indicated; see map for 
location of points of interest.} 

1. SATHER GATE, built of bronze and concrete above a bridge and 
roadway was erected with funds provided by Jane K. Sather in memory 
of Peder Sather. College meetings and rallies are often held here. 

2. WHEELER HALL, housing classrooms and auditorium of the Col- 
lege of Arts and Sciences, is a neo-classic structure of white granite, 
adorned with Ionic colonnades, built in 1917 and named for Benjamin 
Ide Wheeler, university president from 1899 to 1919. 

3. The LIFE SCIENCE BUILDING, a majestic neo-Classic struc- 
ture with rusticated base, modified Corinthian columns, high attic story 
and fine bronze grilles, was completed in 1930 under the supervision 
of Arthur Brown. In addition to the life sciences and their allied de- 
partments, it contains the MUSEUM OF VERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY (open 
to students only), the Institute of Experimental Biology, the Labora- 
tory of the State Board of Health, and the HERBARIUM (open 8:30-12, 
1-5 Mon.-Fri.; 8:30-12 Sat.) 

4. The AGRICULTURE GROUP consists of Hilgard Hall, Gian- 
nini Hall, and Agriculture Hall, all of modified Italian Renaissance 
design, with corner quoins and tile roofs. In the greenhouses (not 
open) nearby experiments are conducted in plant breeding. 

5. The PRESIDENT'S HOUSE (private), completed in 1911, is 
constructed of grayish tan sandstone in Italian Renaissance design. 
Two marble lions guard the entrance, which is in the form of an 
arcaded loggia. It contains rare old tapestries, among which is a 
Beauvais dating from the sixteenth century. Portrait of a Man, by 
Lawrence, is also in this building. 


6. HAVILAND HALL, the School of Education, contains the Alexis 
F. Lange Educational Library and an exhibition of photography, handi- 
craft, and etchings. 

7. The STUDENTS' OBSERVATORY (open 8-10 p.m. first Sat. 
each month) is a group of domed buildings completely equipped for the 
study of astronomy. It contains 5- and 8-inch refracting telescopes. 
The university's main astronomical work, however, is done at Lick 
Observatory (see TOUR 2b) . 

shingled structure with a fireproof library wing, contains laboratories, 
drawing and modeling rooms, and architectural exhibition rooms. 

9. The ENGINEERING GROUP comprises the Engineering Labo- 
ratory, the Engineering Design -Building, Hesse Hall, and the Me- 
chanics' Building. In the Engineering Laboratory is one of the world's 
largest testing machines (capacity 4,000,000 pounds) for trial oi struc- 
tural members. Materials for Boulder Dam, the San Francisco-Oak- 
land Bay Bridge, and other important public projects were tested here. 

10. LAWSON ADIT, extending under Charter Hill, a shaft con- 
structed by students of mining engineering, is a laboratory for mine-fire 
and mine-rescue work, and for actual mining experience. 

ian Renaissance design, was given in 1907 by Phoebe Apperson Hearst 
in memory of her husband, Senator George Hearst. It has classrooms 
for mining engineering students, the Pacific Coast Experiment Station 
of the United States Bureau of Mines, and the MUSEUM OF PALEON- 
TOLOGY (open 8-5 Mon. and Fri., 9-12 Sat.), which contains the largest 
paleontological collection on the Pacific Coast. 

12. The ANTHROPOLOGY MUSEUM, houses an extensive an- 
thropological exhibit. 

13. BACON HALL, a red brick structure, is headquarters of the 
department of geological sciences and the division of seismology. Its 
GEOLOGICAL SCIENCES EXHIBIT is open to the public 8:30-12 and 1-5 
Mon. and Fri.; 8:30-12 Sat. 

14. The CHEMISTRY GROUP includes Gilman Hall, built in 1918 
and named for Daniel Coit Gilman, the university's second president, 
who organized the chemistry department in 1872. 

built by the U. S. War Department for investigation of problems of 
erosion and deposition in the rivers and harbors and on the shore line 
of the Pacific Coast. 

(open during regular terms 8 a.m.- 10 p.m. Mon.-Fri.,, 8-6 Sat. } I-IO 
Sun.) has a collection of more than 900,000 volumes and more than 
16,000 serial publications. The original collection was made early in 
university history from the Michael Reese fund of $50,000; since then 
the library has acquired the Henry Douglas Bacon Art and Library 
Collections ; the Library of French Thought ; the Alexander F. Morri- 
son Library for recreational reading; and the Bancroft Library with its 







1. SatherGate 

2. Wheeler Hall 

3. The Life Science. Building 

4. The Agriculture Group 

5. The Prtsiderrt't House 

6. Haviland Hall 

7. The Student. 1 Oberatory 

I. The School of Architecture Buildin 3 
9. The Engineering Group 
10. Law** Adit 

1. The Hearst Memorial Mining Building 

2. The Anthropology ' 

3. Bacon Hall 

4. The Chemistry Group 

5. The Hydraulic Tidal Model Testing Basin 

6. The Charles Franklin Doe Memorial Library 

7. The Campanile 

8. Stephens Union 
. Eshteman Hall 

20. University Art Museum and Gallery 


21. The Hearst Greet Theater 

22. The Institute of Child Welfare 

23. International 

24. California Memorial Stadium 

25. Botanical Garden 


26. The Pacific School of Religion 

27. Tilden Park 

28. Cragmont Rock Park 

29. Berkeley Aquatic Part 


75,000 volumes and manuscripts relating to Spanish-American and 
western American history. The neoclassic building, constructed in 1911, 
is adorned with Corinthian pilasters which rise in support of a heavy 
modillioned cornice. The School of Librarianship and the Bureau of 
Public Administration are in this building. 

17. The CAMPANILE (elevator service 9-5 daily, fee 10$), designed 
by John Galen Howard, was built in 1914 through a bequest by Jane 
K. Sather. Designed in the Italian Renaissance style, with pyramidal 
roof, belfry, and pinnacles, it recalls the lofty campanile in St. Marco 
square in Venice. It is constructed of granite, 397 feet high, 36 feet 
square, with a clock on its four sides, and an observation platform at the 
top. The belfry contains 12 bells, cast in England. A Gutzon Bor- 
glum bust of Lincoln stands at the south base. 

18. STEPHENS UNION is of Tudor Gothic design with turrets, 
buttresses, leaded casements and oriel bays. Dedicated in 1923 to the 
late Henry Morse Stephens, professor of history at the university, it 
is the center of student social life and extra-curricular activities. 

19. ESHLEMAfsT HALL is the headquarters of student publications, 
including the Daily Californian, the Blue and Gold, the Pelican, and 
the Occident. It was built in 1930 and dedicated to John Martin 
Eshleman, an alumnus and former Lieutenant Governor of California. 

weekdays, subject to change), is a low brick structure adorned with 
exterior frescoes and two Chinese lions guarding the entrance. Among 
its permanent exhibits are a portion of the Albert Bender collection of 
Chinese art and a collection of Russian icons. 

Other buildings on the lower campus include California Hall, con- 
taining the administrative office; Le Conte Hall, housing the depart- 
ments of physics and optometry; Bowles Hall, the only dormitory on 
the campus; Boalt Hall of Law; and South Hall, a notable example of 
the architecture of the elegant eighties. 


21. The HEARST GREEK THEATER is designed in the manner 
of an ancient amphitheater. Built of concrete, it has a semicircular 
auditorium seating 7,154 persons, and a stage adorned with Doric 
columns and pilasters. The theater, which is the center of university 
musical and dramatic activities, was presented by William Randolph 
Hearst in 1903. Classic dramas are occasionally given. 

22. The INSTITUTE OF CHILD WELFARE, 2739 Bancroft 
Way, an off-campus university institution organized through the Laura 
Spellman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation, carries on a series of long- 
time research projects in the psychological development of children. A 
nursery school serves as a basis for these studies. 

23. INTERNATIONAL HOUSE (open by arrangement}, Bancroft 
Way and Piedmont Ave., is a gift of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and was 
completed in 1930 as a residence for foreign students, of whom 450, 


Cities I 




' J 

























representing 30 nationalities, live here. Of modified Spanish-Moorish 
design it is distinguished by its 'deep arcades, tile roofs and lofty domed 
towers. Lectures and concerts are given in the auditorium. 

24. CALIFORNIA MEMORIAL STADIUM, seating capacity 78,- 
ooo, was built in 1923 at a cost of" $1,750,000, in memory of students 
who died in the World War. Football, soccer, and rugby games, and 
commencement exercises are held here. 

25. BOTANICAL GARDEN (open 9-4 daily), in Strawberry Can- 
yon above the Memorial Stadium, is a 35-acre tract devoted to plant 
culture. The collection includes 5,000 rare rhododendrons, and 2,000 
cacti and succulents, growing in natural settings of sand and stone. 
There is an open-air theater, a memorial to Stephen Mather, first di- 
rector of the National Park Service, in a five-acre tract of pine and 


26. The PACIFIC SCHOOL OF RELIGION (open by appoint- 
ments, guides), 1798 Scenic Ave., is a graduate theological school, in- 
terdenominational and co-educational. An A.B. degree is a prerequisite 
for entrance, and the school trains for all branches of religious work. 
There are three buildings, the Administration Building of Gothic archi- 
tecture in gray cut stone; the gray stucco Dormitory, of Tudor design; 
and the HOLBROOK MEMORIAL LIBRARY (open 8-6 Mon.; 7-6 Tues.- 
Fri., g-i2 Sat.), the twin of the Administration Building in structure. 
The library houses a collection of 30,000 volumes, including a 
"Breeches" Bible, Geneva, 1560; Babylonian cuneiform tablets; fourth 
century Biblical inscriptions on papyrus;, and an extremely rare copy 
of the inscription on the Nestorian Monument in China. An arche- 
ological exhibit has relics dating from 3500 B.C. to the beginning of 
the Christian era. 

27. TILDEN PARK, in Wildcat Canyon over the hills from Berk- 
eley, is a part of the io,ooo-acre East Bay Regional Park. Lately a 
rough, hilly country of manzanita and scrub oaks, and abounding in 
birds and small mammals, the park, improved with WPA labor, in- 
cludes a golf course, scenic drives, and three camp districts. 

28. CRAGMONT ROCK PARK, Regal Rd. and Hillside Ave., a 
neatly landscaped four-acre plot, rises from the lawns around it to the 
abrupt outcropping of rock that gives the park its name, and at 800 
feet altitude has a lookout station with a fine view of San Francisco 
Bay, the bridges, and Golden Gate directly opposite. 

29. BERKELEY AQUATIC PARK, flanked for more than a mile 
by the Berkeley bayshore and US 40, is built in the bay, and is com- 
posed largely of the lagoon thus formed. Water depth ranges from 
3 to 15 feet and is controlled by floodgates. Small boats can be rented 
at the boathouse, there are facilities for model yacht racing, and the 
lagoon is a wildfowl sanctuary. 


Railroad Stations: Mariposa and H Sts. for Southern Pacific Lines ; Tulare 

and Q Sts. for Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Ry. 

Bus Stations: Mariposa and H Sts. for Pacific Greyhound, Huntington State 

Lines, Moyer Stages; Mariposa St. and Broadway for Santa Fe Trailways. 

Airport: Chandler Municipal Airport, 1.5 m. W. on Kearney Blvd. for United 

Air Lines, Transcontinental & Western Air; taxi 50^. 

Taxis: 25^ for first ]/ 2 m., 10^ for each additional ^ m. ; no charge for extra 


City Busses: Basic fare 7^, "short haul" fare $< in business district, tokens, 3 

for 20^, free transfers. 

Accommodations: Fifty-nine hotels, six tourist camps. 

Information Service: San Joaquin Valley Tourist & Travel Assn., 1044 Fulton 
St.; California State Automobile Assn. (AAA), 660 Van Ness Ave.; National 
Auto Club, 1252 Broadway; Fresno County Chamber of Commerce, 2345 Fresno 
St.; California State Chamber of Commerce, Fulton and Tulare Sts.; Central 
California Tourist Assn., T. W. Patterson Bldg. 

Radio Stations: KMJ (580 kc.) ; KARM (1310 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: White Theater, 1300 Broadway, stock 

and road shows; University Street Playhouse, 1000 University Ave., college 

plays; 8 motion picture houses. 

Swimming: Frank H. Ball Playground pool, Mayor Ave. and Inyo St., 10^, 

children 5^; Crown Plunge, 1730 H St., 25^, children 15$; De Vaux's Del Mar 

Rose Pool, Moroa and Rialto St., 25^, children 15^; Prescott's Swimming Pool, 

California St., 20^, children 10^; Weymouth's Swimming Pool, White Bridge 

Rd., 25$, children 15^. 

Golf: Fort Washington Golf Club, Blackstone Ave. and Friant Rd., 18 holes, 

$i weekdays, $2 Sat., Sun., and holidays, monthly tickets, $10; Fresno municipal 

Golf Course, Herndon Ave., */2 m. S. on US 99, 18 holes, 50^ weekdays, 75^ 

Sat., Sun., and holidays, monthly tickets, $4.50. 

Tennis: Roeding Park, Belmont and Thome Aves., free, four lighted courts 

25$ a half hour. Courts at Fresno State College open to public when not in 

use by students. 

Annual Events: Raisin Day, second Sat. in May; West Coast Relays, same 

day, at Fresno State College; Fresno District Fair, Sept.; Fresno Junior Tennis 

tourney, about Oct. i. 

FRESNO (292 alt., 52,513 pop.), world's "raisin center" and prin- 
cipal marketing, shipping and purchasing point for the fertile San 
Joaquin Valley, is almost in the geographical center of the State. 

Tall modern buildings rise abruptly from the flat valley floor, sur- 
rounded by residential sections planted with trees to provide shade in 
the sweltering heat of summer. The business district, in the central 
and oldest part of town, grew around the railroad station, with the 
streets parallel to the tracks and diagonal to the cardinal points. Later 
streets were squared with the compass, and a set of 45-degree intersec- 
tions resulted, all around the original square. Residential preference 


FRESNO 1 89 

has extended the city mainly to the northward and eastward, where 
homes are set back from the street along broad avenues lined with 
eucalyptus and palm trees. 

From the city limits the vineyards radiate in seemingly endless rows, 
set exactly 10 feet apart. The grapes ripen in August, September, and 
October, and are placed on trays to dry in the sun. With these agri- 
cultural environs, and with the country's largest fig gardens only four 
miles away, Fresno naturally is predominantly a farming community, 
despite its skyscrapers, neon lights, modern store fronts, and busy 
traffic. Farm markets are held on Fresno Street alongside Courthouse 
Park on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays, and fresh vegetables, 
fruits, and flowers are sold direct to the consumer. Farm workers and 
growers throng the streets on Saturday nights, and the Fresno Dis- 
trict Fair in September is an event of major local importance 

Across the Southern Pacific tracks, opposite the business district, is 
the foreign section where curious articles of food are displayed in shop 
windows, Spanish motion pictures and Japanese plays are advertised, 
and men of many nations idle on the sidewalks. Armenians outnumber 
all others in the 15 percent of Fresno's population that is of foreign 
extraction. Forced out of Armenia by hardships and persecution, they 
found the Fresno area similar in soil and crops to that of their home- 
land, and settled here in numbers. There are two Armenian restaurants 
specializing in native dishes, three Armenian weekly newspapers, and 
many small retail businesses are Armenian-owned. 

Fresno, unlike many California cities, is purely an American 
growth. Spanish and Mexican expeditions passed up the site as desolate 
and barren. Indian troubles scared away settlers of the period pre- 
ceding the gold rush, and the Forty-niners, bound for the Sierra foot- 
hills, hurried across the valley to the diggings. After the gold rush, 
the Americans turned to stock raising, and the site of Fresno supported 
thousands of cattle. 

The first permanent settlement on this site is supposed to have been 
made in the i86o's by A. J. Manssen, a Hollander, who sank a well, 
built a watering trough, and put up this sign : 


Bring Your Horse in 

One Horse by Fresh Water One Bet 

One Day Hay Water 3 Bet 

By "bet" he meant twelve and a half cents, a "bit." 

A few families joined Manssen, but the place remained "the sorriest 
and most woe-begone little settlement on the map" until 1872, when 
it became a station on the Central Pacific Railroad, which pushed 
through the valley that year. The railroad builders staked out a town, 
which they called Fresno (Sp., ash tree) Station, for the name of the 
county. The ash trees were in the foothills, and not near the embryo 

In 1874 Millerton, the only important settlement in the area, voted 
to relinquish the county seat to Fresno Station; and soon after, practi- 


cally the whole population of Millerton moved to the new county seat 
in order to be on the railroad line. In those days Fresno's main street 
was "a rough depression, billowy, dusty in dry weather and in winter 
a mudhole for its three blocks to the railroad station." The country- 
side was so bare that boys had to play hide-and-seek in the graveyard. 
Cows, horses, dogs, and pigs wandered about in the streets, and flocks 
of sheep were driven through the town. 

With the spread of controlled irrigation and the realization that 
the soil was extremely fertile, new crops were developed and the town 
grew fast. Partly through the efforts of Agoston Haraszthy, Hungarian 
financier and investor, grape raising was popularized in California (see 
AGRICULTURE). Americans planted vines in their wheat fields. 
Italians, French, and Swiss started growing grapes on 2O-acre parcels 
acquired for that purpose. 

The dry white wine made by foreign growers was of indifferent 
quality, but the continuous sunlight led naturally, after about 1874, 
to the preparation of raisins. An output of 103,000,000 pounds in 
1894 overloaded the market, and the price dropped to two cents a 
pound. The Raisin Growers Association, a co-operative group organ- 
ized in 1898 for the protection and efficient handling of the raisin in- 
dustry, still controls the bulk of the crop. During the World War 
profits were large because raisins were a convenient food to pack and 
ship. When it was discovered that raisins are rich in iron, an advertis- 
ing campaign was launched with the slogan "Have you had your iron 
today ?" and raisins sold in five-cent packages at candy counters. Today 
60 per cent of the United States raisin production comes from the 
Fresno district. 

In 1886, Frank Roeding and his son had begun experiments with 
Smyrna fig culture at their own expense and in the face of open ridicule 
from other horticulturists. In June, 1889, they learned the secret of 
caprification (cross-fertilization of the Smyrna fig by the fig wasp), and 
the industry was at last able to compete with foreign importations. 

With a population of 12,470 in 1900, Fresno adopted its first city 
charter. Agriculture progressed rapidly in the next ten years. Cotton 
growing was introduced in the valley and cotton is now a leading prod- 
uct. Manufacture of sweet wines supplanted that of the dry wines. 

Manufacturing kept pace with agricultural growth, and Fresno now 
ranks fifth among California cities as an industrial center. It has 370 
manufacturing establishments including flour and lumber mills, machine 
shops and foundries, potteries, brickwork, and soap factories. 


COURTHOUSE SQUARE, Van Ness Ave. at Mariposa St., a 
central park two blocks square, is dominated by the neo-Classic FRESNO 
COUNTY COURTHOUSE, a symmetrical three-story edifice with flat balus- 
traded roof, pedimented Corinthian entrance portico, and a dome and 
cupola. A fountain, the BOY WITH THE LEAKING BOOT, the figure of 


a lad holding a worn shoe with water coming out a hole in the toe, was 
presented by the Salvation Army in 1895. The STATUE OF DR. CHES- 
TER ROWELL, by Haig Patigian, shows the doctor at a patient's bedside. 
Dr. Rowell (1844-1912) was an early mayor of Fresno, builder of the 
city's first skyscraper, and a State senator. There is also a bandstand 
where weekly concerts are held in summer. 

erected by the city in 1932 in honor of the war dead, is a massive con- 
crete structure in modern classic style, used for civic gatherings, con- 
certs, and dances. On the balcony is the FRESNO, COUNTY HISTORICAL 
MUSEUM (open 3-5 weekdays), containing firearms, gold-mining equip- 
ment, and articles used by early settlers. 

FRESNO STATE COLLEGE, noi University Ave., an institu- 
tion for the training of teachers, has a student body of about 2,000. 
Most of the buildings on the 27-acre campus are modern two-story 
concrete structures with red tile roofs, designed in the Spanish mission 
tradition with arched windows and arcades. The REFERENCE LIBRARY 
(open 8-5 Mon.-Fri.) in the main group of buildings has 32,000 vol- 
umes. The college was organized in 1921 through union of the local 
junior college and the normal school. Summer school is held at Hunt- 
ington Lake (see TOUR 3b). 

ROEDING PARK, Belmont and Thorne Aves., 157 acres in area, 
is planted with 650 species of trees and shrubs, through which guinea 
hens and peafowl wander. The Zoo (open 9-5 daily) has about 90 
animals and 170 wildfowl. 

The JAPANESE BUDDHIST TEMPLE (open 9-8 daily), 1340 
Kern St., erected in 1902, is a three-story building with stucco finish, 
scrolled tile roof, and an ornamental carved entrance of white wood 
with swastikas set into the portico. Some of the sacred ashes of Buddha, 
brought from India, are guarded in the temple. The congregation of 
700 is served by two Japanese priests. Services are .held Sunday eve- 
nings at 8 o'clock before an altar finished in gold leaf. Special services 
in April celebrate the birth of Buddha. 

The SUN MAID RAISIN PLANT (open 8:30-4:30 weekdays, 
July-Jan.; guides), Butler Ave. and Hazlewood Blvd., the largest 
raisin-packing plant in the world, occupies many-windowed gray con- 
crete buildings that cover several acres. Trucks deliver sun-dried grapes 
from the vineyards. The grapes are run through a series of machines 
that grade, stem, seed, and process them, after which they are packaged 
for the trade. Tiny packages, 15 or 20 raisins in each, are prepared for 
sale in China, where it is believed that eating raisins insures the birth 
of male children. The seeds are bricked for fuel, and the stems are 
sold for cattle feed. 


General Grant National Park, 60 m. ; Sequoia National Park, 73.5 m. (see 
tional Park, 75.8 m. (see YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK). 



Bus Stations: Union Bus Terminal, 1625 N. Cahuenga Blvd. for Greyhound 

Lines, Inland Stages, Pacific Electric Motor Coach; Pasadena-Ocean Park Stage 

Line, Inc., 1646 N. Cahuenga Blvd., for Union Pacific busses. 

Airports: Union Air Terminal, 2627 N. Hollywood Way, Burbank, 9 m. N., 

for Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc., United Air Lines, and Western Air 

Express"; Grand Central Air Terminal, 1224 Airway, Glendale, 6 m. NE. for 

American Airlines and Pan-American Airways; taxi to both airports, $i.5o-$2. 

Taxis: 20$ first Y^ mile, 10^ each additional ^ mile. 

Streetcars and Busses: Fare 6$ (streetcars only) and 10^; 20$ to Santa Monica. 

Accommodations: 21 hotels. 

Information Service: Automobile Club of Southern California, 6902 Sunset 
Blvd.; Hollywood Chamber of Commerce, 6520 Sunset Blvd. 

Radio Stations: KNX (1050 kc.) ; KFWB (950 kc.) ; KMTR (570 kc.) ; KFI 

(640 kc.) ; KECA (1430 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Hollywood Bowl, Bolton Road i block S. 

of junction Highland Ave. and Cahuenga Blvd. ; Pilgrimage Play Amphitheater, 

2580 N. Highland Ave.; El Capitan Theater, 6838 Hollywood Blvd.; Hollytown 

Playhouse, 1743 New Hampshire Ave.; Ben Bard Playhouse, Wilshire Blvd. 

and Fairfax Ave.; road shows. Hollywood Playhouse, 1735 N. Vine St., Federal 

Theater shows. Columbia Square Playhouse, Sunset Blvd. and Gower St.; CBS 

broadcasts; National Broadcasting Co. studios, Sunset Blvd. and Vine St., daily 

broadcast programs. Twenty motion picture houses. 

Boxing and Wrestling: Hollywood Legion Stadium, 1628 N. El Centro St. 

Tennis: Poinsettia Playground, 7431 Willoughby Ave., day and night play, 


Sightseeing Tours of Motion Picture Studios: Tanner Gray Line Motor Tours, 

(enter only Warner Bros.-First National Studios, Burbank), leave Biltmore 

Hotel, 5th and Olive Sts., on weekdays, $4.50 per person; busses pass all other 

major studios, but do not enter. Clifton Motor Tours, Inc. leave from 618 S. 

Olive St. daily, $1.50 per person; busses pass all major studios, but do not 


Annual Events: Easter Sunrise Services, Hollywood Bowl ; "Symphonies under 
the Stars," Hollywood Bowl, summer, several times weekly; Pilgrimage Play, 
in Amphitheater, July and August. 

HOLLYWOOD (385 alt., 153,294 pop.), motion picture center of 
the world and as such the focal point of a billion-dollar industry, is 
popularly regarded as a separate entity but is officially the Hollywood 
District of Los Angeles. Shaped roughly like the state of New York, 
it fits into the parent city like a piece of a jigsaw puzzle, occupying the 
same alluvial plain as Los Angeles, and lying eight miles west of the 
city's center and twelve miles from the Pacific Ocean. The northern 
half of the Hollywood District spreads upward in a network of winding 
roads, into the tawny foothills of the Santa Monica Mountains (known 



locally as the Hollywood Hills), which constitute a natural boundary 
in that direction. Hyperion Avenue and Riverside Drive, along the 
Los Angeles River, mark the eastern limits. To the south, at Melrose 
Avenue, Hollywood merges into Los Angeles; to the west it is linked 
to Beverly Hills. 

Hollywood Boulevard, running due east and west, is the main 
thoroughfare. Known simply as "the Boulevard," it is a clue to Holly- 
wood's character: a contrast in sophisticated luxury and small-town 
naivete. Shops, office buildings, movie houses, and skyscrapers make it 
the central business and amusement district ; yet it is also a promenade 
where people saunter along to look at one another and at window dis- 
plays. Costumes worn on the Boulevard, as elsewhere in Hollywood, 
are informal and colorful. There are men in polo shirts and sports 
jackets; women in a variety of costumes, slacks and dark glasses pre- 
dominating. White is popular from spring to fall. At night thou- 
sands of names and slogans are outlined in neon, and searchlight beams 
often pierce the sky, perhaps announcing a motion picture premiere, per- 
haps the opening of a new hamburger stand. 

The business district centers at Hollywood Boulevard and Vine 
Street, a corner made famous by Hollywood columnists and magazine 
writers. Just south of the Boulevard, on the east side of Vine Street, 
is the Hollywood Brown Derby restaurant, where movie fans swarm 
at the entrance with autograph books in hand, waiting for celebrities. 

South of the Boulevard are other principal thoroughfares, laid out 
according to the cardinal points of the compass. Most of them are 
lined with green parkways, pepper trees and palms familiar sights to 
those who remember the chase scenes in old two-reel comedies. Between 
Sunset and Santa Monica Boulevards and Hollywood Boulevard is an 
agglomeration of stores, taverns, small hotels, bungalow courts, drive- 
in markets, apartment houses, and small homes. 

Some of the houses on side streets are small-town style frame dwell- 
ings with lawns, hedges, and flower gardens. The prevailing type, how- 
ever, is the one-story stucco bungalow: white, green, yellow, pink, red, 
or blue, roofed in red tile, with lawn and gardens front and rear and 
a driveway leading back to a two-car garage. A palm may grow on 
the lawn and perhaps a pepper tree in the strip between sidewalk and 
curb. Sprinklers water the grass and flowers in late afternoons and 
early evenings during the rainless summer months. 

In contrast to this suburban aspect of Hollywood are the small inde- 
pendent studios on Sunset Boulevard near Gower Street, which grind 
out features, westerns, comedies, and "quickies." Cowboys in chaps 
and sombreros and extra girls in the traditional slacks and dark glasses, 
bright kerchiefs protecting their freshly waved hair, lunch at corner 
hot dog stands or gossip and talk shop. Even "featured" players in 
make-up often cross Sunset to a line of hamburger stands for snacks 
between shots. 

Farther west on Sunset Boulevard, toward Beverly Hills, is a sec- 
tion popularly known as "the Strip." Here are the Trocadero and 


other movie colony night spots, high-priced antique shops, salons, gift 
shops, restaurants hung with Venetian blinds, couturiers and modistes, 
theatrical agencies; most of them white-painted modified Georgian- 
Colonial buildings with green shutters. 

Motion picture influence is visible in another purely Hollywood con- 
tribution : drive-in barbecue stands, restaurants, and bars, built of 
papier-mache to represent fairy-story castles, tumble-down houses, gar- 
gantuan fish, ice cream cones, and lop-eared puppies. Each stands on a 
large parking area, and waitresses in slacks and brass-buttoned jackets 
hook trays over open car windows to serve the customers in their 

Hollywood probably attracts more types and nationalities than any 
city of its size in the world. Here are the nobility, ex-nobility, and 
pseudo-nobility of a dozen countries; the artistically inclined from every 
corner of the world who aspire to movie jobs; and average Americans 
who live here because they like the climate, or were born here. Pre- 
cocious children from all over the country are brought to Hollywood 
in hope of breaking into motion pictures. Dozens of dance studios and 
dramatic schools attempt to train children and adults for screen careers. 
About 75 percent of the population is connected in some way with the 
motion picture industry. 

Many actors and extras still live in Hollywood, but most of the 
stars prefer Beverly Hills, Bel Air, Brentwood, and ranches in the San 
Fernando Valley. In the first flush of cinema prosperity Hollywood 
society went in for extravagance and informality, evidenced by carefree 
parties and sporty cars. Now top-flight movie society affects white ties 
and evening gowns, with the accent on dignity and position, but the 
yardstick of eminence is still the number of digits in the salary. 

The first habitation on the site of Hollywood was an adobe dwelling 
built by Don Tomas Urquidez in 1853. In the sixties and early sev- 
enties much of the valley was laid out in i6o-acre farms, and families 
of immigrants from all over the world settled here. The present name 
dates from the boom of 1887 when Horace H. Wilcox opened a real 
estate subdivision, which his wife christened Hollywood. 

In 1896, the year T. L. Tally opened his "Phonograph and Vita- 
scope Parlor" in Los Angeles, with four peep holes for spectators, Holly- 
wood was still a crossroads where the arrival of the Toluca stage to 
San Fernando Valley was the event of the day. Open country sepa- 
rated it from Los Angeles. One of the first ordinances of the village 
government, incorporated in 1903 by vote of the 177 male inhabitants, 
made it a misdemeanor to drive bands of more than 2,000 sheep through 
the streets. 

In 1910, when it had a population of 4,000, Hollywood traded its 
civic independence for a share in Los Angeles' water supply, but held 
tenaciously to its identity, choosing to appeal as a home-owning center 
and emphasizing its schools and churches, frostless citrus groves, winter 
flower and vegetable gardens. 

At about this time an ironic fate selected this ultra-respectable, 


church-going village as headquarters for a new form of amusement : the 
motion picture. Independent film companies, trying to escape a monop- 
oly in the East, took refuge in Hollywood and under its almost con- 
tinuous sun began shooting scenes in orange grove and canyon, ranch 
house and barn. 

The Horsley brothers, operating under the name of the Nestor Com- 
pany, were the first producers to settle in Hollywood; they leased the 
old Blondeau Tavern and barn at Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street 
in October, 1911, converted it into a studio, and made the first Holly- 
wood picture, The Law of the Range. Wilcox had opened the original 
subdivision as a temperance colony, and the sudden appearance of bois- 
terous show people and cowboys parading the hitherto quiet streets in 
the best wild-west fashion came as a rude shock to the inhabitants. The 
villagers at first considered the "fillums" and those who made them 
disreputable and somewhat sinful, and resented their intrusion. But the 
pioneers were followed by other independents, and eventually members 
of the eastern producers' trust took advantage of the climate and low 
rents in Hollywood. When Cecil B. De Mille moved his troupe west, 
he is said to have had tickets for Flagstaff, Arizona. Deciding that 
Flagstaff didn't "look western enough" he too went on to Hollywood. 

The town boomed. In the 1920'$ motion pictures became a billion 
dollar industry. Sound films necessitated better writing, direction, act- 
ing, and management. There was an increasing trek westward from 
Broadway and other centers. While "Hollywood" is commonly used 
to designate the motion picture industry as a whole, most of the major 
producing units are not in the Hollywood District, but are scattered 
through the outlying areas. 

In 1935 the motion picture industry in the United States averaged 
more than $20,000,000 a week income from attendance; its financial 
center is Wall Street, but its workshops and factory is Hollywood (see 
THE MOVIES). Because of locally available talent, Hollywood is 
also an important broadcasting center. Major companies have large 
local studios in which many Nation-wide broadcasts originate. 

Other industries have grown up in connection with motion pictures. 
Two international film companies manufacture hundreds of thousands 
of feet of "celluloid." The make-up business, founded to supply studios 
with grease paint and powder, outgrew its origin when the appeal of 
goods stamped "Hollywood" was felt. Lipsticks, rouges, creams, pow- 
ders, unguents, and lotions are now turned out on a mass production 
basis for Nation-wide distribution. 


HOLLYWOOD BOWL (always open; adm. prices vary during 
season) end of Bolton Rd., I block S. of Highland Ave. and Cahuenga 
Blvd. intersection, is a 6o-acre natural amphitheater framed by chap- 
arral-covered hills. The white-walled platform is surmounted by 
a removable sounding shell, designed by Lloyd Wright, and the acous- 


tics are such that an unaided voice on the stage can be heard in the 
back row. "Symphonies under the Stars," held yearly since 1922, grand 
opera, and the Easter Sunrise Service are presented here. The bowl 
has more than 20,000 seats, and the sloping runways provide standing 
room for 10,000. Near the entrance is a large bowl for voluntary con- 
tributions. The top is covered with wire netting and the accumulated 
coins are removed only at the end of the season. No one has ever 
tampered with the netting to pilfer the heap of silver and copper. 

performances; adm. 50$-$i.5o), 2580 Highland Ave., is a natural am- 
phitheater where a play based on the life of Christ is enacted nightly 
during July and August. The Pilgrimage Play was written by Mrs. 
Christine Wetherill Stevenson in collaboration with H. Ellis Reed, and 
first produced in 1920. A large wooden cross on the hillside, lighted at 
night, is a guidepost to the theater. 

The JAPANESE GARDENS (open 10-6 daily; adm. 25$, chil- 
dren with adults free), Orchid and N. Sycamore Aves. (also known as 
the California Scenic Gardens and Home), were built and decorated 
at a cost of $2,000,000 by Adolph and Eugene Bernheimer in 1913. 
The elaborately landscaped hillside estate contains more than 30,000 
trees, many rare tropical shrubs, several goldfish pools, and a Japanese 
shrine. Overlooking the Japanese terraces is the 14-room Yama Shiro, 
(castle on the hill), designed in the manner of a Buddhist Temple of 
the ancient Shoguns. It is filled with rare objects of Japanese and 
Buddhist art. There is also a miniature garden with dwarf trees, 
canals, waterfalls and reproductions of ancient dwellings. 

GRAUMAN'S CHINESE THEATER, 6925 Hollywood Blvd., 
a spectacular adaptation of the Chinese style of architecture, designed 
by Meyer and Haller, is the scene of Hollywood's super premieres, 
where stars and film moguls attend opening performances of new films 
with the ballyhoo of searchlights, floodlights, microphones and loud- 
speakers, and roped-off aisles covered with carpet. 

The facade, in the form of a U-shaped forecourt with a Chinese 
gate, set between terminal piers, suggests the approach to an ancient 
temple garden. Four large obelisks, embellished with oriental decora- 
tions, surmount the two colossal piers. In the forecourt is a grove of 
palm trees and other shrubs, and concrete slabs bearing the hand and 
foot prints of stars and their messages of congratulation. At the end 
of the forecourt a colorful pagoda forms the entrance to the theater, 
roofed in bronze aged to the color of jade green, and supported by two 
coral-red octagonal columns mounted with wrought-iron masks. Under 
the curved roof, and deeply set between the flanking piers, is a great 
stone dragon, modeled in relief on a slab 30 feet high. 

The EGYPTIAN THEATER, 6712 Hollywood Blvd., now a 
second-run movie house, is the spot where the Hollywood premieres 
originated as a scintillating social event, with the showing of Robin 
Hood in 1922. An Egyptian god in the forecourt bears out the motif 
of the building. 


The CROSSROADS OF THE WORLD, 6673 Sunset Blvd., is 
a shopping area in which most of the stores and cafes represent foreign 
countries architecturally and in their wares. The shops face wide foot 
lanes radiating from a central patio; above them is a large, slowly re- 
volving terrestrial globe. 

DE LONGPRE PARK, De Longpre and Cherokee Aves., with 
landscaped lawns, bamboo, and palms, is named for the celebrated 
French painter, long a Hollywood resident. In the center of the park 
is a bronze statue Aspiration, a nude male surmounting a globe, by 
Roger Noble Burnham, erected as a memorial to Rudolph Valentino, 
super-lover of the silent screen, who died in 1926. 

(open 10-10 daily; studio tour 40$, guides") , Sunset Blvd. and Vine St., 
occupy a three-story concrete building, designed in the modern "Inter- 
national" style, forming a composition of low horizontal lines and 
masses relieved by a higher corner pavilion with deep vertical fen- 
estration. The outer walls are a light shade of blue-green. The 
building, designed by the Austin Company of Los Angeles, was opened 
in 1938, and contains eight studios, four of which are built as indi- 
vidual sound stages after the motion picture plan, and seat 350 per- 
sons each. 

COLUMBIA SQUARE PLAYHOUSE (open 10-10 daily; studio 
tour 4.0$, guides), Sunset Blvd. and Gower St., opened in 1938, is the 
Hollywood headquarters of the Columbia Broadcasting System. The 
work of William Lescaze, the building is entirely modern in design. It 
has a five-story central unit of concrete and glass, with long horizontal 
lines and corner fenestrations, and lower, outflung studio sections. 
Visitors can watch rehearsals and some of the 14 weekly broadcasts that 
originate in the seven "streamlined" studios, peer behind the scenes at 
the master control, and see the laboratory for the development of special 
sound effects. 

HOLLYWOOD CEMETERY, 6076 Santa Monica Blvd., is the 
flower-bordered and elaborately landscaped resting place of many Holly- 
wood notables, including Rudolph Valentino, John Gilbert, and William 
Desmond Taylor. Harrison Gray Otis, long-time publisher of the Los 
Angeles Times, and William Andrews Clark, Jr., multimillionaire 
patron of the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra, are also buried 
here. As a publicity stunt, a veiled woman was supposed to decorate 
Valentino's grave on each anniversary of his death. More and more 
veiled ladies appeared each year, and the whole thing was finally called 

In the CENTRAL CASTING OFFICE, 5504 Hollywood Blvd., 
20,000 actors, bit players, and extras are registered. On short notice it 
can supply types of actors ranging from Siberian Samoyeds to British 
Members of Parliament. 

BARNSDALL PARK, Hollywood Blvd. and Vermont Ave., with 
an area of 10 acres, has a wading pool for children, picnic tables, and 
cooking conveniences. The donor, Miss Alice Barnsdall, retains an 


encircling strip of land valued at $2,000,000, where she advertises her 
social and political views on signboards. 

The CALIFORNIA ART CLUB (open 2-5 daily; adm. 25$, free 
Thurs.), 1645 N. Vermont Ave., is a white arcaded granite building 
designed by Frank Lloyd Wright in a modified Aztec style and erected 
in 1915 as Miss Barnsdall's family house. It is considered a good ex- 
ample of Wright's "organic" architecture, its low mass designed to 
blend into the setting. The guest house, a smaller residence on the 
west side of the park, has a first story designed by Wright, and the 
second story closely follows Wright's basic idea. The Art Club has a 
permanent exhibit of handicraft and California relics, and occasionally 
exhibits the work of contemporary artists. 


(Studios are not open to the public.} 

HOLLYWOOD: Paramount Pictures, Inc., 5451 Marathon St.; RKO 
Studios, Inc., 780 N. Gower St. 

LOS ANGELES: Charlie Chaplin Studios, 1416 N. La Brea Ave.; Walt 
Disney Studios, 2719 Hyperion Ave.; Samuel Goldwyn, Inc. of California, 
1041 N. Formosa Ave.; United Artists Studio Corp., 1041 N. Formosa Ave.; 
Grand National Studios, Inc., 7250 Santa Monica Blvd.; Schulberg Studios, 
Inc., 650 N. Bronson Ave. 

UNIVERSAL CITY: Universal Pictures Co., Inc., Lankershim Blvd. 

CULVER CITY: General Pictures, 9499 Washington Blvd.; Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, 10202 Washington Blvd.; Hal Roach Studios, 8822 
Washington Blvd.; Selznick International Pictures, Inc., 9336 Washington 

BURBANK: Warner Bros. First National Studios, 4000 S. Olive Ave. 

NORTH HOLLYWOOD: Republic Productions, Inc., 4024 Radford Ave. 


All homes are of course private, but viewing them from the outside is a 
popular tourist diversion. Sightseeing busses leave downtown Hollywood 
for tours of these and other homes. 


RICHARD BARTHELMESS ESTATE, 501 Sunset Blvd., is a two-story 
English type dwelling in landscaped grounds surrounded by a brick wall. 

GROUCHO MARX'S HOME, 710 N. Hillcrest Road, a Monterey style 
house of whitewashed brick. 

Drive, is a massive two-story building, antique in appearance, fronted by 
a neat lawn. 

Drive, is a two-story white frame and brick structure partly covered with 
vines, with formal garden, swimming pool, and playground for the Burns 
children. Gracie's dressing room, according to Paramount, contains hun- 
dreds of bottles of rare perfumes. 

WALLACE BEERY'S HOME, 816 N. Alpine Drive, is of modified Nor- 
man-Colonial style. Flower pots under the windows add bright spots of 
color. A game room houses Beery's hunting trophies. 

EDWARD G. ROBINSON'S HOME, 910 N. Rexford Drive, a two-story 
English type white brick house surrounded by low walls, contains the 


owner's collection of modern French paintings and his comprehensive musi- 
cal library. 

JOE E. BROWN'S HOME, 707 N. Walden Drive, is a two-story stucco 
Spanish dwelling. Brown has a special room for hundreds of autographed 
baseballs, "big game" footballs, and trunks and boxing gloves of cham- 
pions, from Jim Corbett to Gene Tunney. 

LIONEL BARRYMORE'S HOME, 802 N. Roxbury Drive, a white stucco 
Spanish type dwelling, is without front windows, to insure privacy. 

MARION DAVIES' HOME, 1700 Lexington Road, one of the star's three 
palatial residences, is a rambling brick and stucco house on a tree-studded 

CHARLIE CHAPLIN'S HOME, 1085 Summit Drive, a tile-roofed three- 
story yellow stucco house, is screened from view by towering trees. 

FRED ASTAIRE'S HOME, 1121 Summit Drive, a two-story white stucco 
Monterey style house, has landscaped gardens and a fine tennis court. 

PICKFAIR, a 2o-acre landscaped estate, formerly the home of Mary 
Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks, is occupied by Miss Pickford and Buddy 
Rogers. The three-story white stucco and frame house was formerly a 
hunting lodge. 

HAROLD LLOYD'S ESTATE, Green Acres, 1225 Benedict Canyon, sec- 
ond largest in southern California, includes a 25-room house with 27 tele- 
phones, canoe stream and waterfall, private 9-hole golf course, handball 
court, swimming pool, and a four-room playhouse for the Lloyd children. 
Mr. Lloyd breeds great Danes and St. Bernards. 

ROBERT MONTGOMERY'S HOME, 144 Monovale Drive, a two-story 
white frame building of New England design, is perched on a hill and 
surrounded by a rustic rock garden and sloping lawn. 

Ridgedale Drive, is a three-story French-Norman house with a swimming 
pool in the rear. 

CONSTANCE BENNETT'S HOME, 280 Carolwood Drive, is a white- 
washed brick house with shuttered windows, reached by a winding drive- 

GINGER ROGER'S HOME, 1605 Gilcrest Drive, a one-story house of 
irregular field stone and frame, is on the highest point in Beverly Hills. 
There is a shining, well-stocked soda fountain in the house, to fulfill a 
childhood dream. 


GRETA GARBO'S HOME, 350 N. Cliffwood Ave., is a one-story Span- 
ish-style stucco house with blue awnings and flower urns. A five-foot 
white brick wall insures privacy. 

JOAN CRAWFORD'S HOME, 426 N. Bristol Ave., is a two-story white 
stucco house of modified Colonial design, set in landscaped grounds. In the 
right wing is a private motion picture theater. 

ZASU PITTS' HOME, 241 N. Rockingham Ave., is a two-story white 
stucco building fronted by a landscaped lawn. 

SHIRLEY TEMPLE'S HOME, 227 Rockingham Road, is a two-story 
house in the English country style, surrounded by a stone wall with an 
iron gate. 


CLAUDETTE COLBERT'S HOME, 615 N. Faring Road, is a two-story 
white stucco building, fronted by a lawn with a single live oak. 

JOAN BENNETT'S HOME, 515 S. Mapleton Drive, is a two-story white 
painted brick mansion of Norman design, surmounted by two large 

CAROLE LOMBARD'S HOME, 609 St. Cloud Road, called "The Farm," 
is a two-story brick building, painted white, almost hidden by trees and 


Bel Air Road, is a two-story English country style house, of white stucco 
and irregular field stones, with many gables and imitation-thatched roof 
that give it a fairy-tale appearance. 

LORETTA YOUNG'S HOME, 10539 Sunset Blvd., is a two-story brick 
and frame structure, painted white with green shutters, and built on a knoll. 

W. C. FIELD'S HOME, 655 Funchall Road, a mission style white stucco 
residence, is at the end of a winding road. 

HOME OF JANE WITHERS, 10731 Sunset Blvd., a one-story white 
frame building with blue window shutters is somewhat reminiscent of a 
doll's house. On the grounds is a two-story playhouse containing a soda 
fountain, 800 dolls, a motion picture theater, and guest rooms. In the rear 
of the house is a miniature zoo. 

FREDDIE BARTHOLOMEW'S HOME, 226 Tilden Ave., is a two-story 
white stucco and frame house on a quiet residential street, lined with 
silk oak trees. 


Long Beach 

Bus Stations: 221 E. First St. for Greyhound Lines, Motor Transit and Motor 

Coach ; 49 American Ave. for Union Pacific System, Chicago and Northwestern 

Stage Lines, and Interstate Transit Line; 56 American Ave. for Santa Fe 


Airport: Long Beach Municipal Airport, Spring and Cherry Ave., 4.5 m. 

NE. ; no scheduled service. 

Taxis: Zone system, fares 15^-25^, additional passenger 10^-15^; also meter 

cabs. Flat rate, municipal Navy landing to central points, 10^. 

Streetcars and Busses: Streetcars 7^, busses 5$. 

Traffic Regulations: Parking meters in business district, 5$ per hour. 

Accommodations: 88 hotels, n tourist camps; Long Beach Municipal Trailer 
camp on beach. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 109 American Ave. 

Radio Stations: KFOX (1250 kc.) ; KGER (1360 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Municipal Auditorium, S. end of Ameri- 
can Ave., concerts; 21 motion picture houses. 

Golf: Municipal course in Recreation Park, E. yth St. at West Blvd., 18 holes, 
75$; 9 holes, 50$; $i Sun. and holidays. Monthly tickets, $3.50 to $5. 
Tennis: Public courts in Recreation Park, E. loth St. at West Blvd., free. 
Swimming: Surf on ocean beach; still-water in Alamitos Bay and at S. end 
of American Ave.; still-water and salt-water plunge, Marine Stadium, Recrea- 
tion Park. 

Boating: Rowboats and canoes, Alamitos Bay, 25$ to 50$ per hour, $i to $2 
per day. 

Fishing: Fishing boats, $2 and $3 per day, leave frequently between 2 and 
7:30 a.m. from Pier B, S. end of Santa Clara Ave. Barges, $i per day, 
reached by boat from Belmont Pier at S. end of 39th PI.; departures at i-^ hr. 
intervals, 8 a.m.-3 p.m.; prices include bait and tackle. Surf and pier fishing. 

Annual Events: New Year's Eve Penny Scramble, in which $100 in pennies is 
scattered; Twins' Convention, May; Baby Parade, Sept. Bonfire and Costume 
Parade, Oct. 

LONG BEACH (47 alt., 142,032 pop.), California's fifth largest 
city, spreads over a level plain to the edge of sandy bluffs overlooking 
the 8^2-mile-long, crescent-shaped beach of San Pedro Bay. From the 
shore it stretches north, laid out as evenly as a checkerboard, to the 
diagonal spur of low, barren knolls dominated by Signal Hill on the 
northeast, palisaded with oil derricks and dotted with tanks and stucco 
bungalows, and spills over the slopes to the level plain beyond. On the 
east Long Beach extends over rolling slopes to the edge of vacant fields ; 
on the west, to the mills and warehouses along levee-embanked Los 
Angeles River (now a flood control channel). At its southeast tip are 
the winding lagoons of Alamitos Bay ; to the southwest are the channels 
and breakwaters of Long Beach Harbor. 



Against the wide expanse of San Pedro Bay are silhouetted tall office 
buildings, beach clubs, and hotels. Along the bluffs, from Long Beach 
Harbor on the west to Alamitos Bay on the east, curves broad Ocean 
Boulevard, skirting first the shops, hotels and theaters of the business 
district, then the tree-shaded mansions, lawns, and gardens of the resi- 
dential section. From the garish seaside amusement zone below the 
bluffs, the business and shopping district extends northward along Pine 
and parallel streets. The rest of the city, laid out following the 
cardinal points of the compasses, extends west, north, and east its chief 
boulevards lined with cafes, markets, garages, used-car lots ; its residence 
streets bordered with frame and stucco bungalows in the shade of palms 
and peppertrees. In the east end, on sandy slopes overlooking the ocean, 
on lagoons arid winding canals around Alamitos Bay, perch the white 
stucco houses of the newer Belmont Shore and Naples districts. 

Long Beach is several towns in one a seaside resort, a haven for 
elderly retired persons, and an industrial center drawing its income from 
oil, shipping, and manufacturing. Its population is correspondingly 
diverse including amusement zone barkers, sailors and Naval officers 
and their families, oil and factory workers, retired farmers and trades- 
men from the Middle West. Eighty-nine percent of the people are 
native-born whites. Although great numbers of the inhabitants depend 
on the city's industrial payroll for their living, they are outnumbered 
by the preponderance of elderly emigres from the Middle West, at- 
tracted here by the sunny climate, the seaside location, and the low cost 
of living. It was in Long Beach that Dr. Francis Townsend, a local 
physician, first won support for his old-age pension movement. 

The strip of mud and sand on which Long Beach was built, long 
the bartering place of Indians from Santa Catalina Island and the 
mainland, was part of the vast 2OO,ooo-acre tract granted in 1784 by 
the King of Spain to Manuel Nieto in payment for his services in the 
royal army. Divided into Rancho los Alamitos (little cottonwoods) 
and Rancho los Cerritos (little hills), it passed in 1840, after Nieto's 
death, into the hands of John Temple and Abel Stearns, both Massa- 
chusetts Yankees who married into Spanish families, and became Mexi- 
can citizens and wealthy landowners. Around their homes centered the 
social life of the region, marked by bull fights, horse races, and rodeos 
in which the two families and their servants carried on a friendly 
rivalry, the winner sponsoring a celebration at which casks of wine were 
opened, an ox was barbecued, and dancing and merrymaking lasted far 
into the night. The drought of 1863-64 killed off so many of their 
sheep, cattle, and horses that the owners lost their land through fore- 
closures. It was bought by Llewellyn Bixby and Benjamin and Dr. 
Thomas Flint. 

Home owners were first attracted in 1881 when W. E. Willmore 
subdivided 10,000 acres of barley field and sold it for $12.50 to $25 an 
acre, naming his community Willmore City. The only connection with 
the outside world was a horse and buggy and later a four-horse stage 
coach to Wilmington, until a wooden car track was laid for a horse-car 


line known as the "Get Off and Push Railroad" because the passengers 
had to supply locomotive power when the horses balked. When Will- 
more City went bankrupt in 1888, it was re-named Long Beach just 
in time to advertise itself as a seaside resort to the throngs of new settlers 
attracted by the southern California real estate boom of the same year. 
Its later growth was slower and steadier. The development of the sur- 
rounding territory (54 towns, including Los Angeles) led to the estab- 
lishment of small industries supplying the increasing demand for 
manufactured articles. Not until discovery of the Signal Hill oil field 
in 1921, however, did Long Beach acquire large industries. The oil 
boom, opening the region to frenzied speculation, brought an influx of 
men and money that transformed it almost overnight into a rapidly 
growing city. 

After the gradual subsidence of the oil boom, Long Beach .continued 
to grow slowly and peacefully, its serenity seldom disturbed except 
when the run-off from winter rains forced inhabitants in low-lying sec- 
tions to take to rowboats until the earthquake of March 1933. The 
shock leveled buildings throughout the city, including most of the Long 
Beach schools, killed I2O persons and destroyed property valued at 
$40,000,000. The extent of the destruction was attributed largely to 
lax building standards. A widespread rebuilding program was im- 
mediately undertaken under more rigid restrictions. 

The oil industry still plays the dominant role in the Long Beach 
industrial scene. Second in importance is fish canning, carried on by 
eight large canneries which pack tons of tuna and mackerel. The three 
largest manufacturing plants produce motor cars, soap, and vegetable 
oil. The shipping industry accounts for a growing share of the city's 
income. And, like most southern California cities, Long Beach relies 
on the tourist trade as an important factor in its economic well-being. 


The CIVIC CENTER, Broadway between Pacific and Cedar 
Aves., consists of the City Hall, the Municipal Utilities Building, and 
the Veterans' Memorial Building all modern reinforced concrete 
structures. The Veterans' Building is notable for the restrained and 
effective sculpture on its facade. 

LINCOLN PARK, Ocean Blvd. between Pacific and Cedar Aves., 
is a 5-acre tract, green with lawns and shade trees, where idlers pitch 
horseshoes or sun themselves on benches. 

The CENTRAL PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays], in 
the center of the park, erected 1936-37 to replace the library destroyed 
in the 1933 earthquake, is built of earthquake-proof reinforced concrete. 
It is cruciform in plan, designed in formal modern style. The flat roof- 
line is unbroken, except by the pediment of the facade, surmounting the 
vertical lines of the main entrance and second-story trio of windows. 
The two unified groups of window channels running up the face of the 
building on either side of the main entrance accent the vertical treat- 


ment. In the first floor hall is a mural, a series of scenes from English 
and American literature, by Suzanne Miller of the Federal Art Project. 
The library has 148,365 volumes. 

The MUNICIPAL MARKET (open 7-12 ?n. Tues., Thurs., 
Sat.), a public food bazaar of temporary canvas booths set up along the 
sidewalk on the north and west sides of the park, provides a colorful 
display of fruit and garden produce, seafoods, honey, nuts, homemade 
bakery goods, and home-cured meats and fish. In about 150 stalls, 
members of 16 racial groups sell their goods under rigid municipal 

The PIKE, or Amusement Zone, S. end of Pacific Ave., is flanked 
by theaters, reptile exhibits, dance pavilions, side shows, curiosity shops, 
shooting galleries, "oriental stores," penny arcades, and cafes. Here, 
against a flamboyant background of flags and posters, side-show barkers 
spiel incessantly. The attractions include an underground imitation of 
Los Angeles' Olvera Street, with "Mexican" and "Indian" stands, the 
"Million-Dollar Bathhouse," and the Silver Spray Pier with its roller 
coaster and amusement concessions extending into the ocean. 

The MUNICIPAL AUDITORIUM, S. end of American Ave., 
stands on a landscaped square of filled-in land in the placid 32-acre 
lagoon sheltered from the ocean by the horseshoe-shaped rock embank- 
ment of RAINBOW PIER. The 3 800 foot pier has a motor driveway 
and pedestrian promenade. A massive neo-classic structure, nine stories 
in height, with a two-story arcaded gallery in the rear suggesting the 
Coliseum in Rome, the auditorium contains three assembly halls, the 
largest of which seats 4,875. On its facade is an immense tile mosaic 
mural, the work of the Federal Art Project. The Long Beach Munici- 
pal Band presents its concerts here (3:30 and 7:30 Tues., Sat., 2 :JO' 
Sun.). The lagoon is the scene of year-round bathing and boating, of 
water carnivals and fireworks displays on festive occasions. 

The WAYSIDE ART COLONY, 74 Atlantic Ave., covering 
about half a city block, consists largely of art shops, studios, and a 
private art school. Activities of the artists or "crafters," include 
needlework, weaving, wood and metal working, painting, music, and 
dancing. The colony sponsors many exhibitions of the work of Long 
Beach artists. The brown, shingle-roofed buildings of the colony are 
designed in rustic cottage style to convey an "old world art colony 

BIXBY PARK, Ocean Blvd. and Cherry Ave., 10 acres in area, is 
primarily a picnic park, noted as the site of State society picnics. Wide, 
slightly rolling lawns, shaded by groups of oak, pine, cypress, sycamore, 
and palms, overlook the boulevard and ocean. The Federation of State 
Societies estimates that 100,000 people attended the Iowa picnic in this 
park in 1937. 

ALAMITOS BAY, S.E. end of Second St., has a popular beach 
for still-water swimming, boating, and water sports. From the bay a 
labyrinth of canals branch into the residential section of Naples and a 
long arm runs inland to Recreation Park. ALAMITOS STATE PARK, at 


the tip of the peninsula sheltering Alamitos Bay from the ocean, is a 
34-acre recreation park with facilities for picnicking and swimming 
(overnight camping prohibited). On the bay side is a sandy beach pro- 
tected from high tides by a rubble wall. 

RECREATION PARK, entrance 7th St. and West Blvd., has 
picnic facilities, playgrounds, a salt-water swimming pool, an artificial 
lagoon, and the MARINE STADIUM, which was constructed for the 
rowing races of the 1932 Olympiad. The stadium, bordered by public 
beaches, is the scene of national inter-collegiate regattas. The park also 
has workshops where children learn to build toy boats. 

SIGNAL HILL, climbed by Panorama Dr., overlooks the spread- 
ing city blocks of Long Beach, the curving shoreline, and the ocean. 
On its slopes is the independent community of SIGNAL HILL (2,932 
pop.), an island of tanks, steel and wooden oil derricks, and stucco 
bungalows shaded by pepper-trees. The town government levies taxes 
only on oil wells. The hill, once an Indian signal post and later a 
lookout point for signaling incoming ships, was sold by "Don Juan" 
Temple in 1866 for 74^ an acre. It was a quiet residential suburb 
when discovery of oil in 1921 transformed it into a booming oil field 
that reached a maximum production of 268,000 barrels per day. In the 
vicinity now (1939) are some 1,400 oil derricks. 

and Spring St., was the starting point for Douglas Corrigan's "wrong- 
way" flight to New York and back by way of Ireland in 1938. A 
bronze plaque commemorates the flight. 

The PROCTOR AND GAMBLE PLANT (tours 9:30, 10:30, 
2 and 3 Mon.-Fri.) , 1601 W. 7th St., covers 15 acres. Visitors can see 
the process of soap manufacture from vegetable oils (principally cocoa- 
nut, cottonseed, and linseed) in all its stages. 

LONG BEACH HARBOR, at the city's southwest tip, approached 
by Ocean Blvd. or 7th St., consists of inner harbor channels dredged 
from tidal flats and an outer harbor sheltered by three great break- 
waters. Pipelines radiate from the 28 miles of waterfront to adjacent 
oil fields. Boats can be rented for a cruise through Cerritos Channel 
into the Los Angeles Inner Harbor and back through the outer harbor. 


Santa Catalina Island, 25 m. (see TOUR 2C). 


Los Angeles 

Railroad Stations: Central Station, Central Ave. at E. 5th St. for Southern 
Pacific Lines and Union Pacific R.R. ; Santa Fe Station, Santa Fe Ave. at E. ist 
St. for Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry.; new Union Station, Alameda Blvd. 
between Aliso and Macy Sts., in use after March 1939 (estimated) for Union 
Pacific R.R., Southern Pacific Lines, and Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. ; 
Pacific Electric Ry., 610 S. Main St. and 423 S. Hill St. (interurban). 
Bus Stations: Motor Transit Lines, 560 S. Los Angeles St. and Union Stage 
Depot, 202 E. 5th St.; Pacific Electric Ry., 423 S. Hill St.; Pasadena Ocean 
Park Stage Line, Inc. (Hollywood to Pasadena only), 1625 N. Cahuenga Blvd. 
(all interurban). Central Bus Depot, 603 S. Main St. for Santa Fe Trail ways, 
Burlington Trailways (Nat'l. Trailways System), and Airline Bus Co.; Union 
Pacific Stage Depot, 451 S. Main St. for Union Pacific-Chicago and North- 
western Stages, and Inter-State Transit Lines; Union Stage Depot; 202 E. 5th 
St. for Original Stage Lines, Mount Wilson Stages, and Inland Stages; Grey- 
hound Terminal, 560 S. Los Angeles St. for Pacific Greyhound and Inland 
Stages; Independent Bus Depot, 218 E. yth St. for Dollar Lines and Inde- 
pendent Stages ; All American Bus Depot, 629 S. Main St. for All American 
Bus Lines and Overland Stages; 809 E. 5th St. for Los Angeles-Trona Stages. 
Sightseeing Tours: Rosslyn Hotel, 5th and Main Sts. and depot at 544 S. Hill 
St. for Tanner-Gray Line (city and Southern Calif.) ; Pacific Electric Bldg., 
6th and Main Sts., and Biltmore Hotel, 5th and Olive Sts., for California Parlor 
Car Tours, Inc. (Los Angeles to San Francisco, and to Yosemite). 
Streetcars and Busses: Los Angeles Ry. (yellow cars, local), fare 7$, four 
tokens for 25$, weekly pass $i ; (yellow busses, local), fare 10^, weekly com- 
bination pass (also good on P.E. local cars) $1.50; Pacific Electric Ry. (red 
cars, local), fare 6$ local zone, 10$ additional zone, and up; Los Angeles Motor 
Coach Co. (yellow and red busses, local), fare 10^ local zone, 15^ additional 
zone, and up. 

Airports: Grand Central Air Terminal, 1224 Airway, Glendale, for American 
Airlines and Pan American Airways, taxi 75^, time 45 minutes; Union Air 
Terminal, 2627 Hollywood Way, Burbank, for United Airlines, TWA, and 
Western Air Express, taxi $i, time 55 minutes; Catalina Airport, Wilmington, 
near Catalina Terminal, to Catalina only (Avalon) fare by P.E. 44^ to Wil- 
mington, free fare to airport, time 46 minutes via P.E., 5 minutes to airport. 
Taxis: Fare 20$ first J4 mile, 10$ each additional y 2 mile, i to 5 passengers. 
Piers: Ships berth in Los Angeles Harbor, San Pedro, Wilmington, West 
Basin, and at Terminal Island. Coastwise passage on occasional freighters 
only. For travel to East Coast, outlying possessions, and foreign countries con- 
sult telephone directory or travel bureaus. 

Boats for Santa Catalina Island: Leave Catalina Terminal (berths 184-185) 
foot of Avalon Blvd., Wilmington, 10 a.m. daily; round trip, $3, children $1.50, 
automobile storage at pier, 50$. Boat train leaves Pacific Electric Station, Los 
Angeles, daily, 9 a.m. 

Traffic Regulations: Speed limit 20 m. in business districts, 25 m. in residential 
districts. Right turn against red from right hand lane after full stop, but 
pedestrians and vehicles proceeding with signal have right of way. No park- 
ing along red or yellow curb; 3 min. limit at white curb; 15 min. limit at 
green curb; otherwise 45 min. parking in Central Traffic District 7-4:30; no 
parking 4:30-6 p.m. Unlimited parking 6 p.m.-2 a.m.; 30 min. limit 2-4 a.m.; 
unlimited 4-7 a.m. 



Information Service: All-Year Club, 505 W. 6th St.; Chamber of Commerce, 
Broadway at i2th St.; Automobile Club of Southern California, 2601 S. Figueroa 
St.; Pacific Electric Co. Information Bureau, 610 S. Main St.; Times Informa- 
tion Bureau, ist and Spring Sts. 

Street Order and Numbering: Numbered streets run approximately E. and W., 
and are divided by Main St. North and south streets are divided by First St. 
Houses are numbered E. and W. from Main St., and N. and S. from ist St. 

Accommodations: 860 hotels; 48 trailer camp sites; licensed by City Planning 
Commission; auto camps numerous on major highways approaching the city. 

Radio Stations: KMTR (570 kc.) ; KFI (640 kc.) ; KEHE (780 kc.) ; KHJ 
(900 kc.) ; KFWB (950 kc.) ; KFVD (1000 kc.) ; KNX (1050 kc.) ; KRKD and 
KFSG (1120 kc.); KGFJ (1200 kc.) ; KFOX (1250 kc.) ; KFAC (1300 kc.) ; 
KGER (1360 kc.) ; KECA (1430 kc.). 

Theaters, Concert Halls and Motion Picture Houses: Belasco, 1050 S. Hill St., 
Biltmore, 530 W. 5th St., Mayan, 1040 S. Hill St., Theatre Mart, 605 N. Juanita 
Ave., road shows; Philharmonic Auditorium, 427 W. fth St., Shrine Civic 
Auditorium, 665 W. Jefferson Blvd., Trinity Auditorium, 847 S. Grand Ave., 
concerts; Greek Theater, N. end of Vermont Ave., Griffith Park; 181 motion 
picture houses. 

Beaches: Venice, Playa del Rey, El Segundo, and Cabrillo beaches; lifeguards. 
Archery: Public ranges at Griffith Park, Glendale Blvd. at Los Angeles River, 
and Banning Playground (Wilmington). 
Baseball: Wrigley Field, 435 E. 42nd Place. 

Boating and Yachting: Boating at Echo Park, 1732 Echo Park Ave.; Hollen- 
beck Park, Cummings, 4th, and St. Louis Sts. and Boyer Ave.; Lincoln Park, 
3600 N. Mission Road; Westlake Park, Alvorado St. and Wilshire Blvd.; aver- 
age charge i to 2 persons, 30^-40^; 3 to 6 persons, 40^-60$. Yacht Clubs, 
Balboa Yacht Club, 1806 S. Bay Front, Balboa Island; Los Angeles Yacht 
Club, foot of Terminal Way, San Pedro; California Yacht Club (San Pedro), 
Wilmington Yacht Anchorage (Wilmington), Main Street Yacht Landing (Wil- 

Boxing: Olympic Stadium, 1801 S. Grand Ave. 

Fishing: Boats for ocean fishing at San Pedro or Los Angeles Harbor. Prices 
on boats accommodating 1 6 to 40 persons average $i to $2 per day per person; 
charter boats $25 to $50 per day. Game fish licenses, $2 resident, $3 non- 
resident. Surf or still fishing from piers and at beaches. 

Football: Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, 3911 S. Figueroa St., Pacific Coast 
Conference games. Gilmore Stadium, 100 N. Fairfax Ave., Loyola University 
and professional games, October to January. 

Golf: Griffith Park, Glendale Ave. at Los Angeles River, two i8-hole courses, 
greens fee 75^ first round, 35^ each additional round, 50^ for 2^2 hours before 
sunset, $i Sat. after n a.m., Sun., holidays, with 50$ each additional round, 
$5 for monthly permit; 9-hole course, greens fee 40^; Holmby Park, Beverly 
Glen Blvd. and Comstock Ave., Westwood, i8-hole pony course, 15$. 
Horse Racing: Hollywood Park, Inglewood, summer racing, mutuels. Santa 
Anita, Arcadia, winter racing, mutuels. 

Ice Skating: Pan Pacific Ice Arena, Beverly Blvd. between La Brea and Fair- 
fax Aves., early winter to late spring; Polar Ice Palace, 615 N. Van Ness, 
September to May; Tropical Ice Gardens, end of Weyburn Ave. just off 
Westwood Blvd., 365-day season, open all day. 

Midget Auto Racing: Atlantic Stadium, Atlantic and Bandini Blvds., Tues. 
nights April or May to October; Gilmore Stadium, 100 N. Fairfax Ave., from 
April to Thanksgiving. 

Polo: Riviera Country Club Field, Sunset Blvd. and Capri Drive; Will Rogers 
Memorial Field, Sunset Blvd. and Chautauqua Drive. Games nearly every 
Sun., 2:30. 
Riding: Numerous riding academies; bridle paths in Arroyo Seco Parks, Pearl 


St. to Ave. 57 and California St. between Crescent, Ferrara, and Bredwell Sts., 

and in Griffith Park. 

Swimming: 16 municipal swimming pools; admission generally 5$ for children 

under 16, 10$ for children 16 to 20, 20$ for adults; outdoor pools open during 

summer months. 

Tennis: Municipal courts at 33 recreation centers; free in daytime; 25^ per 

half hour for floodlighted courts at night. Among them are: Echo (5) 2 

lighted, 1632 Bellevue; El Sereno (2), 2501 Eastern Ave.; Exposition (8) 

5 lighted, 3981 S. Hoover St.; Griffith (28) 6 lighted, 3401 Riverside Drive; 
Harvard (8) 4 lighted, 6120 Denker Ave.; Manchester (4) 2 lighted, 8800 S. 
Hoover St.; North Hollywood (5) 3 lighted, 5301 Tujunga Blvd.; Poinsettia (8) 

6 lighted, 7341 Willoughby Ave.; Rancho Playground (12) 4834 Exposition 
Blvd.; Arroyo Seco Park (5) San Pascual Ave.; Hollenbeck Park (2) Boyle 
and St. Louis Sts.; Peck Park (4) Summerland Ave., San Pedro. 
Wrestling: Olympic Stadium, 1801 S. Grand Ave.; Eastside Arena Club, 3400 
E. Pico St.; Huntington Park Coliseum, 2010 E. Gage Ave. 

Annual Events: Los Angeles Open Golf Tournament, Griffith Park, Jan.; In- 
ternational Polo Matches, Feb.-Mar.; International Tennis Matches, National 
A.A.U. six-day bicycle race, Mar.; Easter Sunrise Services; Los Angeles Yacht 
Club Gold Cup Races, Harbor, Japanese Spring Festival, Greek Theater, Apr.; 
Southern California Festival of Allied Arts, Carnival Mascaras (Mexican), 
Cinco de Mayo Fete (Mexican), Kennel Club Show, Ambassador Hotel, May; 
Ocean Swim Meet, Ocean Park-Venice, June; Nordlinger Trophy Race, Los 
Angeles Harbor, July; Nisei Festival (Japanese), Western Golf Assn. Amateur 
Championship Matches, Aug.; Founding of Los Angeles Pageant, Mexican In- 
dependence Day Celebration, Annual California Yacht Club Race, Harbor, 
Pacific Southwest Tennis Matches, Sept.; Great Western Livestock Show and 
Rodeo, San Francisco Opera Company (week long), Nov.; Pacific Coast Intra- 
circuit Polo Championship, Dec.; Philharmonic Orchestra Season, Nov.-Mar. 

LOS ANGELES (286 alt., 1,238,048 pop.), known to the ends of 
the earth as the mother of Hollywood, that dazzling daughter still 
sheltered under the family roof, has other liens on fame and fortune. 
The country's fifth largest city, in area the nation's largest municipality, 
Los Angeles extends one thin arm to embrace the harbors of San Pedro 
and Wilmington, and with the other reaches past the Santa Monica to 
the San Gabriel Mountains. 

For the most part, its 451 square miles of territory are level, sloping 
gently from the brush- and pine-clad mountains to the sandy Pacific 
shore, but on the northern limits the city spills over into canyons and 
climbs fire-scarred foothills. Amoeba-like, it has grown out and around 
many independent communities: among others, Beverly Hills, Santa 
Monica, Culver City, Universal City, Inglewood, each with its own 
business district and enterprises. On all sides it is fringed with other 
cities, towns, villages, and subdivisions so numerous that wits never 
tire of describing the scene as "nineteen suburbs in search of a city." 

In more than one sense Los Angeles is many cities. To some it is a 
slightly unreal stage set, some elaborate artifice on a movie lot, as they 
catch a first glimpse of its new white buildings gleaming in the sun 
between the cobalt sea and the purple hills. To others it is a comfort- 
able cottage on a quiet street, with flowers in bloom about it the year 
round, a haven of rest and retirement after years of back-breaking work 
on a midwestern farm. Some know it for its ubiquitous signboards 


advertising' everything from the doctrine of the latest sect to a sandy 
bluff offered cheap as a "Choice Site for a Lawyer." To still others it 
is a fashionable cafe, a luxurious hotel, a boulevard on which to stroll 
and see and be seen by the great and the near-great, a paradise for the 
collector of autographs and the hunter of social lions. 

But to most Angelenos it is, like any other city, a place to work. 
The fifth largest industrial center of the country in 1935, it cans fruit, 
fish, and vegetables; manufactures long ribbons of "celluloid" on which 
to film miles and miles of movies; packs meat and fashions clothing, 
from blue jeans to today's creations of the reigning movie queens; 
fabricates tires, tubes, and airplanes; builds furniture and assembles 
automobiles. It is an oil town, the production and refining center of 
one of the greatest of our petroleum fields. It is a farm town, the 
trading and banking center of one of the world's richest ranch and 
orchard areas, producing great quantities of berries, winter vegetables, 
and citrus fruits. It is a busy seaport, shipping and receiving cargoes 
from all quarters of the globe. And there is, of course, its tourist trade, 
a major "industry." Visitors each year outnumber settled residents, in 
1937 they accounted for more than 20 percent of all retail sales. 

Reflecting its rapid expansion, the city's population is largely a 
transplanted one. From census to census a steady flow of newcomers 
has created virtually a new city; in only one decade since 1870 has Los 
Angeles failed at least to double its population. Many of the recent 
arrivals are from the Middle West and the East, elderly folk who have 
retired on a moderate income. Others have been drawn by the business 
opportunities offered by a growing community. Others, driven from 
their homes by depression, droughts and dust storms, have come seeking 
a new start in the City of the Angels. 

Several large racial and language groups add contrast and color to 
the vast mosaic of the city. With a community of 103,000 Mexicans 
brought in to work on farms and in canneries, most of whom live north 
and east of the Plaza in some of the worst local slums, Los Angeles is 
the fifth largest Mexican city in the world. Living almost wholly to 
themselves, many of them speak only their mother tongue. Negroes 
comprise the next largest group, numbering 38,000, most of whom are 
employed as unskilled or semiskilled laborers, although a few are to be 
found in almost every business and professional field. At night, along 
Central Avenue between E. 28th and E. 53rd Streets, their night 
clubs and dance spots get "hot," as the young and not-so-young "swing 


The 21,000 Japanese, many of them American citizens, have their 

own shops, restaurants, native-language schools and newspapers, cham- 
ber of commerce, and American Legion post, in the district centering on 
E. First Street, between Los Angeles Street and Central Avenue. Many 
of the Japanese are engaged in trade, particularly in the fruit and 
vegetable markets. A part of old Chinatown along Alameda Street 
near the Union Passenger Terminal remains, but the 3,000 local Chinese 
are building and rapidly moving to New Chinatown, north of Main 


Street. The Filipino colony, approximately equal in number to the 
Chinese, is almost entirely male, employed for the most part as domestic 

The growth of the modern city dates roughly from 1880, almost 
precisely a century after its founding. In 1769 a party of explorers and 
missionaries under Capt. Caspar de Portola discovered an Indian village 
named Yang-na here, and impressed with the fertile river valley, named 
the spot Porciuncula for a chapel in Italy beloved by St. Francis. When 
Franciscan padres returned two years later, they selected a site nine 
miles northeast on which to build San Gabriel Mission and begin their 
work of converting the Indians and cultivating farms, orchards, and 
vineyards, but settlement did not really begin for another decade. On 
September 4, 1781, as the American Revolution was drawing to a close 
on the other side of the continent, Don Felipe de Neve, Governor of 
California, marched from San Gabriel with a handful of soldiers and 
eleven families from Mexico, chiefly Indians, Negroes, and mulattoes. 
A few priests from San Gabriel Mission assisted him as with solemn 
rites and ceremonies he founded El Pueblo de Nuestra Senora la Reina 
de Los Angeles de Porciuncula (The Town of Our Lady the Queen of 
the Angels of Porciuncula). 

Each of the First Families of Los Angeles was given a plot to culti- 
vate and a lot facing the Plaza, the large square that for a century 
remained the hub of community life. It took three years for the strag- 
gling village to acquire a small adobe church on the Plaza. For seven 
years the reins of government were in the hands of a corporal, Vicente 
Felix, a Spaniard in command of an "army" of four or five Mexican 
soldiers. Discharged soldiers and colonists from Mexico drifted in from 
time to time; by 1800 the settlement numbered 70 families, living in 
some 30 adobe dwellings and engaged chiefly in raising grain and 

The old pueblo was an ugly town, with crooked and ungraded 
streets, down which caballeros galloped trailing clouds of dust. Lawns, 
sidewalks, and shade trees were unknown. Each family did its own 
butchering. Huge flocks of crows acted as "white wings," removing 
garbage set out for their convenience on the roofs. Only after the 
"Plague of the Crows" was an effort made to exterminate them. During 
epidemics such as smallpox the people were ordered to stay locked up at 
home, to keep out all strangers, and "to refrain from eating red peppers, 
spices, and unripe fruit, and to cleanse themselves with a good bath 
every eight days; and to burn sulphur in the houses." 

Intruders from the outside world were rare. In 1805 the Lelia 
Byrd touched at San Pedro, the first American vessel to anchor here in 
defiance of the Spanish law prohibiting trade with foreign ships. The 
master of the ship carried back to the United States along with a cargo 
of hogs and sheep, a glowing account of the wealth of California, a 
report that brought an increasing number of American ships to these 
shores in the next few years. Captured as a "pirate" in 1818, Joseph 
(rebaptized Jose) Chapman became the first English-speaking settler. 


Held prisoner for a time, he was set to work, being a skilled carpenter, 
and later erected the church, since remodeled, that still stands facing 
the Plaza; he capped his career by marrying into one of the pioneer 
families. After the secularization of the missions (1834-1837), more 
American traders, miners, and adventurers drifted in, embraced the 
Roman Catholic religion, married Mexican heiresses and became Yankee 
dons. During the storied rancho period all of southern California was 
held under the virtual feudal sway of a handful of Mexican cattle 
barons Pico, Figueroa, Sepulveda, Bandini, and others, whose wealth 
and power are still recalled by the streets and places that bear their 

In 1846, at the outbreak of the Mexican War, the sleepy pueblo was 
a nondescript village of less than 3,000, but with the seizure of Cali- 
fornia by the United States it suddenly became a rip-roaring frontier 
town. Times were good after 1849 when the rush of gold-hunters into 
the country to the north created an insatiable market for southern 
California cattle. Los Angeles' reputation for violence was almost un- 
matched even in those rough-and-ready days; its lawlessness was such 
that many referred to it as Los Diablos (the devils). Violence increased 
in 1854 to a murder a day, some accounts said. A contemporary account 
states that "criminals, murderers, bandits and thieves were hung in ac- 
cordance with the law or without the law, whichever was most con- 
venient or expedient for the good of the town." The town's civic 
conscience fell so low that the editor of the Star despairingly complained 
that "her bowels are absolute strangers to sympathy, when called upon 
to practically demonstrate it." Finally in 1871, as the result of the 
accidental killing of a white man by a Chinese, a mob attacked China- 
town, and slaughtered 19 Chinese. For the first time Los Angeles was 
front-page news. The town was shocked into sudden sobriety. 

The Southern Pacific Railroad reached Los Angeles in 1876 and 
the Santa Fe in 1885. Immediately one of the bitterest railroad rate 
wars in history broke out. The Santa Fe reduced the fare from the 
Mississippi Valley from $100 to $95; the Southern Pacific reduced it 
to $90. Passengers scurried from one railroad office to the other to 
obtain the latest bargain. At the height of hostilities the fare dropped 
to $15, then to $5, and for one day in the spring of 1886 the Santa Fe 
advertised "Kansas City to Los Angeles for a dollar!" Train after 
train rumbled into Los Angeles, packed to the doors, and the first and 
gaudiest of its real estate booms was under way. 

Within little more than two years the population swelled from 
12,000 to 50,000. Many swept in on the tidal wave were homeseekers, 
but most came to make a fortune in real estate, and to make it quick. 
At first the little town scarcely knew what was happening. Buildings 
went up overnight. Land speculation reached fantastic proportions. 
Lots around the Plaza sold at $1,000 a front foot; subdivisions were laid 
out from Santa Monica to San Bernardino, a distance of 70 miles; pro- 
moters paid cash in advance for full-page advertisements to spur the 
dilatorv : 


That hesitates is lost 

An axiom that holds good in real estate, as well 

as in affairs of the heart. 


Los Angeles, said the Times, is no place for "dudes, loafers, paupers ; 
those who expect to astonish the natives, those afraid to pull off their 
coats, cheap politicians, business scrubs, impecunious clerks, lawyers, and 
doctors." Money talked, and talked loudly, until 1887 when the banks 
suddenly refused to loan on real estate except at pre-boom value. The 
bubble burst, scores of paper "millionaires" found themselves penniless. 
Salvaging what they could, people fled the city at the rate of 3,000 a 
month. "Heroic measures" were necessary. Businessmen united with 
the railroads to form the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, which 
opened in Chicago an exhibit of local produce and sales literature. The 
whole middle western farm belt was bombarded with advertising that 
sang of sunshine, oranges, cheap land, easy profits. By 1892 the popula- 
tion had again reached the boom-time figure of 50,000, having doubled 
within two years. 

And already, the year before, a prospecting well drilled in the front 
yard of a private home by E. L. Doheny and C. A. Canfield had struck 
oil. Soon the city was dotted with 1,400 derricks, in chicken yards, back 
gardens, and front lawns. Children of a generation ago rode up and 
down on the slow-moving walking beams, as on a teeter-totter. The 
wells within the city were gradually depleted, but oil production in the 
vicinity jumped to new heights with the discovery in 1921 of the huge 
Signal field at Long Beach. 

Meanwhile Los Angeles businessmen were agitating for the develop- 
ment of an adequate harbor at San Pedro, but not without bitter opposi- 
tion. Ocean frontage at Santa Monica was controlled by Collis P. 
Huntington, president of the Southern Pacific, who sought to have 
Congress appropriate $4,000,000 to build a breakwater and harbor 
there. The Santa Fe Railway, a majority of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, and other business groups sent lobbyists to Congress, which in the 
end selected San Pedro and appropriated $2,900,000 to start the work 
that has since created the huge artificial harbor. 

The want of an adequate water supply, always a vital need in this 
land of much sunshine and little rain, inspired a gigantic project to pipe 
in the entire flow of the Owens River, 238 miles distant in the High 
Sierra. A $22,500,000 bond issue to finance construction was pro- 
posed ; as part of the campaign, the existing supply of water was reduced 
by running it into sewers; strict prohibitions were issued against water- 
ing lawns and gardens; with the hot sun burning and baking the 
ground, the vote on the bond issue was a foregone conclusion. In 1913 
the Owens River was on its way to Los Angeles, but it did not arrive. 
The enormous pipeline had been built only as far as the arid San 
Fernando Valley, which, it transpired, had been taken over by a small 
group, who meanwhile had persuaded the city to annex its 108,000 


desert acres. The bond issue had stipulated that the water be brought 
to the city ; the stipulation was ingeniously met by extending Los Angeles 
to the water, to the great profit of those who then subdivided and sold 
the new annex to the city for as much as $1,000 an acre. With the 
diversion of the river, the once fertile and prosperous Owens Valley 
became, in Will Rogers' phrase, "a valley of desolation." 

In the face of bitter opposition from open-shop industrial interests 
organized into the powerful Merchants and Manufacturers Associa- 
tion, led by Gen. Harrison Gray Otis, publisher of the Times, labor 
unions had long struggled to gain a foothold in Los Angeles. A feud 
of twenty years standing had been precipitated when Otis locked out 
the paper's typographers in 1890. The climax came early in the morn- 
ing of October i, 1910, when an explosion wrecked the Times build- 
ing, killing 20 men (see WORKINGMEN). 

During the now fabulous 1920*5 the city's population of approxi- 
mately 600,000 more than doubled; a phenomenal building boom 
resulted, with contractors working vainly to meet the great need of 
housing. Subdivisions sprang up like mushrooms all over the metro- 
politan area; office buildings, apartment houses, and theaters were 
rapidly erected until the sole reminders of the town of Spanish and 
early American days were a few adobe houses and buildings tucked 
away here and there. 

Architecturally, modern Los Angeles is a potpourri of styles, reflect- 
ing its different periods of almost convulsive growth. There are many 
survivors of the post-Civil War area, with their cupolas and curlicues; 
many brownstones of the i88o's, with elaborate ornament and great bay 
windows with colored glass; a large number of frame bungalows and 
box-like office structures of the first two decades of the century. The 
booming I92o's contributed the stucco dwellings and apartment houses, 
many pseudo-Spanish in style, as well as the skyscrapers, the movie 
"cathedrals," and the restaurants of bizarre design one like a hat, an- 
other like a rabbit, a third like an old shoe, another a fish. In striking 
contrast with all of these are the extremely modern houses and buildings 
of concrete, steel, and glass. Prominent also on the landscape are huge 
gas tanks, gaunt and grimy oil derricks, and silvery power lines. 

Socially, too, Los Angeles is a medley of many philosophies and ways 
of life. To the newcomer southern California is a curiously exciting 
combination of massive mountains, blue sea, Spanish romance, and 
Hollywood glamor, offering many of them a welcome change from the 
stereotyped patterns of the old home town. Here is a spirit of live and 
let live that encourages the transplanted lowan or Bostonian to experi- 
ment with the unconventional in dress, houses, ideas, and religions. 
Countless movements flourish in Los Angeles, from the crusades of such 
religious sects as the Rosicrucians, the "Mighty I Am Presence," and 
Aimee Semple McPherson's Church of the Four-square Gospel, to 
groups organized to promote a score of economic and political doctrines. 
If Los Angeles has been called "the capitol of crackpots" and "the 
metropolis of isms," the native Angeleno can not fairly attribute all of 


the city's idiosyncrasies to the newcomer at least not so long as he 
consults the crystal ball for guidance in his business dealings and his 
wife goes shopping downtown in beach pajamas. His, too, are many of 
the notions given form in grotesque architectural effects, and he is fre- 
quently of the crowd that rushes movie stars on their appearance in 
theater lobbies for gala premieres. Yet it is true that most people in 
Los Angeles, like American city-dwellers everywhere, live in the usual 
apartments and suburban houses, work in stores, offices, and factories 
by day, and spend their evenings quietly at home listening to the radio, 
playing bridge, or reading the popular magazines. 

Another Los Angeles is steadily coming to the fore the Los An- 
geles of libraries, art galleries, concerts, museums, universities, educa- 
tional and scientific institutions of all kinds. In the city is concentrated 
a large number of gifted writers, composers, singers, actors, playwrights, 
painters, cameramen, and other workers in the arts, attracted by the 
motion picture studios. Although their work has founded no native 
"school," it exercises a worldwide influence through radio and 

The crash of 1929 and the subsequent depression sharply reduced or 
entirely destroyed the incomes of many in the city, working hardship 
especially on the elderly people who had retired to live on their small 
investments. Many lost their homes for which they had saved a life- 
time; one reason for the strong appeal of the Townsend Plan here. 
Much southern California real estate passed into the hands of the banks 
where a large part of it remains. After a period of relative stagnation 
new enterprises have been started and old ones resumed. The city's 
congenital optimism has not been destroyed, and it finds solid ground for 
its hopes as homeseekers and tourists increasingly turn their eyes once 
again to the City of Angels. 


(Plaza and Civic Center} 

1. The PLAZA, bounded by Main, Los Angeles, and Marchessault 
Sts. and Ferguson Alley, lies southeast of the first plaza, laid out in 
1781 by Gov. Felipe de Neve, founder of the city, whose statue stands 
on the circular fountain in the center of the park. Long ago floods 
forced the abandpnment of the original adobe houses clustered about 
the first square. Around the present plaza laid out between 1800 and 
1812, the pueblo's aristocracy built their homes. Under the American 
regime the square was transformed into a round park with paths radiat- 
ing from the center, occupied until 1873 by a water tank. The Plaza 
is today the scene of many labor demonstrations. 

2. The PLAZA CHURCH (always open), 100 Sunset Blvd., also 
known as the Church of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels, the oldest 
in the city, was constructed in 1818-22 under the supervision of Jose 
Chapman, California's first Yankee. The mission padres at San Gabriel 


donated several barrels of brandy to raise the funds. Its historic bronze 
bells in the squat corner tower still chime the Angelus above the noise 
of the city streets, as they did over a century ago. 

3. OLVERA STREET (El Paseo de los Angeles; Sp., the walk 
of the angels), a brick-paved lane running from Marchessault St. north 
to Macy St., named for Don Agustin Olvera, who fought against 
Fremont, has been restored in the manner of an old Mexican street. 
Work began in 1929, with prison labor, and the street was dedicated 
in 1930. 

A carved wooden cross at the entrance commemorates the founding 
of the pueblo of Los Angeles in 1781. On the street are 70 shops; a 
line of stalls runs down the center. The street is at its best in the 
evening, when cafes are gay with music, and colored lanterns light the 
shops. Every year from December 16 to 24 the colorful ceremony of 
Los Posados (the lodgings), telling the story of Mary's journey to 
Bethlehem in search of a birthplace for Jesus, is enacted. Another rite, 
on the Saturday before Ash Wednesday, is the Blessing of the Animals, 
when a varied assortment of beasts is led through the street to receive 
a priest's blessing. 

The AVILA ADOBE (open 9 a.m.-n p.m. daily; adm. io<f;), 14 
Olvera St., now a private museum, was the home of Don Francisco 
Avila, alcalde of the pueblo in the early nineteenth century. After 
Avila's death in 1831, it passed into the hands of his widow, Dona 
Encarnacion. Occupied by Commodore Robert F. Stockton in 1847, it 
was damaged by an earthquake in 1857 an d restored along with Olvera 
Street in 1929. Today, only one wing remains of the L-shaped i8-room 

LA GOLONDRINA, 35 Olvera Street, a two-story brick house, was 
built before 1865, when Antonio Pelanconi purchased it for use as a 
winery, one of the first in Los Angeles. Only the hand-grooved bal- 
cony, the beams, and the fireplace of the original structure remain. 

LA ZANJA MADRE FOUNTAIN (the mother ditch), opposite 35 
Olvera St., is an unpretentious stucco monument commemorating the 
great open ditch that in early days supplied the pueblo with water from 
the Los Angeles River. A diagonal band of brick in the paving of 
Olvera Street marks the line of the ancient canal. 

4. The LUGO HOUSE, 516-22 N. Los Angeles St., one of the 
first two-story adobe buildings in the city, and the only one remaining, 
was built in 1840 by Don Vicente Lugo. In 1865 it housed St. Vin- 
cent's College, the first college in southern California, now Loyola 
University. The building with its hip roof, dormers, and frame siding 
retains little of its original appearance, and is now occupied by a 
Chinese curio shop. 

5. The OLD PICO HOUSE, 4^0 N. Main St., a hotel built in 
1869 by Pio Pico, who was the last Mexican Governor of the State, 
became the rendezvous of the elite of the Southwest because it had bath- 
tubs and gaslight. Both the corner restaurant and the poolroom on 
Plaza Street lead to a small patio. 


6. The BAKER BUILDING, N. Main and Arcadia Sts., a broad 
three-story structure, designed in the manner of the French second 
Empire, with classic arcades, central tower, and corner turrets, mansard 
roof and large dormers, was built in the late nineteenth century by 
Col. R. S. Baker. 

7. The KONG CHEW CHINESE TEMPLE (usually open 
until 5 p.m.), 2i$ l /2 Ferguson Alley, is one flight above the street. 
Inside are intricately wrought wood carvings bright with gold tinsel, 
large umbrellas carried by priests during street ceremonies, and two 
Oriental gods. 

N. Alameda St. between Aliso and Macy Sts., designed under the super- 
vision of Donald B. Parkinson, is a T-shaped group of 30 low, white- 
stucco, red-tile-roofed buildings of modified mission architecture, topped 
with a 135-foot clock tower. The terminal of the Southern Pacific, 
Union Pacific, and Santa Fe railroads; the large main structure and the 
smaller buildings are separated by narrow areas designed to absorb 
earthquake shock. The plan of the main building includes a vestibule, 
a concourse, a large arcade, and a waiting room. Flanking the waiting 
room are two large patios; east of the south patio is the reception hall 
adjoining the departure and arrival lobby. Leading from this lobby is 
a passenger tunnel with ramps giving access to eight platforms and six- 
teen tracks. 

9. In the JAPANESE THEATER (admission varying, sometimes 
free), 323 Jackson St., the colony's residents gather for funerals, dances, 
and occasional performances by imported Japanese actors. A three- 
story brick building, it houses stores and offices on the ground floor. 
The theater on the second floor seats 1,300. 

10. The JAPANESE TEMPLE (open 10-9 daily, Japanese serv- 
ices 7 p.m. Sun.; English services 7 p.m. Wed.; admittance through 
office at lig S. Central Ave. when temple proper is closed), E. 1st St. 
and Central Ave., was built in 1925. The temple, a three-story brick 
building, is reached by stairs leading to the second floor. The temple 
altar is intricately carved and covered with gold leaf. 

11. CATHEDRAL OF ST. VIBIANA (open 6 a.m.-8 p.m.), 2nd 
and Main Sts., was Los Angeles' first Roman Catholic cathedral, opened 
in 1876. It was made the seat of the Archdiocese of Southern Cali- 
fornia in the fall of 1936. Cruciform in 'plan, the design of the classic 
edifice is based upon that of the church of San Miguel del Puerto, 
Barcelona, Spain. A relic of St. Vibiana, the child saint, allegedly 
recovered from the Roman catacombs, reposes in its original brass-bound 
casket in a niche in the upper part of the main altar. 

12. COURT FLIGHT (round trip fare ^) , 151 S. Broadway, 
built in 1903, is the smaller of the city's two cable railways. The 
lumbering wooden cars pass each other along rows of palm trees, travel- 
ing with occasional short jerks from top to bottom, but have never had 
a serious accident. 


13. The LOS ANGELES TIMES BUILDING (conducted tours 
3 p.m. weekdays j 2:30 p.m. Sat.; reservations 2 days in advance; free), 
202 W. First St., designed by Gordon B. Kaufman, is the new home of 
The Los Angeles' Times, one of the city's three morning newspapers. 
The modern setback structure (1935) nas a lofty central section flanked 
with massive buttress piers and low four-story wings. On a base of 
polished black granite rises pinkish granite to the second floor, above 
which the walls are of cream-colored limestone, with dark metal window 
frames. On the face of the towering section is a large clock, illum- 
inated with red and blue neon lights, and surmounting the roof is the 
bronze eagle that survived the dynamiting of the old First-and-B road- 
way plant in 1910. 

The entrance of polished red granite opens into a rotunda, in which 
is a large aluminum globe, set in a bronze standard and revolving within 
a bronze band showing the twelve signs of the zodiac. The floor and 
walls of the rotunda are finished in colorful mosaic and marble. Above 
the base are rust-colored murals, executed by Hugo Ballin, depicting 
various phases of newspaper production. A private power plant drives 
the great Hoe presses, capable of printing 320,000 thirty- two-page 
papers an hour. On the fifth floor are remote-control broadcasting 
studios and an auditorium seating 2,000. 

14. The CIVIC CENTER (all buildings open 8-5 weekdays) is 
bounded by Main St. on the east, Broadway on the west, 1st St. on the 
south, and Temple St. on the north. 

The CITY HALL (top- floor observation balcony open 9-3; guides, free), 
200 N. Spring St., the city's tallest building, rising from its block-square 
grounds to a height of 464 feet, is visible for miles around. Designed by 
Parkins, Martin, and Austin, it is dominated by a buttressed skyscraper 
tower, capped with a stepped pyramid dome resting on a square colon- 
naded base. The Lindbergh airplane beacon is at the apex. The central 
tower soars above a four-story base and flanking wings. The exterior is 
finished in granite and glazed terra cotta. Notable among its rooms are 
the basillica type city council chamber, with beamed ceiling and Italian 
marble columns ; the session room of the board of public works, with blue, 
green, and gold arcades at each end; and the mayor's reception room, with 
teakwood floor and redwood ceiling, adorned with coats of arms. 

U. S. POST OFFICE AND COURT HOUSE, 312 N. Spring St., de- 
signed by G. Stanley Underwood, is an i8-story structure of neo-Classic 
design, opened in January 1939. The building houses the main post office, 
some 60 United States Government departments and bureaus, and Federal 

The exterior, finished in white ceramics with a granite base, is entirely 
without embellishment. The central section rises above a broad three- and 
four-story base. Its dark metal windows and white piers emphasize the 
vertical lines of the exterior. On either side of both the Main and Spring 
Street entrances are two flagpoles with bronze bases and four Doric col- 
umns. Ceramic medallions adorned with eagles flank the doors, and be- 
tween the columns are aluminum grills bearing the seals of various Federal 
departments. Walls of the public lobbies are lined with rose marble and 
sienna travertine. 

tween Broadway and Spring Sts., occupying a city block and rising 14 
stories in height is a massive limestone and granite structure. The building 


erected in 1925 is designed in the Italian Renaissance style with rusticated 
stonework, heavy cornices, and crowning two-story colonnade. The build- 
ing houses the County Jail in its five upper stories. 

The HALL OF RECORDS between First and Court Sts., the oldest of 
Los Angeles County public buildings, was erected in 1909. A gray sand- 
stone and marble structure, n stories high, it is topped with corner turrets 
and dormers. Here are the offices of the county government divisions, 
and more than 100,000 volumes in the County Law Library. In the office 
of the Board of Supervisors on the nth floor are old prints picturing Los 
Angeles as it was in 1854, in 1857, and later. 

The modern steel and concrete STATE BUILDING, ist and Spring Sts., 
consists of a massive main section, rising above two nine-story wings. The 
interior is finished with gleaming marble. 


15. ANGEL'S FLIGHT (open 6 a.m.-i2 p.m. daily; round trip 
fare 5^), 3rd and Hill Sts., built in 1901 by Col. J. W. Eddy, is a 
commercially operated miniature cable railway transporting passengers 
up and down the steep slope of Bunker Hill, between Hill and Olive 
Streets. The line climbs 315 feet up the 33 1/3 percent gradient from 
its starting point just south of the entrance to the Third Street Tunnel. 
An observation tower rises 100 feet above the tunnel mouth, and com- 
mands a view of the distant San Gabriel Mountains. 

16. PERSHING SQUARE, bounded by 5th, 6th, Hill and Olive 
Sts., Los Angeles' best-known downtown park, has walks lined with 
coco palms; the central plaza with its ornamental fountain is sur- 
rounded with clusters of banana trees. In the park, renamed for Gen- 
eral Pershing in 1918, are a Spanish War Monument, a statue of 
Beethoven, a World War Memorial, a bronze Napoleonic cannon, and 
an iron cannon from the U. S. S. Constitution. 

17. The BILTMORE HOTEL, 5th and Olive Sts., opened in 
1923 and the city's largest hostelry, is an E-shaped, stone and brick, 
12-story structure of modified Italian Renaissance style. In the Galeria 
Real, extending the full length of the hotel from the 5th Street en- 
trance, is the BILTMORE ART SALON (open 10-9 weekdays), in which 
exhibitions of oils and etchings from the fifteenth century to the pres- 
ent day are changed monthly. 

1 8. The EDISON BUILDING (open 8-5 Mon.-Fri.), 5th St. 
and Grand Ave., 1 3-story home of the Southern California Electric 
Power combine, designed by Allison and Allison, is in the setback style, 
with offsets at the third, fourth, twelfth and thirteenth floors. It is 
constructed of granite, limestone, and terra cotta in harmonizing cream- 
colored hues, with delicate terra cotta ornamentations of modern design. 
After dark the central tower is brightly illuminated, its crown of neon 
lights standing out sharply against the skyline. A corner octagonal 
entrance pavilion, embellished with sculptures, leads to the huge marble 
lobby with Hugo Ballin's allegorical mural, Power. 

19. The LOS ANGELES PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 week- 
days; readingroom only open 1-9 p.m. Sun. and holidays) , 5th St. 
between Flower St. and Grand Ave., rises from the crest of a low hill 


beyond cypress-fringed flights of steps and tile-inlaid lily ponds. Massed 
shrubbery and trees dot its rolling lawns used in summertime as "out- 
door reading rooms." Of buff-colored stucco, the low buttressed struc- 
ture is capped with a 1 88-foot square tower, topped with a mosaic 
pyramid. Surmounting the pyramid is a sculptured hand bearing a 
torch. The structure is the work of Bertram Goodhue. 

The interior of the building is decorated with many sculptures, 
murals, and frescoes. The theme of the sculptural decorations, executed 
by Lee Lawrie, is centered in the illuminated book, symbolized by the 
torch of knowledge which is handed down from age to age by the great 
literary figures of all time. The murals in the History Room, by 
Albert Herter, depict dramatic episodes in California history, while 
those by Dean Cornwell, in the rotunda, are designed in the manner of 
a fifteenth century tapestry, suggesting rather than portraying epoch- 
making events. The interior is further enriched with frescoes painted 
by artists on the Public Works Art Project. 

The Central Library, completed in 1926, is the main unit of the 
municipal library system. 

20. The SUNKIST BUILDING (open 9-5 weekdays), 705 W. 
5th St., standing on the flank of steep Bunker Hill, is headquarters of 
the California Fruit Growers Exchange. The U-shaped structure, with 
roof garden, was designed by Walker and Eisen in the modern manner 
with emphasis on simple mass and vertical lines. It is constructed of 
reinforced concrete, with a marble and aluminum entrance opening into 
a lobby adorned with colorfully decorated ceiling beams. 

21. The RICHFIELD BUILDING (open 8-5 Mon.-Fri.), NW. 
corner 6th and Flower Sts., designed by Morgan- Walls and Clemens, 
is particularly striking in its black masonry and gold terra cotta trim 
symbolizing the "black gold" of the oil industry. One of Los Angeles' 
few set-back skyscrapers (371 feet), the massive exterior is lined with 
narrow vertical piers. Above the main entrance are heroic figures in 
gold by Haig Patigian, representing Aviation, Postal Service, In- 
dustry, and Commerce. The building is surmounted with a metal 

a.m. by invitation of members only), 618 S. Spring St., is a squarely 
built modern 12-story structure. The granite facade, with its fluted 
pylons and bronze reliefs, is windowless, except for two narrow grilled 
apertures at the second floor. Completed in 1930, the structure also 
houses the Stock Exchange Club and the Stock Exchange Institute. 
The boardroom of the Stock Exchange is the largest outside of New 
York City, and the Stock Exchange floor is modeled after that of the 
New York Exchange. 

(North and East) 

23. ELYSIAN PARK (open 6 a.m. -8 p.m. daily), entrance N. 
Broadway and Los Angeles River, is a 6oo-acre municipal park, with 


seven miles of paved roads twisting in hairpin curves through arroyo- 
gashed hills, a matted tangle of wild roses, creepers, blue gum eucalyptus 
trees, drooping pepper trees, and gnarled live oaks. Ten miles of foot 
trails lead through canyons and up steep hills. From Point Grand 
View, a rustic lookout, is a view of the city and mountains beyond. In 
Memorial Grove are trees with bronze tablets in memory of the World 
War dead. The park has a recreation lodge, and picnic grounds, with 
free firewood and water. Elysian Park has been so popular that much 
land has been added to the original 5OO-acre park established in 1886. 
A landslide in 1938 revealed a forgotten tunnel that provided an auxil- 
iary water supply for the city in the iSyo's. The PORTO LA-CRESPI 
MONUMENT, left of the park entrance, is a granite boulder. Here, 
on August 2, 1769, Don Gaspar de Portola and Padre Juan Crespi, 
leading the first overland exploration of California, pitched camp on the 
site of the future city. 

24. EL ALISAL (open on application at Southwest Museum}, a 
large house on the west side of the Arroyo Seco at Avenue 43, is named 
for the giant sycamore tree around which it was built and which still 
towers from the patio high above the Spanish roof of the very un-Spanish 
stone building. Charles F. ("Don Carlos") Lummis, who arrived in 
Los Angeles in the i88o's after a 3,507-mile marathon hike, built the 
house with his own hands, aided only by a young Indian boy. He is 
remembered not only for his Promethean cultural activities but for his 
prolific publicity of the region. 

25. SYCAMORE GROVE, N. Figueroa St. and Sycamore Park 
Dr., is a 15-acre plot of lawns studded with giant sycamores. Since 
its establishment as a park in 1905, it has been used frequently for those 
State picnics so typical of Los Angeles, at which the city's adopted 
citizens congregate to reminisce about days "back home." The park 
provides free stoves, firewood, tables, tennis courts, and playground 
equipment for children. 

26. CASA DE ADOBE (open 2-5 Wed., Sun.}, 4605 N. Figueroa 
St., built by the Southwest Museum, is a replica of a typical California 
dwelling of the early nineteenth century. One room contains a display 
of numerous household articles; the others are arranged and furnished 
in keeping with the period. Walks shaded with grapevines divide the 
gardens, which contain many varieties of cactus. 

27. The SOUTHWEST MUSEUM (open I p.m.-5 p.m. daily 
except Mon., Christmas, Independence Day, and during Aug.}, Mar- 
mion Way and Museum Drive, overlooks the Arroyo Seco and Sycamore 
Grove. Opened in 1914, the white concrete building, without orna- 
mentation, has a tile-roofed tower at one end and a high square tower 
at the other. The museum contains relics and art of the primitive 
peoples of Western America, collected by the Southwest Society of the 
Archeological Society of America, founded in 1903. 

A bright MAYAN PORTAL, designed in the manner of the portal of 
the House of Nuns at Chichen Itza, in Yucatan, forms the entrance 
to a 26o-foot tunnel leading into the base of the hill on which the 


building stands. Dioramas on the sides of the tunnel depict the history 
of the primitive Asian men who settled the Western American coast. 

An elevator runs to the LOWER LOBBY, 108 feet above, containing 
American Indian exhibits. In the south wing is the SOUTHWESTERN 
INDIANS ROOM, with relics and modern handicraft of the "sky-dwell- 
ing" Pueblos, and of the nomadic Navajo and Mojave. In the NORTH- 
WESTERN INDIANS ROOM, directly north are displays of Alaska and 
British Columbia Indians' handicraft carved ivory, blankets, and 
elaborately carved and stained totem poles. 

From the lower lobby the center stairway leads to the PLAINS 
INDIAN ROOM, displaying a tepee of tanned skins, clothing and weapons 
of Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Crow and Arapaho. The adjoining room on 
the north is the PREHISTORIC PUEBLO INDIANS TOWER, containing 
relics from Southwestern cliff dwellings fabrics woven from yucca 
and turkey feathers, and colored with brilliant vegetable dyes. 

In the south wing of the same floor is the AUDITORIUM (lectures on 
Indians and Southwestern history, travel and exploration, at J p.m. 
Sun., Nov.-Mar.; free). West of the Auditorium is the TORRANCE 
TOWER (open by special permission) which contains the Library of the 
Southwest, a collection of works on archeology, ethnology, and primi- 
tive art of the Southwest and Spanish-America. 

The HOPI TRAIL, resembling the stone trails of the Hopi "sky 
cities" in northern Arizona, leads from the lower lobby to the base of 
the hill. 

28. OCCIDENTAL COLLEGE, 1600 Campus Rd., is housed in 
a group of modified Spanish Renaissance buildings in a spacious and 
eucalyptus-planted campus of 95 acres. On the slope of a low range 
of hills, Occidental has frequently been the setting of "college" movies. 

The present nonsectarian, co-educational college was founded in 
1888 by a group of Presbyterian ministers and laymen. First situated 
on Boyle Heights, it was removed to Highland Park after fire destroyed 
it in 1896. In 1910 the college became nonsectarian, and in 1914 
acquired the present campus. 

Approximately 750 students here study liberal arts and natural 
sciences under a faculty of 70 members; a graduate school grants the 
Master of Arts degree. Notable alumni include Dr. Arthur Young, 
financial adviser to the Chinese Government, Robinson Jeffers, the 
widely known poet, and Raymond Leslie Buell, director of the Foreign 
Policy Association. There are 14 major buildings, most of them 
donated by alumni and friends; an athletic field, gymnasiums, a swim- 
ming pool, tennis courts, the outdoor Hillside Theater seating 5,000 
persons, a 5O,ooo-volume library, and a large concrete auditorium. 

29. ARROYO SECO PARK (dry creek), entrance Avenue 60 
and Arroyo Drive, a 276-acre plot of decorative greenery planted in 
the dry gully and on the surrounding irregular hills of the seasonally 
torrential Arroyo Seco, has four bowling greens, two baseball diamonds, 
five tennis courts, bridle and hiking paths, a maypole, picnic grounds, 
and children's play apparatus. 


30. ZOO PARK (open 9-5 daily; adults 35$, children 10$), 3800 
Mission Road, is one of the largest zoos in California, with more than 
600 animals, some of them trained. They are fed at 2 130 and put 
through their paces at 3 p.m. The zoo, now controlled by the Cali- 
fornia Zoological Society, occupies the site of the old Selig Motion 
Picture Studios. 

31. The ALLIGATOR FARM (open 9-6 daily; adults 25$, chil- 
dren 10^), 3627 Mission Road, contains 1,000 alligators, some as small 
as lizards ; others of immense size are reputedly 500 years old. Visitors 
can watch the reptiles slide down chutes and see their eggs in incubators. 

32. The LOS ANGELES OSTRICH FARM (open 9-6 daily; 
adults 25$, children 10^), 3609 Mission Road, has 30 or more full- 
grown birds. 

33. LINCOLN PARK, bounded by Mission Road and Alhambra 
Ave., containing eucalyptus-shaded picnic grounds and a six-acre lake 
for boating, has two tennis courts, a merry-go-round, children's play 
apparatus, four horseshoe courts, and a conservatory of rare tropical 

34. COUNTY HOSPITAL (visiting hours 7-8 p.m. weekdays, 
2-4 p.m. Sun.; tours with guide 2-3 p.m. Fri.), 1200 N. State St., occu- 
pies 123 structures on a 56-acre site. The ACUTE UNIT, the main build- 
ing, is a massive, set-back structure with soaring vertical lines rising 20 
stones from a slight eminence. It is visible from most of the hilly east- 
ern section of the city. The building is constructed of steel and rein- 
forced concrete with ample fenestration, 31 acres of floor space, a large 
kitchen, 75 wards, 16 major surgeries and 4 maternity delivery suites. 
The unit, designed by 60 local architects, was completed in 1932. 

Among the other hospital units, on the western section of the 
HOME. The hospital's capacity is 3,600 patients, the average daily 
patient load about 2,500. Full-time physicians number 237, attending 
physicians 525, and nurses 1,200. 

The institution was founded in an adobe house on North Main 
Street in 1858 and operated by the Sisters of Charity. A two-story 
frame hospital was erected on the present site in 1878. 

hours), 3772 E. 3rd St., designed by L. G. Scherer in the form of a 
Spanish mission church but highly stylized in its modern treatment of 
traditional architecture, is dominated by a lofty corner tower. The 
building is notable for its fine metal and stone grills and the gleaming 
metal cap of the tower. The traditional beamed ceiling of the nave 
contrasts with the modern peaked arches bordering the side aisles and 
the stepped silhouette of the chancel arch. Over the altar is a slender 


(Wilshire and Northwest} 

36. ECHO PARK, a 31 -acre tract extending from Temple St. to 
Park Ave., encloses a willow-fringed lake that up to 1891 furnished 
power for an early woolen mill. In the park are a community building, 
four-and-one-half-acre playground along Bellevue Avenue, two outdoor 
gymnasiums, and a wading pool for children. 

37. ANGELUS TEMPLE (open 9:30-4:30; daily services 10 
a.m., I p.m., 2:30 p.m., 7:30 p.m.; guides}, noo Glendale Blvd., a 1 
huge rotund edifice, bustles with the energetic evangelism of its moving 
spirit, Mrs. Aimee Semple McPherson. Some 4,000 sightseers are con- 
ducted through this Church of the Four-square Gospel each month to 
gaze on the domed auditorium seating 5,300 persons; the stage on which 
sermons are dramatized ; the organ that can simulate the tones of 40 
different instruments; the stained-glass windows depicting the life of 
Christ (one presented by Gypsies) ; and the mural depicting the return 
of Christ under an enormous American flag. Then there is the prayer 
tower, in which prayer has been continuously said in two-hour shifts 
since the building was opened in 1923; the control room of the temple's 
radio station, KFSG; and the communion service set of 5,300 cups. 
Adjoining the temple is the ministerial training school, known as the 
Lighthouse of International Four-square Evangelism. In the children's 
church youngsters conduct as well as attend services. Additional re- 
ligious facilities include a music conservatory, a kindergarten, a charity 
commissary, a free employment bureau, a salvage department, a printing 
plant, and Mrs. McPherson's home, with a roof garden above the 
temple book store. 

38. GRIFFITH PARK (open 6 a.m.-8 p.m. daily}, at Griffith 
Park Drive and Riverside Drive, is a 3,76i-acre slice of the easternmost 
of the Santa Monica Mountains. A highway runs through valleys and 
rises in tortuous curves through the sere hills, offering a panorama 
of the mountains to the west and the ocean on clear days. The park 
has been left largely in its original state. Originally part of Rancho 
Los Feliz, it was donated to the city March 5, 1898, by the last owner, 
Col. Griffith J. Griffith. 

GRIFFITH PARK ZOO (open 8-5 daily] is impressive for its rugged 
mountain setting. The cages and pens are scattered along the top of the 
low hills of the zoo grounds. 

The GREEK THEATER (admission varying 'with performance}, shel- 
tered in Vermont Canyon, is an amphitheater of simple Doric design. The 
three-story stage was erected in 1930, and serves for memorial services, 
conventions, concerts, ballets, and drama. The open-air tiers of seats ac- 
commodate more than 4,000 persons. 

The BIRD SANCTUARY (open 8-5 daily], at the head of Vermont 
Canyon, was dedicated in 1925 by the Audubon Society. A high metal 
fence around the confine protects the birds against natural enemies, and 
the 30 to 50 varieties disport themselves in utmost confidence against moles- 
tation; they are fed once a day. 

The OBSERVATORY AND PLANETARIUM (open 11-11 weekdays, 
2-n Sun.; free ; planetarium demonstrations 3 and 8:30 p.m. daily; adm. 


25$), designed by John C. Austin, is built on a spur of foothills. Before the 
entrance is a dedicatory obelisk, designed by Archibald Garner, bearing 
the names and dates of the world's great astronomers. Surmounting the 
shaft is the early astronomical instrument, the astrolabe. Inside the build- 
ing are observatory exhibits, and a large model of the moon; a creeping 
light is thrown on it to represent the sun and reveal the changing shadows, 
mountains, craters, as they would appear from a distance of 500 miles. 
Other exhibits cover the fields of electricity, optics, spectroscopy, electronics, 
geology, and chemistry. At night the 12-inch refractor telescopes allow 
visitors a view of the celestial bodies. 

39. WESTLAKE PARK, entrance Wilshire Blvd. and Alvarado 
St., is cut in two by the Wilshire Boulevard viaduct. This 32-acre 
park in the heart of one of Los Angeles' most densely populated sections 
is shady and landscaped, and fringes a small artificial lake. Free band 
concerts are given on Sunday afternoons. On the eastern shore of the 
lake is a cream-colored stucco boathouse. The park contains a sculp- 
tured figure of Prometheus giving fire to the world, and a bronze statue 
of Gen. Harrison Gray Otis, for years editor and publisher of the Los 
Angeles Times. 

40. OTIS ART INSTITUTE (open 3-4 weekdays; guides), 
Wilshire Blvd. and Park View St., is a two-story stucco building of 
Mission architecture, with Corinthian columns at its portal. In the 
side yard, visible from the boulevard, is a stone miniature of the old 
Los Angeles Times building, dynamited in 1910 as the climax to a 
savage war waged by that paper against organized labor. Formerly 
the home of General Otis, the Institute is now an adjunct to the Los 
Angeles County Museum of History, Science, and Art. 

application at office}, Wilshire Blvd. and Berendo St., designed with 
the Germanic serenity of a northern Gothic cathedral, has a 2O7-foot 
tower. Five lancet windows rise to the immense rose window portray- 
ing the Nativity in stained glass. Within, the Gothic hammer-beam 
trusses of the ceiling, columns and arches, oak furnishings, and huge 
Gothic chandeliers harmonize with the massive dignity of the exterior. 

42. The AMBASSADOR HOTEL, 3400 Wilshire Blvd., a vast 
rambling structure with spreading tile-roofed wings, sits far back from 
the street in a huge expanse of lawn. The hotel has its own swimming 
pool, playground, shopping center, and movie theater. 

(admission by application at office), Wilshire Blvd. and Normandie 
Ave., designed by Robert H. Orr, is distinguished by its west facade 
cartwheel window, based upon that of the Rheims Cathedral in France. 
Romanesque in style, with basilica type auditorium and soaring cam- 
panile, the church recalls the churches of northern Italy. 

44. B'NAI B'RITH TEMPLE (open for services 8 p.m. FrL, 
10: 30 a.m. Sat.), Wilshire and Hobart Blvds., is the city's largest 
Jewish temple. Dominating the temple is an immense 135-foot dome, 
inlaid with mosaic, surrounded with the minaretlike pinnacles of the 
octagonal main auditorium. Broad stone steps lead to three arched 


entrances, above which is a huge rose window. Within, Byzantine 
columns of black Belgian marble rise to the majestic domed ceiling, 
finished in dull gold, from which hang chandeliers of bronze. The 
altar, ark, and choir screen are of carved, inlaid, dark walnut, and 
framed in marble and mosaic. The walls are enriched by Hugo Ballin's 
Warner Memorial paintings, depicting Biblical and post-Biblical themes. 

(admission by application at office), Wilshire and Plymouth Blvds., is 
of modified Spanish Romanesque architecture. The design of the in- 
terior is dominated by a large rose window and a tall corner tower with 
buttressed and pinnacled belfry. 

46. HANCOCK PARK, entrance Wilshire Blvd. and Curson Ave., 
a 32-acre preserve, is known chiefly for the LA BREA PITS, near the 
center of the park. They are ugly bogs with subterranean oil and tar 
bubbling slowly to the surface. A film of water camouflages the sticky 
quagmire, forming a trap for the unwary, as it did in ages past when 
prehistoric animals gathered here to drink and were caught in the pre- 
servative tar. Birds of prey and carrion-eaters fed on the sinking 
animals and were themselves caught in the pitch. The pits are the 
richest source of Pleistocene or Ice Age remains in the world. Skeletal 
remains of the only American peacock ever found, of sabre-tooth tigers, 
Imperial elephants, woolly mammoths, giant ground sloths, small early 
camels, condors, Great American lions, and other prehistoric species 
have been removed from the pits. There is an exhibit of La Brea 
fossils at the Los Angeles Museum of Science, History and Art in 
Exposition Park. A restoration of Ice Age animals floundering in the 
tar, by Charles R. Knight, hangs in the Field Museum, Chicago. 

The Indians used the pitch to waterproof their baskets and canoes. 
When Governor Portola came to this region from Mexico in 1769, he 
wrote, "We came to swamps of a certain material like pitch, or bitumen. 
We debated whether this substance which flows melted from under- 
neath the earth could occasion so many earthquakes as we noted during 
our sojourn here." Father Serra noted in his journal, "This black oily 
pitch evidently came from a volcano in the nearby mountains." 

Early settlers used the tar to cover their adobe houses, and when 
it was granted to Antonio Rocha in 1828 as part of Rancho La Brea 
(tar), Jose Antonio Carillo, local alcade, stipulated that the brea pits 
be reserved for the use of the people. The first discovery of prehistoric 
remains was in 1906, when the skeleton of a giant bear was found. 
Since then many college and research groups have explored the pits and 
made important finds. The pits are in a productive oil area, from which 
great quantities of petroleum have been taken. The last private owner 
of La Brea, G. Allen Hancock, donated the park to the city in 1916. 

Vicente Blvd., designed by Dwight Gibbs in early Spanish style, domi- 
nated by a high tower illuminated at night, is now used exclusively 
for important motion picture premieres. Snow White and the Seven 
Dwarfs and Hurricane had their first showing here. Representative 


scenes of early California provide the decorative motif. In the first floor 
lobby is a painting, California 's First Theater, by Frank Tenney John- 
son, picturing the Eagle Theater built in Sacramento in 1849. Another 
in the main lobby mezzanine, Jedediah Smith at San Gabriel, by Alson 
Clark, portrays the arrival of the renowned scout at San Gabriel Mis- 
sion on November 27, 1826, the first white visitor from across the conti- 
nent. The drop curtain depicts An Emigrant Train at Donner Lake, 
also by Frank Tenney Johnson, a tribute to the survivors of the ill-fated 
Donner Party. As part of the fountain in front of the theater, stands 
Henry Lion's PIONEER, a typical forty-niner of gold rush days. Beside 
the theater stands a Chinese peach tree, with a plaque recording that 
Yi Seng Kiang, Chinese consul, presented it to commemorate the world 
premiere of the motion picture, The Good Earth. 

Carthay Center bears a corruption of the name of Daniel O. 
McCarthy, pioneer of '49, whose San Francisco paper, the American 
Flag, helped keep California within the Union at the outbreak of the 
Vicente Blvd., a bronze basin surmounted with the figure of a miner 
panning the gold, bears a tablet inscribed to "The Gallant Pioneers of 
'49." Nearby is a stump from the Petrified Forest north of San 
Francisco, dedicated by the Native Sons of the Golden West to Galen 
Clark's discovery of the Mariposa Big Trees. At the end of the park- 
way, across Commodore Sloat Drive, is a boulder inscribed to the 
memory of "Snowshoe" Thompson, pioneer hero, who for twenty years 
carried the mails over California's mountains and rescued lost travelers. 

GELES, campus entrance at Westwood Blvd. and Le Conte Ave., 
occupies a 334-acre grassy campus on a terraced knoll overlooking val- 
leys, plains, and rolling hills. On a low hilltop, approached by a monu- 
mental bridge from the east entrance on Hilgard Avenue, stand the 
university's terra cotta, brick and tile central buildings of Lombardic 
Romanesque design, grouped about a central esplanade. On the north 
side of the esplanade is JOSIAH ROYCE HALL, housing the auditorium, 
classrooms, and faculty offices, named for the eminent American philoso- 
pher, a graduate of the university. Across the green on the south side 
is the large red brick LIBRARY BUILDING dominated by its enormous 
arcaded octagonal tower. It is designed in the early Italian Romanesque 
style with rich brick and stone ornamentations of Byzantine Romanesque 
design. Especially notable are the canopied entrance, the striped cours- 
ing of the lower story, and the arched loggia above the portal. Both 
Royce Hall and the Library were designed by George W. Kelham. 

Simpler in detail and more modern in treatment are the lesser build- 
ings grouped to the east and south: the Chemistry-Geology, Physics- 
Biology, Administration, and Education Buildings. Westward from 
the esplanade, an imposing brick stairway with terra cotta balustrades 
descends the hill to the men's and women's Gymnasium Buildings, that 
repeat the Romanesque motif. Set apart from the main group southwest 
of the Education Building is KERCKHOFF HALL, social center for stu- 


dents and faculty, of Tudor-Gothic design with graceful pinnacled 
tower, oriel bays, and leaded windows. Overlooking the campus from 
the north is the Provost's Residence. Near the south entrance on West- 
wood Boulevard are a Mechanic Arts Building, shops, and an outdoor 
amphitheater seating 12,000. 

An integral part of the University of California, the University of 
California at Los Angeles grew out of the old Los Angeles State 
Normal School, founded in 1881. In 1919 the institution became the 
University of California, Southern Branch, and in 1927 the University 
of California at Los Angeles. It outgrew its original campus and in 
1925 a new site in Westwood Hills was presented to the Regents by 
the cities of Los Angeles, Santa Monica, Venice, and Beverly Hills. 
The new campus was dedicated in September 1929. 

With a faculty of more than 300, the university offers courses in 
the humanities, sciences, business administration, education and agri- 
culture, to a student body of more than 7,000. The University Library 
has a collection of 260,000 volumes and 2,200 current periodicals. 

49- The U. S. SOLDIERS' HOME (open 3-4 daily), entrance 
Wilshire Blvd. and Veteran Ave., provides free hospitalization for 
veterans of the Civil, Spanish-American, and World Wars. On the 
rolling, wooded, 7OO-acre estate are almost 170 buildings. Modern 
buildings are being erected (1939) to replace the old rambling wooden 
structures dating back to the late i88o's when the home was estab- 
lished on land donated to the Government. 


CHURCH (always open), Figueroa St. and W. Adams Blvd., de- 
signed by Albert C. Martin, is an imposing white edifice in the Chur- 
rigueresque style, embellished with a wealth of exterior carvings and 
statuary in Indiana limestone. Its ornate fagade is topped with a 
125-foot corner tower, and a tile-inlaid dome, rising majestically from 
the crossing. The interior is lavishly embellished with murals, poly- 
chromed carving, marble, and bronze. The high altar is set against a 
retablo of morocco red marble with a high-relief carving of the Last 
Supper; above the altar is a tabernacle of gilded bronze, and behind 
it a great reredos of carved and gilded wood in Spanish baroque style. 
The marble pulpit is approached by a bronze staircase and sheltered by 
a carved walnut canopy. St. Vincent's was opened in 1925, the gift of 
the late Edward L. Doheny, multimillionaire oil magnate, and his wife. 

51. ST. JOHN'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH (open 7-5 daily), 
514 W. Adams Blvd., recalls the eleventh century church at Toscanella, 
Italy. The interior is distinguished by its elaborate beamed ceiling, 
copied from that of the Church of San Minato in Florence. 

52. CHESTER PLACE, extending north from West Adams Blvd. 
to 23d St. (speed limit 10 m.p.h.) , has been for 40 years the habitat 
of the wealthy. An arched iron gateway opens into this two-block-wide 


private residential park, the seat of baronial mansions. A short block 
westward, behind a high brick wall, stand the shabby structures of 
St. James Place, forming two sides of half-acre St. James Park. 

53. The FIGUEROA ADOBE (open on application), 3404 S. 
Figueroa St., built in 1846 by Ramon Figueroa, brother of the Mexican 
governor of California in the 1830*8, stands well back in a small copse 
of pepper and palm trees. The original adobe section is comparatively 
well preserved, but the unsightly frame additions in the rear add an 
incongruous note. The house is occupied by a great-granddaughter of a 
Spanish soldier who accompanied Gov. Felipe de Neve on the march 
from San Gabriel Mission to found Los Angeles in 1781. 

University Ave., between 34th St. and Exposition Blvd., spreads over 
a 45-acre campus. Ten new buildings have been erected since 1921. 
The university was founded in 1876 by the Southern California Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, which is still represented 
on its board. Now, nonsectarian and coeducational, it has a faculty of 
820 and an enrollment of approximately 16,000. 

sity Ave. at 36th St., commemorates the university's second president. 
Designed in the early Italian Renaissance style, it is built of red brick, 
with a red tile roof. The massive square central tower is buttressed 
at each corner by eight heroic statues, the work of Caspar Gruenfeld. 
Before the main entrance is an 8-foot statue of an armed Trojan war- 
rior, the university's symbol, mounted on a lo-foot pedestal, designed 
by Roger Noble Burnham. 

Across University Ave. from the Administration Building is the 
EDWARD L. DOHENY, JR., MEMORIAL LIBRARY, the outstanding build- 
ing on the campus, erected in 1932, a gift of the late Edward L. Doheny. 
It is designed in a modified Italian Romanesque style. 

The STUDENT UNION BUILDING, SW. corner 36th St. and Uni- 
versity Ave., designed in the manner of an Italian Renaissance palazzo, 
is the social and recreational center of the University. Adjoining, are 
the Science Building and Pharmacy Hall ; and across the street, the Law 
School and Bridge Hall, housing the School of Engineering. 

Southernmost of the west side of University Ave. is the COL. 
Hall of Philosophy. Surrounding a central courtyard are separate 
wings for administration offices, classrooms, and the general library. 
Above it rises a clock tower with chimes. Across the front of the 
court extends an open cloister forming a quadrangle. The style of its 
architecture is based upon Byzantine and Lombardic Romanesque tradi- 

55. EXPOSITION PARK, bounded by Figueroa St., Menlo 
Ave., Exposition Blvd., and South Park Drive, known in early days as 
Agricultural Park, was the scene of Los Angeles' first agricultural fairs. 
The H4-acre tract acquired by city, county, and State near the turn of 
the century, was improved and opened as Exposition Park in 1910. 


On the Exposition Boulevard side is the MEMORIAL GATEWAY, 
flanked by massive pylons commemorating the Tenth International Olym- 
piad of 1932, held in the park's Memorial Coliseum. Broad bench-lined 
walks lead to the seven-acre SUNKEN GARDEN, planted with 15,000 rose 
bushes of 118 different varieties, and marked at each corner by white 
marble statuettes. Paralleling the Sunken Garden on the east is the red 
brick Armory, headquarters and training barracks for the i6oth Infantry, 
California National Guard. 

The STATE EXPOSITION BUILDING (open 10-5 daily except Wed., 
Sun., holidays; 10-12 m. Wed.; 2-5 p.m. Sun. and holidays), an E-shaped 
edifice in Spanish mission style with walls of brick and terra cotta, de- 
signed by Nathan Elery, houses a permanent exhibition of the resources 
and industries of California. The main entrance leads to a two-story 
rotunda lighted by stained glass windows, which picture scenes in the 
annals of Los Angeles. In the rotunda are huge relief maps of California, 
San Francisco Bay, and Los Angeles Harbor. In the great West Wing 
are the horticultural and agricultural exhibits. A series of alcove exhibits 
in the Hall of Animal Industries contain miniatures of all types of ranches. 
The California fish and game exhibits, classified by counties, display series 
of habitat groups. Among the mining exhibits are accurately scaled models 
of coal mines, oil wells, gold development properties, and lumber camps. 

AND ART (open 10-4. weekdays, 2-5 Sun. and holidays), west side of 
Sunken Garden, is a repository of art objects, scientific exhibitions, and 
relics. The original T-shaped, glass-domed building of red brick was 
formerly opened Nov. 6, 1913. Two units of a new building have been 
added, one in 1925, the other in 1929. With their completion, the original 
structure became a subordinate unit and a new main entrance, adorned 
with Doric columns, was erected on the south facade of the new building, 
facing the Coliseum. 

The museum has one of the world's largest and best-preserved assem- 
blages of Pleistocene mammal remains, dug from the celebrated La Brea 
Pits in Hancock Park. 

The Natural History Wing was especially designed for the display of 
animal habitat groups. The bison and waterhole groups dominate the 
American and African Big Game Halls; in all, the division contains 37 
exhibits of wild animal life. 

Of note among the special permanent collections are the Harrison Col- 
lection of Contemporary American and Contemporary French Paintings, 
the Reagan Collection of Rembrandt etchings, the Coronel Collection of 
early Los Angeles relics, and the Otis Collection of weapons. The museum 
maintains a library for research in history, science, and art. 

The LOS ANGELES MEMORIAL COLISEUM, designed by John and 
Donald Parkinson, is at the end of The Mall, a i,o65-foot oblong stretch 
of green bordered by young deodars. A huge peristyle with a 4oo-foot 
arcade and a yo-foot central arch, topped with a pedestaled urn, forms 
the main gateway. Within, rising in vast tiers above the circular field 
of turf, are 79 rows of seats accommodating 105,000 people. A fifth of a 
mile long and three-fifths of a mile in circumference, the stadium covers 
17 acres; its walls, 106 feet high, enclose a five-acre playing field, the 
scene of major football games, track meets, rodeos, pageants, religious 
ceremonies, and civic gatherings. The opening and closing ceremonies and 
the track and field events of the Tenth International Olympiad were held 
here in 1932. 


Santa Catalina Island, 46.7 m. (see TOUR 2C) ; Los Angeles Aqueduct, 
longest in the world, 25.1 m. (see TOUR 3c) ; Gay's Lion Farm, 15.2 m. f 
Kellogg Institute of Animal Husbandry, blooded Arabian horses, 27.9 m., 
Guasti Vineyard, largest in U.S., 38.7 m. (see TOUR 3d). 


Railroad Stations: N. end of Adams St. for Southern Pacific Lines. 

Bus Stations: Franklin and Pacific Sts. for Pacific Greyhound Lines; 216 Del 

Monte Ave. for Burlington Trailways. 

Airport: Community Airport, 3 m. E., off Monterey-Salinas Highway, taxi $i, 

time 15 min. ; special week-end service to San Francisco. 

Taxis: 15$ first y^ m., 10$ each additional ^ m. 

Busses: To Oak Grove 5^, Del Monte 5$, Asilomar 10^, Pacific Grove 10^, 

Carmel 25$. 

Traffic Regulations: Pedestrians have right-of-way at all street crossings. 

Accommodations: 13 hotels. 

Information Service: Hotel Del Monte; Chamber of Commerce, 585 Munras 
St. ; California State Auto Assn., 520 Fremont St. 

Radio Stations: KDON (1210 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: First Theater, Scott and Pacific Sts., 
occasional plays; two motion picture houses. 

Tennis: Monterey High School courts, S. end of Larkin St., open to public. 
Swimming: Surf swimming at beaches in environs ; Monterey High School 
pool, S. end of Larkin St., free. 

Riding: 10 miles of beach; 200 miles of forest trails near Monterey, rates 
from $i per hour. 

Hunting: Los Padres National Forest, 32.2 m., deer, boar, rabbit, quail, dove, 
and pigeon; Forest Service regulations. 

Fishing: Fresh water fishing in nearby rivers; surf fishing: Monterey Bay, 
Pacific Grove, Carmel Bay and below Carmel; deep sea: boat rentals at Fish- 
erman's Wharf, N. end of Main St., 50$ per hour and up. 

Annual Events: Birthday Party, commemorative pageants, June 3 ; Flower 
Show, June; County Fair, Sept.; Blessing of the Fleet, Sept. 

MONTEREY (0-600 alt., 9,141 pop.), lies on sloping shores at 
the southern end of Monterey Bay, within the northward curve of 
Point Pinos, which protects the harbor from heavy seas and high winds. 

Richard Henry Dana, arriving at Monterey on the brig Pilgrim in 
1834, thought the town made a "very pretty appearance" with its red- 
roofed, white stucco houses, the white sand beach, green pines, and deep 
blue bay. The city gives the same impression today. 

To the north the shore sweeps in a curving line toward Santa Cruz. 
To the east are the convolutions of the Santa Lucia Range, covered 
with oak and pine, beyond which rise the bare heights of the Gabilan 
Range. The near hills and pines of Point Pinos block the view to the 
south, where the coast abruptly changes to stone crags topped with 
weirdly-shaped trees, and small deep coves and sheltered beaches. Mon- 
terey cypress along the shoreline and Monterey pine, both named for 
the city, are indigenous to a limited area in the vicinity. 



In 1890 Monterey still looked like a Mexican town; adobe buildings 
with red tile roofs were numerous. The march of commerce removed 
many of these, and the adobe structures standing today are the result 
of a tardily awakened interest in the city's colorful past. Some of them 
have been preserved by descendants of the original builders; some were 
bought by appreciative "Americanos"; a few have been made State 

Alvarado Street, running north and south, is the town's main artery. 
Starting from the weather-beaten Fisherman's Wharf that puts out into 
the bay, passing the Old Customhouse, flanked at first by stores selling 
fishermen's supplies and small restaurants specializing in sea food and 
Mexican dishes, it crosses the center of the town with its more choice 
shops, banks, hotels, office buildings, and finally comes to an end at the 
old Cooper mansion. To the west of Alvarado the business district 
soon yields to a residential section, which climbs steep hills block after 
block to wooded heights where its gardens mingle with a semi-wilderness 
of trees and shrubs high above the port. 

At the northern limits of the city is the Presidio of Monterey, the 
United States Army post. Its rolling 396 acres cover territory reaching 
from the bay to the hills; here the old Spanish works once put up a 
show of protecting California with eight or ten cannon, even then 
obsolete. Stretching along the shore below is the row of fish canneries 
representing Monterey's chief industry, and moored to the wharves 
or anchored off shore are the brightly painted boats of the fishing fleet. 

The bulk of Monterey's population is native-born American, some 
of whom are descendants of old Spanish families. Mexicans, Italians, 
Portuguese, Chinese, and Japanese give a foreign flavor to the street 
scene. The first fishermen to troll the bay were Chinese, then Portu- 
guese whalemen came from the Azores, but Italians, who live in old 
frame houses near the wharf, man most of the boats today. Japanese 
control the abalone fishing, going down in diving suits and picking the 
univalves from submarine rocks. The Japanese quarter is in the south- 
ern section of town near the railroad tracks. 

On Saturdays the main street is wide awake. Ranchers and cow- 
boys in blue jeans and high-heeled boots drive in to buy supplies and 
go to movies; housewives from outlying ranches and truck farms do 
their week's shopping; tourists and weekenders wander about looking 
at old adobes, snapping pictures of the fishing fleet, and buying abalone 
shells; cavalrymen from the post search for amusement; music blares 
from a few beerhalls; diners in white ties and evening dress sip wine 
in a resort lodge. 

Monterey can be called the kernel of California history. Founded 
by the Spanish Crown, it was the capital of old California for most of 
the time between 1775 and the American occupation, and for all that 
time the social, military and political center. 

Cabrillo, exploring the unknown coast in 1542, saw Point Pinos. 
Sebastian Vizcaino, merchant-explorer, sailing into the bay in 1602, 
named it Monterey for the Count of Monte-Rey, Viceroy of Mexico, 


and described it in such superlatives that those who came after him could 
not recognize it for 167 years. Caspar de Portola's "sacred expedition" 
of 1769 worked its way overland to find and settle it, twice camped 
near without recognizing it, passed by, discovered San Francisco Bay, 
returned, and only on another expedition in the spring of 1770 realized 
that they were on the stubbornly sought spot. Father Crespi and Father 
Junipero Serra took formal possession of the land, established the 
Presidio, and founded the Mission San Carlos de Monterey. In 1775 
the King of Spain formally recognized Monterey as the capital of 

From that time until 1822, when, through the Mexican revolution, 
California became part of the Mexican republic, Monterey had five 
different governors. They tried, without much success, to develop Alta 
California and to pour gold into the coffers of Spain (see CALIFOR- 
NIA'S FIRST FOUR CENTURIES). In 1818 Hypolite Bouchard, 
the French pirate, raided the town, chased the residents inland, and 
pillaged for a week before sailing south. After the revolution, the first 
legislature met in Monterey to draw up California's first constitution. 
Meanwhile Yankees were learning of tremendous profits to be made in 
sea otter and whales. Their ships anchored off the Old Customhouse 
and the town traded for silks, shoes, spices, mirrors, and cartwheels. 

Under the Mexican flag there were endless squabbles and bickering, 
and Monterey was the seat of intrigue and plotting even up to the time 
Commodore Sloat raised the American flag over the Customhouse in 
1846. In 1836 Juan Bautista Alvarado, assisted by Isaac Graham, an 
American trapper, attacked Monterey. Governor Gutierrez fled to 
Mexico after the insurgents landed one cannon ball near his house. 
A subsequent compromise made Alvarado governor, with headquarters 
at Monterey. The population of Monterey increased slowly under 
governors with such resonant names as Figueroa, Arguello, Michel- 
torena, Castro, Pio Pico. Secularization of the missions in the 1830*8 
increased the number of rancheros and Monterey achieved an impres- 
sive social life. 

In 1849 Bayard Taylor visited Monterey to observe the last of the 
old Spanish mode of life, and found that "the native population pos- 
sesses a natural refinement of manner which would grace the most 
polished society." William H. Brewer in 1861 found Monterey Bay 
"a great place for whale hunting," and saw that the beach was white 
with whale bones; "hundreds of carcasses there decayed, fattening clouds 
of vultures." 

Monterey began to lose its drowsy Mexican ways as specialized 
agriculture began to supplant cattle raising, and as the fisheries and the 
allied canning industry developed. Its natural beauty drew artists and 
writers: Robert Louis Stevenson passed some time here; Charles 
Warren Stoddard retired and died here; and by the late iSoo's many 
landscape painters had settled in Monterey. 

The leading industry of the city today is fishing. Monterey Bay 
abounds in sardines (the principal catch), mackerel, sole, bass, shrimp, 


squid, crabs, lobsters and other sea food. Albacore run offshore in 
spring and late summer, and farther out tuna are caught. Important 
by-products are fish meal, fish fertilizer, and fish oils. "Del Monte 
white sand" is shipped from here for building, sand blasting, children's 
sand boxes, and traps on golf courses. 


There are 55 points of interest in Monterey worthy of notice. These all 
lie along a "historic route" charted by the city and marked by a red and 
orange checkered line in the middle of the street. This route starts at the 
Royal Presidio Chapel and loops through the city back to its starting point. 
Each historic building and site has an explanatory sign. Good maps are 
available locally. The following list includes outstanding points along the 

ROYAL PRESIDIO CHAPEL (open 9-12, 1-5:30 Mon.-Frl; 
Q-I2, 1-4 Sat.; 1-5 Sun.; ring for guide, adm. 25$), Church St. between 
Camino El Estero and Figueroa St., founded in 1770 by Father Junipero 
Serra, was the second in the California system of missions. To keep 
his acolytes away from the soldiers of the presidio, Father Serra moved 
the mission in 1771 to the Carmel Valley, where its church stands today 
(see TOUR 1C). The Monterey building remained as the presidio 
chapel. Damaged by fire in 1789, it was reconstructed and dedicated 
in 1795. It has been in continuous use since, and is the only presidio 
chapel remaining in California. 

The facade, perhaps the most ornate among California missions, 
rises higher than the roof of the church in the form of a carved gable, 
and is covered with cream-colored stucco. The arched entrance with its 
heavy paneled doors is flanked by Doric pilasters and topped with a 
classic entablature. In the upper gable is a shell-headed niche bearing 
a statue of Our Lady of Guadalupe. A wide square tower and belfry, 
roofed in red tile, rises at the left of the facade. In it are two old bells. 
There are fine vestments, holy vessels, and ornaments in the building. 

Every September fishermen of Neapolitan and Sicilian origin cele- 
brate the Festival of Santa Rosalia at the Chapel. The statue of the 
Saint is carried down to the harbor in religious procession to bless the 
fishing fleet. 

CASA ABREGO (private}, 592 Abrego St., built by Don Jose 
Abrego in the late 1830*8, is a long one-story white adobe building with 
a narrow porch. The walls of the upper gables are of vertical boards. 
Abrego brought the first full-length mirror to California. When his 
daughter saw her reflection in it she asked her husband, "Who is that 
very lovely girl?" 

tween Webster and Pearl Sts., now an interior decorating shop, is a two- 
story house with adobe walls, white plaster finish, and shingle roof. 
Stevenson lived here for three months in 1879 while working on 
Amateur Immigrant and Vendetta of the West. 


NW. corner Pearl and Tyler Sts., houses a Spanish handcraft forge and 
cabinet-making shop. On the west side is another adobe occupied by a 
leather craftsman. 

The COOPER HOUSE (private), 508 Munras Ave., a long two- 
story adobe finished in pinkish plaster, was built by Capt. John Bautista 
Rogers Cooper in 1829. In its day it was a casa grande, or "big house," 
bespeaking its owner's wealth and importance. 

CASA AMESTI (private), 516 Polk St., a two-story, white- 
plastered adobe with a balcony, was built in the 1 830*8 by Jose Amesti 
as a gift for his daughter. 

The STOKES HOUSE (private), 500 Hartnell St., built by Dr. 
James Stokes in the 1840'$, is a two-story white-plastered adobe struc- 
ture with two-story porches, front and rear. A well-preserved pottery 
kiln is in the back courtyard. 

HOUSE OF THE FOUR WINDS (private), Main St. between 
Jefferson and Maddison Sts., is a small, white-plastered adobe, built in 
the late i83o's by Thomas O. Larkin. Its windows and doors are 
painted green, and just under the roof a hand-hewn beam can be seen. 
The building was named for a weather vane on the roof. 

SHERMAN'S QUARTERS (closed), Main St. between Jeffer- 
son and Maddison Sts., is a one-story house, roofed in red tile, its peeling 
plaster showing the adobe brick beneath. William Tecumseh Sherman 
lived here from 1847 to 1849. 

The LARKIN HOUSE (private), 462 Main St., was built in 1835 
by Thomas Oliver Larkin, first and only United States consul to 
California, and used as a consulate from 1844 to 1846. It is a two- 
story hip-roofed house of adobe construction, finished in soft pink plaster, 
with a two-story gallery running around the front and two sides. 
Larkin was a tactful diplomat who smoothed political upheavals of the 
day, encouraged trade with his native country, and finally helped in the 
American conquest. 

FRIENDLY PLAZA, Pacific St. between Jefferson and Maddison 
Sts., Civic Center of Monterey, covers two blocks. 

COLTON HALL (open 9-5 weekdays), west side of Friendly 
Plaza, is a two-story stone building finished in plaster, designed in the 
New England post-Colonial style by the Rev. Walter Colton, Yankee 
alcalde (mayor) from 1846 to 1849. 

MONTEREY JAIL, flanking Colton Hall on the south, a one- 
story buff sandstone building erected in 1854, is still in use, but rarely 
holds a criminal so desperate as some of the past: Tiburcio Vasquez, 
the gentleman bandit who could kill with a smile; Anastacia Garcia, 
the killer who "went to God on a rope" pulled by his friends; Matt 
Tarpey, taken from his cell by vigilantes and strung up for the murder 
of a woman; and highwaymen of stage-coach days. 

FEW MEMORIAL CITY HALL, Friendly Plaza, S. of the 
jail, is a one-story, L-shaped structure built in 1934. The foot of the 
"L" incorporates an adobe house, built in 1843. 


CASA VASQUEZ (private), Dutra St., between Maddison and 
Jefferson Sts., is a white ad9be half hidden by shrubbery and a large 
Monterey cypress, and set behind a cactus hedge and picket fence. It 
is said to be the birthplace and home of the bandit, Tiburcio Vasquez. 

CASA ALVARADO (private), 510 Dutra St., a long, low adobe 
with a red brick front porch, was the home of Juan Bautista Alvarado, 
revolutionist, patriot, and governor of California from 1836 to 1842. 
He was so busy with politics that he could not attend his own wedding; 
a friend stood proxy at the ceremony in Mission Santa Clara and 
brought the bride home. 

weekdays), SW. corner Pacific and Scott Sts., a long, rectangular adobe 
with a frame shack at one end, was built in 1843 as a boarding house 
and saloon. In 1847 members of Stevenson's regiment produced Putnam 
or the Lion Son of If j6 and packed the house at $5.00 a seat. A large 
wooden door, raised like the lid of a box, served as curtain. Footlights 
were candles and whale oil lamps. There is an exhibit of early theatri- 
cal programs and historical relics in the wooden shack. 

St., a small two-story house, now a restaurant, was built by the Dickin- 
son family in 1847 of re d brick kilned in Monterey. 

The OLD WHALING STATION (private), 391 Decatur St., 
is a restored two-story adobe structure, with a shingle roof and a 
second story balcony across the front. A white-washed frame lean-to 
extends across the rear in the manner of a New England "salt box." 
It was built for Portuguese whalers in 1855 when there were 500 
whaling vessels in Pacific waters, most of them out of the Sandwich 
Islands. The diamond-patterned walk and the patio are paved with 
whale vertebrae. 

The PRESIDIO OF MONTEREY, entrance Pacific St. N. of 
Decatur St., covers 360 acres, running from the shore back into the pine- 
covered hills. The garrison consists of the nth U. S. Cavalry, and the 
2nd Battalion, 76th Field Artillery. The post has a polo field, drill 
ground, theater, swimming pool, tennis courts, and recreation hall. On 
a hill above the entrance is a STATUE OF FATHER SERRA, a life-size 
figure standing in a boat, a gift of Jane L. Stanford, 1901. Viscaino 
landed here in 1602, and Father Serra said mass on the same spot in 
1770. Near the entrance is a STATUE OF JOHN DRAKE SLOAT, com- 
mander of the American forces that took Monterey. The Presidio was 
developed in 1902, as a cantonment for troops returning from the 
Spanish-American War. 

OLD CUSTOMHOUSE (open 1-5 daily), N. end of Alvarado 
St., consists of a low central section of plastered adobe and frame built 
by the Spanish in 1814 and higher additions at each end, built later. 
On the front of the building, facing the bay, runs a full-length porch 
covered by the sloping tile roof. The end sections have second-story 
galleries. Low walls enclose a garden with two old cypress trees and 
smaller pepper trees. 


A STATE MUSEUM in the building preserves a $1,000 Parisian lace 
dress worn by Dona Escolastica de Dye, a famous beauty of the time. 
Other historic exhibits include a burro cart with solid wood wheels, 
and a woman's wedding dress of the Mexican period. Upstairs is the 
BOHEMIAN MEMORY ROOM, containing the Albert W. Bender collec- 
tion of original letters and manuscripts of Robert Louis Stevenson, 
Ambrose Bierce, and George Sterling. 

FISHERMEN'S WHARF, N. end of Main St., is a collection 
of weather-beaten wooden sheds and buildings built on a complicated 
pattern of piers. Seafood restaurants and fresh fish shops line the first 
pier. There is always noisy activity on the wharf: the foreign tones 
of Italian and Japanese fishermen, the creak of the wooden piles as 
heavy trucks pull out loaded with fish, the shouts of skippers docking 
their boats; the croaking of sea gulls. Inside the sheds lie great piles 
of fish. Japanese abalone divers hang their rubber suits out to dry, 
and Japanese girls prepare abalone steaks for shipment. When the 
albacore run, there is real excitement on the wharf. Boats go out 
empty and come back loaded to the gunwales with the game fish, each 
one caught by a hook and lure. The fish are cleaned and packed on 
the wharf. 

The SANCHEZ ADOBE, 412 Alvarado St., built by Gil Sanchez 
in 1829 and now housing shops and a bar, is the only house on the 
street with a balcony. 


Railroad Stations: W. end of i6th St., and Broadway at ist St. for Southern 
Pacific lines; San Pablo Ave. and 4oth St. for Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Ry. ; Washington and 3rd Sts. for Western Pacific R.R. ; Shafter Ave. and 4Oth 
St. for Sacramento Northern Ry. 

Bus Stations: Union Stage Depot, 2047 San Pablo Ave. for Greyhound and 
Peerless Lines; 1801 Telegraph Ave. for Santa Fe and Burlington Trailways; 
1901 San Pablo Ave. for all American Line. 

Airports: Oakland Municipal Airport, Bay Farm Island, via Alameda, for 
Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc., and United Airlines; taxi, $1.80, time 25 
min. ; Alameda Airport, Alameda via Posey Tube, for Pan-American Airways; 
taxi $1.60, time 15 min. 

Taxis: Average rate 20^ first quarter mile, 10^ each additional half-mile, i to 
5 passengers. 

Streetcars: Fare 10^, 7 tokens for 50^, no extra fare to adjoining cities; inter- 
urban to San Francisco, 21$. 

Ferry: W. end of 7th St., for Southern Pacific ferry to San Francisco, fare 
30^, round trip 50^, i to 5 passengers. (Autos only, no foot passengers.) 
Bridge: San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge approach, 38th and Market Sts.; 
8th and Cypress Sts. from business district; toll 50^, i to 5 passengers. 
Traffic Regulations: 25 m.p.h. in residential areas, 20 m.p.h. in business dis- 
tricts, 15 m.p.h. at intersections; 4o-min. parking limit in business district, all- 
night parking prohibited in all areas. 

Accommodations: 102 hotels; tourist and trailer camps mostly in East Oakland. 

Information Service: Oakland Tribune Information Bureau, i3th and Franklin 
Sts.; Chamber of Commerce, i4th and Franklin Sts.; Dept. of Motor Vehicles, 
1107 Jackson St.; California State Automobile Association, 399 Grand Ave. 

Radio Stations: KLX (880 kc.) ; KLS (1280 kc.) ; KROW (930 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Municipal Theater, i2th and Fallen 
Sts., for opera productions and road shows; 36 motion picture houses. 
Baseball: Oakland Baseball Park, San Pablo Ave. and Park St., Emeryville; 
Pacific Coast League. 

Golf: Oakland Municipal Golf Course, E. end of Golf Links Road, 18 holes, 
greens fees 50^ weekdays, 75^ Sun. and holidays. 

Tennis: 31 municipal courts; lighted, 25^ per half hour; Athol Plaza, Lake- 
shore Blvd. and Athol Ave.; Bella Vista, loth Ave. and E. 28th St.; Brookdale 
Plaza, High St. and Brookdale Ave.; Dimond Park, Fruitvale Ave. and Lyman 
Road; Mosswood, Moss Ave. and Webster St. 

Swimming: Lions Pool, Dimond Park, Fruitvale Ave. and Lyman Road, chil- 
dren 15^, adults 25^, daytime only, no suits or towels furnished; Neptune Beach 
(and pool), Alameda, children 20$, adults 35^, including suits, towels, lockers. 
Riding: Bridle paths in hills; horse rental $i per hour up. 

Boating: Lake Merritt, boathouse at E. end of i4th St. ; rowboats, canoes 30^ 
to 5O< per hour, motorboats $i per hour. Around-the-lake water tour, 10^, 
children 5$. 

Annual Events: California Spring Garden Show, Exposition Bldg., loth and 
Fallen Sts., April; I.A.A. Sports Carnival, Municipal Auditorium, i2th and 



Fallen Sts., Winter and Spring; Mills College Horse Show, May; Festival of 
the Holy Ghost (Portuguese), Pentecostal week, Exposition Bldg., loth and 
Fallon Sts.; East Bay Gladiolus Society Exhibition, June; Boys' Smelt Derby, 
Lake Merritt, July; Bowling Green Contests, Lakeside Park, Sept.; Outboard 
Motorboat Races, Lake Merritt, Sept.; Columbus Day Celebration, Lakeside 
Park; Christmas Pageant, Municipal Auditorium, i2th and Fallon Sts. 

OAKLAND (0-1,600 alt., 284,063 pop.) is the metropolis of the 
industrial and residential East Bay municipal area, in which approxi- 
mately half a million people reside in seven abutting cities. Third in 
the State in population, the city has outgrown the idea that it is merely 
"San Francisco's bedroom." 

Oakland and its sister communities, Berkeley, San Leandro, Hay- 
ward, Emeryville, Piedmont, and Alameda, are framed by the relatively 
low Berkeley Hills (up to 1,200 feet), which parallel the shoreline of 
the Bay. Eastward beyond these wooded slopes appear the higher eleva- 
tions of the Contra Costa Hills, culminating in Mount Diablo (3,800 
feet) some 30 miles east of the city. Southward the hills drop to the 
level East Bay shore permitting the city to expand without hindrance 
in that direction. Five miles to the west, across the bay, is San Fran- 
cisco. Of the 30,000 passengers transported daily between the cities, 
the majority are Oakland commuters. 

The port of Oakland has facilities to accommodate any vessel in the 
Pacific trade. The Oakland Estuary, formerly a shallow slough, is 
called the inner harbor, and the open bay portion to the north is the 
outer harbor. Three transcontinental railroads enter the city. 

Along the ridge of the Berkeley Hills winds the Skyline Boulevard, 
offering a view to the east of the dry, tawny hills of Contra Costa ; to 
the west spreads the thickly settled marginal plain and the glowing 
bay, rimmed by the jagged silhouette of San Francisco. Below is the 
metropolitan cluster of downtown Oakland, dominated by the ly-story 
city hall. 

Residential areas surround the business district and run up the 
foothills to the ridge. The modern Oakland home is of light stucco, 
tile-roofed, studio-windowed, with arches and patios. Built on hillsides, 
flats, and knolls, these houses show, in construction and landscaping, the 
benefits of a mild climate. Here and there, however, are sharp-gabled, 
high-ceilinged, full-basemented, weathertight houses built by pioneers 
who did not realize they had come to a moderate climate. City parks 
and private gardens contain many varieties of semitropical trees 
camphor, acacia, pepper, dracena, and several species of eucalyptus and 
palm. Citrus fruits and figs ripen in Oakland yards. 

Lake Merritt, a salt-water lake, is a few blocks from the Oakland 
business district. Until 1898 it was an unsightly tidal basin fed by 
waters from the Estuary; today it is a 155-acre, Y-shaped lake with 
grassy banks, the water level controlled by hydraulic gates. Encircling 
the lake are a hiking path, a park strip, and a high-speed boulevard, and 
in the crotch of the "Y" is 53-acre Lakeside Park. At the base of the 
"Y" is Peralta Park (reclaimed from the mud flats). 


Of Oakland's ethnic groups the most numerous is the Negro com- 
munity, concentrated in West Oakland near the railroad shops and 
yards, which provide their chief employment. On the outskirts of the 
city live many of the Portuguese dairy farmers who have settled in 
great numbers in Alameda County. Other minor groups are Italians, 
Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and Mexicans. 

The first white men to see what is now Oakland were Spaniards 
Lieutenant Fages and Father Crespi, who headed an expedition in 1772. 
The expedition pushed as far north as Antioch, and active develop- 
ments took place across the Bay, but it was nearly half a century before 
the site of Oakland was colonized. 

Cavalry Sergt. Luis Maria Peralta, as a worthy soldier of the royal 
Spanish army, received title in 1820 to a 48,OOO-acre domain, named it 
Rancho San Antonio, added "Don" to his name, and lived as befitted 
a gentleman of leisure. His grant included the entire East Bay area. 

For twenty years Rancho San Antonio played an important part in 
the commercial, religious, and social life of California. In 1842, the 
sergeant divided the ranch among his four sons, and Vincente Peralta 
was given the area where Oakland now stands. They owned great 
herds of cattle, maintained a large retinue of vaguer os (cowboys), and 
pursued the Spanish life of "fiesta and siesta." The American victory 
over Mexico in 1848 ended the era of the Spanish landowner in Cali- 
fornia, and the discovery of gold in the same year hastened the rout. 
Mobs of gold seekers came to the flourishing town of San Francisco, 
many of whom tramped to the diggings through the Peralta holdings. 
Some of them visualized greater riches from these acres than from the 
Mother Lode. They squatted on the rancho, built shacks and fences, 
and ran off cattle, and resisted every effort of the owners to evict them. 

Moses Chase, however, who came to Oakland in 1849, was of a more 
ethical turn of mind. He became associated with the three Patten 
brothers in a lease of 460 acres from Antonio Peralta. They were the 
first farmers of the district, raising good crops of grain and hay. The 
early town of Clinton took form on their acreage. The Patten brothers 
soon entered the lumbering business in the Peralta Redwoods, a stand 
of giant trees that extended from the top of the range midway to the 
Oakland estuary. In the middle 1850*5 more than 400 men were em- 
ployed in the mills, cutting lumber for the building of San Francisco, 
Oakland and their environs. 

In 1851, the Rancho San Antonio was well spotted with squatters 
and purchasers, and in that year there appeared a man who gave the 
Latin owners, and the Americanos, a lesson in plain and fancy financing. 
Horace W. Carpentier had a degree from an eastern university, a keen 
sense of values, and more than one man's share of vision. He acquired 
a townsite in the present downtown Oakland, imported a few "resi- 
dents" from the redwoods, and in 1852 incorporated the Town of 
Oakland, with himself in the mayor's chair. The name he selected from 
the numerous stands of encinas (evergreen oaks) that dotted the land- 
scape. Two years later Mr. Carpentier incorporated the town as a city, 


and by that time had acquired the entire Oakland waterfront in ex- 
change for building three tiny wharves and a frame schoolhouse. Thus 
began the "battle of the waterfront," which was terminated in 1910 
when the assigns of Carpentier agreed with the city to waive title to 
their properties in exchange for long term leases. 

The first ferry across the bay began operating in 1850; first train 
chugged through Oakland in 1863; and overland service was established 
in 1869. In 1906, when San Francisco fell victim to earthquake and 
fire, 50,000 refugees moved to Oakland. There was a building boom 
to provide housing for refugees who became permanent East Bay resi- 
dents. The city annexed all hamlets and towns to the southeast and 
in 1907 the population reached 147,000. The industrial stimulation 
that followed this influx moved Oakland into third place among Cali- 
fornia manufacturing cities as early as 1910, and by 1920 its population 
increased to 216,000. During the World War four large shipbuilding 
plants were operating under forced draft, and following that period the 
city production increased in automobiles, lumber and allied products, 
electrical machinery, canning, and cereal products. The aggregate value 
of Oakland's industrial output was multiplied five times between 1914 
and 1927. In 1936, Oakland celebrated with San Francisco the open- 
ing of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge (see SAN FRAN- 


1. OAKLAND CITY HALL, Washington St. between Hth and 
1 5th Sts., designed by Palmer, Hornbostle and Jones, and completed 
in 1914, is the highest building in the city, its 17 floors rising 360 feet 
and towering in three set-back sections embellished with classic colon- 
nades and arches and topped with a baroque cupola. 

2. The SNOW MUSEUM (open 10-5 weekdays, 1-5 Sun. and 
holidays), 247 1 9th St., a white frame structure with a columned 
portico, contains stuffed Arctic, African, and American mammals, col- 
lected by the explorers, Henry A. Snow and his son, Sidney, in 1919-21. 
They made a motion picture, Big Game Hunting in Africa, the first 
of its kind released by a major Hollywood studio. In 1922 the Snow 
specimens were donated to the City of Oakland, which purchased a 
site for their exhibition. 

3. LAKESIDE PARK, irregularly bordering the N. shore of Lake 
Merritt, threaded by Bellevue Ave., has facilities for tennis, bowling- 
on-the-green, and horseshoe pitching, and a municipal bandstand where 
free outdoor concerts are given on Sundays, August to October, 2-4 p.m. 

refuge administered by the United States Biological Survey, which 
maintains a banding station near the Canoe House. Ducks and other 
wildfowl, which make their headquarters here from November to 
March, are fed at 10 a.m. and 3 130 p.m. 

5. The EMBARCADERO (landing place), on the NE. tip of 
Lake Merritt, is a horseshoe-shaped walk bordered by concrete columns. 


The Si 

Lakeside Part 

Lake Merritt Wildfowl Sanctuary 

The Embaread 

The Moses Chase Home 

Peralta Park 

The Alameda County Courthouse 

The Oakland Public Museum 

10. Posey Tube 

1 1. First and Last Chance Saloon 

12. St. John's Episcopal Church 

13. Linda Vista Park 

4. California College of Arts and Crafts 

15. The Heights 

16. Sequoia Park 

I 7. Chabot Observatory 
18. Mills College- 


The Spaniards shipped hides and tallow from here in flat-bottomed 

6. The OAKLAND PUBLIC MUSEUM (open 10-5 weekdays, 
7-5 Sun. and holidays), 1426 Oak St., is a two-story brown frame 
house containing exhibits in natural science, ethnology, and history. In 
the Natural Science Section are birds, mammals, insects, and butterflies; 
the Ethnology Department displays artifacts of Alaska, British Colum- 
bia, California, and Pacific Islands. The History Section contains 
relics of the War of 1812, Civil War, Spanish- American War, and the 
World War; the California Room has relics of Indian, Spanish and 
pioneer days. In the two Colonial Rooms are reproductions, including 
a "whatnot" once the property of Abraham Lincoln. The museum also 
houses displays of old coins, firearms, medals, and currency. 

7. The MOSES CHASE HOME (private), NE. corner 4 th Ave. 
and E. 8th St., the oldest dwelling in Oakland, was built about 1850. 
The four original rooms are still intact, and serve as a nucleus for the 
white-painted 14- room house with its gable roof and green shutters, 
and its porch extending across the front. Chase was Oakland's first 
American settler, arriving via Cape Horn from Massachusetts in 1849. 

8. PERALTA PARK is a landscaped tract on the S. shore of Lake 
Merritt between 8th and I2th Sts. The MUNICIPAL AUDITORIUM, 
loth and Fallen Sts., is of concrete finished in California granite, and 
divided into the Arena, the Theater, and the Art Gallery. Conven- 
tions and boxing and wrestling matches are held in the Arena; opera, 
road shows, and lectures are given in the Theater; the Art Gallery 
(open 7-5 daily) houses a permanent collection of painting, sculpture, and 
prints, and conducts annual exhibitions. The EXPOSITION BUILDING, 
Fallen St. between 9th and loth Sts., similar in design to the Audi- 
torium, is used for athletic and civic events. 

tween 1 2th and I3th Sts., a concrete building of neo-classic design, 
with terra cotta and granite trim, was completed by PWA in 1936 at 
a cost of $2,000,000. The HALL OF RECORDS is on the general floor. 
The COUNTY FREE LIBRARY (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri. f 9-12 Sat.), and 
mosquito control exhibit are in the basement. 

10. POSEY TUBE, entrance Harrison and 6th Sts., a $4,500,000 
subway, 4,436 feet long, under the estuary connecting Oakland with 
Alameda, was opened to traffic in 1928. Its lighting, ventilation, drain- 
age, fire protection, and traffic control systems have brought it to the 
attention of engineers the world over. The inside diameter of the tube 
is 32 feet, the walls are 2^ feet thick, and it is claimed to be earthquake- 
proof. The tube is named for George A. Posey, its designer and builder, 
an unpainted wooden shack, is noted as the place where Jack London, 
in his ambitious early days, studied and wrote through the kindness of 
the barkeeper. The saloon, built about 1880, retains an early western 
atmosphere, with its battered bar, its wall plastered with pictures of for- 
gotten celebrities, its decrepit card tables, and its brass spittoons. 


12. ST. JOHN'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SW. corner Grove 
and 8th Sts., a shingled building with a square Gothic tower, built in 
1860, is the oldest Episcopal church in Oakland. Hand-carved plaques 
adorn the walls. 

13. LINDA VISTA PARK, Oakland and Olive Aves., is a land- 
scaped area containing the eight-acre MUNICIPAL ROSE GARDENS. 
Some of the 100,000 rose bushes of more than 3,000 varieties are in 
bloom continuously. 

5212 Broadway, a coeducational institution founded in 1907, is set on a 
high hill, behind an ivy-clad red stone wall. The landscaped four-acre 
campus with 12 buildings of wood and stucco includes two fine speci- 
mens of Sequoia gigantea (big tree). The institution presents a full 
course in the various branches of the arts and crafts, leading to bachelor's 
degrees in Arts. 

Joaquin Miller Road, so spelled by Miller, was the home of the "Poet 
of the Sierras," where he and his friends planted 75,000 eucalypti, 
pines, cypresses, and acacias. The city bought the tract in 1917, grant- 
ing a life tenure in it to the poet's widow and daughter, each of whom 
occupies a cottage on the grounds. The ABBEY (open by appointment}, 
built in 1886, where the poet lived until his death in 1913, consists of 
three one-room frame structures connected to form a single unit, each 
room roofed by a shingled peak. Here he wrote "Columbus" and other 
poems. The poet claimed he could not write without rain on the 
roof; he had pipes installed to sprinkle water on the roof when he 
wanted inspiration. On the eminence to the north he built a stone 
foundation intended as his funeral pyre (never used) ; native rock 
towers dedicated to Gen. John C. Fremont and Robert Browning; and 
a pyramid to Moses. 

1 6. In SEQUOIA PARK, adjoining The Hights to the E., a 
wooded area of 182 acres, is the OAKLAND Zoo (always open), Robin- 
son Drive and Joaquin Miller Road, housing 30 specimens. 

17. CHABOT OBSERVATORY, 4917 Mountain Blvd. (open 
1-4 p.m. and 7-10 p.m. Tues.-Sat., except during school holidays and 
vacations), a two-story stucco building with a dome at either end, 
occupies 12 acres on a landscaped hill and contains 8- and 2O-inch re- 
fracting telescopes. 

1 8. MILLS COLLEGE, Trenor St. and Seminary Ave., oldest 
college in the West exclusively for women, was founded in 1852, in 
Benicia, as the Young Ladies' Seminary. It reached full collegiate 
standing and became known as Mills College in 1885. The college is 
nonsectarian and has about 550 students; it confers bachelor and master 
degrees in arts and sciences, and is particularly distinguished in music 
and art. The more modern buildings on the campus are designed in 
the Mediterranean style of architecture. The CAMPANILE, in mission 
style, has ten bells, originally cast for the World's Fair in Chicago in 
1893. The design of the Music BUILDING is based upon the church 


architecture of the Spanish Renaissance, with an elaborate arch-canopy 
doorway embellished with twisted columns, decorative finials and a 
sculptured lunette. It contains nearly 60 soundproof practice rooms. 
ETHEL MOORE HALL, one of the six residence halls, is built on 16 
different levels, with five patios. The ART GALLERY (open 2-5 Wed., 
Fri. f Sun.; group visits by arrangement other days} contains a perma- 
nent American collection of painting, sculpture, and art objects, includ- 
ing a group of Chinese paintings, an extensive art library, and a notable 
collection of the works of Robert Browning. Student painting and 
sculpture is exhibited in May and June. The LIBRARY (private) has a 
large collection of early western literature and books by California 

SKYLINE BOULEVARD north approach from Berkeley, south 
approach from Foothill Boulevard, Oakland from the tourists' stand- 
point the most distinctive feature of Oakland, is a winding road high 
above the city, which affords a magnificent panorama of the East Bay, 
the harbor, and San Francisco and Marin County across the bay. By 
means of a tunnel through the Berkeley Hills into Contra Costa County 
(and by a low-level tunnel at the head of Broadway) the driver from 
Oakland can pass from a temperature of 65 degrees to one of 100 
degrees or more; from lush greenery to the golden brown of sun- 
drenched Contra Costa hills; from a busy urban area to one of dreamy 
open spaces. 


Mount Diablo, 38.5 m. (see TOUR 9A) ; University of California, 6 m. 
(see BERKELEY). 


Railroad Stations: 222 S. Raymond Ave. for Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 

R.R. ; 148 E. Colorado Blvd. for Southern Pacific Lines, and Pacific Electric Ry, 


Bus Stations: Union Bus Terminal, 48 S. Marengo Ave., for motor transit 

lines, and Pasadena-Ocean Park Line, and Mt. Wilson Stage Line. 

Taxis: 10^ for first passenger mile, 5^ per mile for additional passengers, 20^ 

per mile after 5 miles. 

Streetcars: Zone system, fare 64 and 12$; four tokens for 25$; free transfers., 

Traffic Regulations: All parking prohibited 1-6 a.m.; right turns against signal 

after full stop. 

Accommodations: 25 hotels; tourist camps; rates slightly higher in winter 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, N. Garfield Ave. and Union St.; 
information booth, City Hall, 100 N. Garfield Ave. 

Radio Station: KPPC (1210 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Pasadena Community Playhouse, 39 El 
Molino Ave., local productions; Civic Auditorium, Civic Center at Green St., 
lectures, opera, music, community dances; Gold Shell, Memorial Park, N. Ray- 
mond Ave. and Union St., concerts, occasional light opera, drama, pageants; 
ii motion picture houses. 

Baseball: Brookside Park, 1645 Arroyo Blvd., spring training grounds for 
Chicago White Sox, occasional exhibition games. 

Golf: Brookside Park, i8-hole course, 50$, $i all day; g-hole course, 35^, 50^ 
all day; locker fee 50^ per month, 30 tickets for $5, 30 tickets for man and wife, 
$7.50, not good Sat. afternoon or Sun. ; Altadena Municipal course, 2492 Country- 
Club Dr., 18 holes, 40^, monthly tickets $5. 

Tennis: Besse Playgrounds, 3303 E. Colorado St.; La Pintoresca, N. Fair Oaks 
Ave. and Washington St.; Washington Park, N. El Molino Ave. and Wash- 
ington St.; Brookside Park; all lighted, meter charge 25$ for 40 min. 
Swimming: Brookside Park, 2 pools open Apr. i-Oct. i, adults 25(f, with suit 
and towel 25^; children under 12, 10$, with suit and towel 15^; children 12-18 
years, 15$, with suit and towel 20^. 

Riding: In Arroyo Seco, and other parks, mountain trails N. and E. of Pasa- 
dena. Horses, $i per hour average. 

Annual Events: Pasadena Rose Tournament Jan. i ; football game between 
eastern and western collegiate teams, Jan. i, Rose Bowl; Pasadena Flower 
Show, Busch Gardens, 3 days in April and Oct.; Pasadena Kennel Club Show, 
Civic Auditorium, Feb. and July. 

PASADENA (800-1,200 alt., 76,086 pop.), lies in the foothills 
of the Sierra Madre Mountains, overlooking the San Gabriel Valley. 
Behind it, to the north, are suburban Altadena and the pine-clad heights 
of Mount Wilson and Mount Lowe. Its southern limits are separated 
from Los Angeles by the small communities of South Pasadena and 
Alhambra. On the east, it stretches for several miles along broad 



Colorado Street, and ends abruptly in the west along the curving Arroyo 
Seco (dry watercourse). 

From a vantage point in the hills, the city looks like a lumpy sea of 
green trees, from which rise church spires, the boxlike procession of 
business buildings along Colorado Street, and the massive resort hotels. 
An air of prosperity the unhurried tenor of a Sunday afternoon 
is engendered by the substantial buildings, the pretentious homes, gen- 
erous foliage, and the winding, flower-edged streets. The center of the 
small business district is the intersection of Colorado Street and Fair 
Oak Avenue. Here the streets are lined with smart shops, lighted at 
night with a restrained display of neon lights. There is no large-scale 
industry in Pasadena; business is mostly restricted to retail trade and 
stores that supply the wants of good living. 

In the residential section, surrounding the business district, are homes 
in carefully tended gardens, mansions in estates with sunken gardens, 
swimming pools, and tennis courts. Resort hotels spread their wings 
and terraces over grounds well back from the street, their lawns spotted 
with gay garden furniture. Near the western margin of the city is a 
remnant of the architectural glory of the 1890*5 Orange Grove Ave- 
nue, known as "Millionaires' Row," a street of mansions in massive 
style set behind well-manicured lawns. 

On Christmas Tree Lane (Santa Rosa Avenue, Altadena), giant 
deodars, planted as seedlings from the Himalayas in the 1890*8, have 
stretched their branches across the street and almost conceal the houses. 
Each Christmas the trees are festooned with thousands of colored lights, 
creating a festive effect that attracts thousands of visitors. 

On New Year's Day the city stages the Tournament of Roses, in- 
spired by the flower fetes in Nice, and introduced in 1890 as a simple 
village festival to celebrate the midwinter flowering season. Residents 
decked their buggies with roses, went picnicking, sent pictures back 
home, and connected roses with New Year's Day so effectively that 
Pasadena has been called "the town that roses built." 

On this day young girls elected for their beauty are carried through 
the streets in floats of elaborate design, where they sit pelting the crowds 
with flowers. Citizens forget their dignity to join in a battle of blos- 
soms. Floats represent every prominent city in California and even 
other States and foreign countries. The floral decorations follow a sin- 
gle theme, and floats bearing 100,000 to 300,000 fresh flowers are not 
uncommon. The holiday became more elaborate each season; for 
twelve years the climaxing feature of the day was a thundering, rip- 
snorting chariot race, finally displaced in 1916 by the football game 
between picked eastern and western teams in the Rose Bowl. 

Pasadena is staid a city with an unusual number of churches for 
its size but it supports an excellent small theater and several art and 
music associations. The Pasadena Community Playhouse is one of the 
leading little theaters in the country; its productions have originality 
and a professional finish. The city's educational institutions are rela- 
tively long established and rank high. The California Institute of 


Technology, with Dr. Robert Millikan, the physicist, as president, has 
made important contributions to scientific theory, notably Millikan's 
study of cosmic rays and researches into the nature of the electron. The 
Institute has also aided in advancing aeronautics, and by virtue of sev- 
eral foundations has carried forward cancer and other medical research. 

The site of Pasadena, once part of the lands of the San Gabriel Mis- 
sion, has changed owners with perplexing frequency. The Rancho San 
Pasqual was first granted by the mission fathers to an aged mission 
housekeeper in 1826, and passed from her hands when she married at 
nearly 100 years of age. Her stepson sold his interest in 1839 to two 
dons who later abandoned the property. 

Governor Micheltorena, looking about for a suitable present in 
J 843, granted the land to Don Manuel Garfias, a Mexican army officer. 
Garfias had his title validated by the United States Land Commission 
in 1854 an d was sent a patent signed by Lincoln in 1863. Meanwhile 
Garfias sold his interest to Benjamin D. Wilson, a Yankee, who has 
given his name to a mountain, a canyon, a lake, a trail, an avenue, and 
a school. Wilson and his associates swapped, traded, and borrowed 
from each other, with the land as security, until in 1873 the land was 
divided between Wilson and Dr. John S. Griffin, who came to Cali- 
fornia as chief medical officer with the American Army. Griffin's share 
was approximately 4,000 acres and included the original site of Pasa- 

The story now moves East. The winter of 1872-73 was cold in 
Indiana. Dr. Thomas B. Elliott, of Indianapolis, and his friends "to 
get where life was easy," formed the "California Colony of Indiana," 
and sent a scouting committee to spy out the promised land. It looked 
as if it would be easy. The colony bought Griffin's land for $25,000, 
and that was the beginning of the exodus of wealthy men from the Mid- 
dle West and East that resulted in the present millionaires' retreat. 

The city was incorporated in 1886, and chartered by the State in 
1901. By this time Pasadena had begun to take on definite character. 
It was settling in the mold of a dignified, permanent community, and 
began to support more vigorously its educational institutions. Throop 
University, ancestor of the California Institute of Technology, had 
been founded by Amos G. ("Father") Throop, in 1891, as a poly- 
technic school; Mt. Wilson Observatory was established in 1904; and 
Pasadena gradually became a recognized center of learning. 

The richest city per capita in America, Pasadena is something of a 
paradox. Situated in the heart of open-shop southern California, it has 
been friendly to organized labor since the time of the McNamara case. 
The neighboring Los Angeles Citizen, published during that time, re- 
ceived the bulk of its advertising from Pasadena merchants. 

So far, with the conservative wealthy in control, the city has main- 
tained its lovely appearance against any encroachments of factories or 
large-scale business enterprises. 



The CIVIC CENTER, Garfield Ave., between Walnut and Green 
Sts., is a harmonious group of modified Spanish and Italian Renaissance 
buildings, dominated by the CITY HALL, 100 N. Garfield Ave., an im- 
pressive domed three-story concrete structure occupying an entire block, 
The large red- and gold-topped dome rises above the entrance pavilion 
on an arcaded and pinnacled drum, the lower stage of which is adorned 
with Ionic columns. At the upper end of the Civic Center is the PUB- 
LIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 Mon.-Sat.), 285 E. Walnut St., a rambling 
buff stucco building with walled forecourt, low tiled roof and projecting 
wings. The forecourt is planted with stately rows of palms. The 
library has more than 200,000 volumes. The circulation hall, in the 
main section of the building, is decorated with a coffered ceiling and oak 
paneling; the children's room in the left wing and the periodical room 
in the right wing have outdoor reading rooms in frescoed cloisters that 
flank the forecourt. At the lower end of the Civic Center is the Civic 
AUDITORIUM (open 2-4 Wed.), 300 E. Green St., that seats 3,000. 

BROOKSIDE PARK, Arroyo Blvd. between Holly St. and Devil's 
Gate Dam, is a city recreational preserve of more than 500 acres, with 
a picnic and playground section, swimming pool, and municipal golf 
course. Trails and bridle paths run through forests of oak and pine^ 
Within its grounds is the ROSE BOWL (open free, except during per- 
formances} , Arroyo Blvd. at Salvia Canyon Rd., a concrete stadium of 
elliptical shape, seating some 85,000. It is used for other football games 
besides the annual Rose Bowl game, and for political rallies and civic 

The MILLARD HOUSE, 645 Prospect Crescent, is a studio- 
residence built by Frank Lloyd Wright for Mrs. George M. Millard 
in 1923. Framed by eucalyptus trees, at the end of a ravine, its two- 
story facade is reflected in a pool of the sunken gardens. The double 
walls of concrete blocks are stamped with a radical cross design. Also 
forming a part of the house plan are the garage with its tall castle-like 
doors and the Little Museum of the Book designed by Mr. Wright's 

The BUSCH GARDENS (open 9-5 daily; admission free}, Arroya 
Blvd. at Madeline Dr., is narDed for the St. Louis brewer. Its land- 
scaped 75 acres contain formal gardens, natural woodlands, and miles 
of mazelike paths. Scattered about v the grounds are groups of terra- 
cotta gnomes and fairies in scenes from 1 ' the tales of the Brothers Grimm 
and Hans Andersen. The Gardens are part of the Busch estate. 

open to public), 1201 E. California St., is 5 a scientific institution of in- 
ternational repute. White buildings of modified Spanish design occupy 
the 22-acre campus laboratories, classroc^ 1118 * dormitories, and the 
Athenaeum, which houses visiting foreign scientists and scholars. The 
Daniel Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory the Norman Bridge Lab- 
oratory of Physics, and the W. K. Kellogg Laboratory of Radiation 


(for cancer research) are maintained here. Dr. Robert A. Millikan 
of cosmic-ray fame has long been president of the Institute, the faculty 
of which includes several other Nobel prize winners. Prof. Albert 
Einstein worked here for some time after fleeing Germany. The 200- 
inch telescope lens for the Palomar Mountain Observatory largest in 
the world was ground in the laboratories here. 

The FLORES ADOBE (private), Garfield Ave. and Foothill St., 
was built in 1839 f r Dona Eulalia Perez de Guillen, original owner 
of the Rancho San Pasqual. The house, greatly restored, has reddish 
plaster walls and red tile roofs. The original beams of rough-hewn 
timber still protrude beneath the eaves. After the battle of La Mesa 
in January, 1847, tne decisive fight in the conquest of California, Gen. 
Jose Maria Flores, defeated commander of the Californian lancers, took 

Molino Ave. (open 9-4 daily, except during Sat. matinees; theater usu- 
ally dark in Sept.), a U-shaped group of two-story, white-plastered 
Spanish Colonial buildings surrounding a rough-flagged forecourt, is 
one of the few nationally known little theaters. In the right wing is 
the School of the Theater, and the Laboratory Theater, a workshop 
in which the plays of new authors are given test productions. The 
theater was built in 1925, and seats 820. Since its organization in 
1916 by the present director (1939), Gilmor Brown, the playhouse has 
produced 80 national and world premieres, and most of Shakespeare's 

MEMORIAL FLAGPOLE, at Colorado St. and Orange Grove 
Ave., is a lofty pole with a bronze sculptured base, designed by Bertram 
Goodhue and Lee Lawrie, and dedicated in 1927 as a memorial to Pasa- 
dena men who fell in the World War. 


Huntington Library and Art Gallery, San Marino, 11.5 m.; Mount Wilson 
Observatory, 25.7 m. (see TOUR 12c). 



Railroad Stations: 4th and I Sts. for Southern Pacific Lines; igth and J Sts. 
for Western Pacific R.R. ; Union Station, nth and I Sts., for Sacramento North- 
ern Ry. 

Bus Stations: 7th and L Sts. for Greyhound and Pierce Arrow Lines; 913 5th 
St. for River Auto Stages; 1127 9th St. for Burlington Trailways. 
Airports: Municipal Airport, 5 m. S. on Freeport Blvd., for United Airlines; 
taxi 75^ for passengers; time 15 min. 

Taxis: Zone fares 25$ to $1.50, usual charge, 5^ for each additional passenger; 
hourly rate $2 to $2.50. 
Streetcars: Fare 5$ and 7^. 
Piers: M St. Wharf, River Lines to San Frarcisco, 6 p.m. daily. 

Accommodations: 109 hotels; 13 tourist and trailer camps. 

Information Service: California State Automobile Association, 1700 L St.; 
Tourist Association, 1724 L St.; Consolidated Travel Bureau, 1128 icth St.; 
Chamber of Commerce, 917 7th St. 

Radio Stations: KFBK (1490 kc.) ; KROY (1210 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Tuesday Clubhouse, 2722 L St., amateur 

plays; Memorial Auditorium, i6th and J Sts., symphony and choral concerts; 

15 motion picture houses. 

Baseball: Cardinal Field, nth and Broadway, Pacific Coast League. 

Golf: Sacramento municipal golf course, Auburn Blvd., 18 holes, 25$ for 9 

holes, monthly tickets $2.50 (for weekdays) ; William Land Park municipal golf 

course, Freeport Blvd. and i3th Ave., 9 holes, 25^, monthly tickets $2.50 (for 


Tennis: McKinley Park, Alhambra Blvd. and H St.; McClatchy Park, 35th St. 

and 5th Ave.; Roosevelt Park, loth and P Sts.; Southside Park, 7th and T Sts.; 

all free. 

Swimming: Clunie Memorial Pool, McKinley Park, Alhambra Blvd. and H St., 

25^, children 10$ ; James McClatchy Pool, 35th St. and 5th Ave., 25^, children 

10^; suits and towels included; Riverside Baths, 3540 Riverside Blvd., 25^, 

children 10^. 

Riding: Bridle paths in William Land Park, Freeport Blvd. and Sutterville 

Rd., horses 75^ to $i an hour. 

Boating: Southside Park Lake, 7th and T Sts., free mornings, 25$ 1-8 p.m. 

Fishing: Catfish, salmon, striped bass, in Sacramento River; rowboats 25$ per 

hour, $i per day; motorboats 50$ and $2. 

Annual Events: Rodeo, State Fair Grounds, 5th Ave. and Stockton Blvd., Apr.; 
California State Fair, 10 days, early Sept. 

SACRAMENTO (30 alt., 93,750 pop.), capital of California, lying 
in a loop of the Sacramento River at its confluence with the American 
River, is a calm city of trees, green lawns, and governmental buildings. 
Along the bank of the river is the oldest part of town, red brick build- 
ings, with tall narrow windows, and tin-roofed awnings projecting over 



the sidewalk. Curbstones are high, recalling the times when the river 
flooded its banks. 

Back from the river older buildings gradually give way to the con- 
crete and stone of the business section. In summer the policemen on 
traffic duty wear white helmets, like African explorers, for there are 
three-day cycles of heat when the sun is intense and soft drink consump- 
tion reaches incredible figures. During these spells, Capitol Park, with 
its 40 acres of tree-shaded lawns, attracts hundreds of steaming citizens. 

The wide shady streets of the residential sections and the masses of 
flowers and shrubbery on the lawns give the city something of the ap- 
pearance of a Southern river town. In the older districts most of the 
houses are of brick, although ungainly frame houses with scrollwork 
twisting from eaves and cornices, are left from the effulgent period of 
the seventies and eighties. The newer homes reflect wide differences in 
architectural taste, from simple stucco bungalows to old English, Moor- 
ish, Spanish, and California mission styles. 

The domed capitol dominates the city. The legislature meets bien- 
nially in odd years, holding two sessions broken by a recess. Epic strug- 
gles have been waged here, among others the long fight against the rail- 
road stranglehold on the valley, ending in the reforms under Governor 
Hiram Johnson; and the bitter contest over Japanese immigration, 
which ended with exclusion. 

Mexicans, Italians, Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos are generously 
represented in the city's population, especially among agricultural 
workers. Germans and German Swiss were among pioneer settlers. 
Migratory farm workers, dust bowl refugees, and itinerants "lay up" 
in Sacramento between harvests. 

Flat stretches of unclaimed land, the navigable river, which was 
named Sacramento in honor of the sacrament, by Jose Moraga, coman- 
dante of the presidio of San Jose, and tractable Indians for workers 
drew the attention of Capt. John Augustus Sutter, the pioneer settler, 
in 1839. The Swiss ex-army officer took up a 5O,OOO-acre grant by 
swearing allegiance to the Mexican flag, and built a principality named 
"New Helvetia" in memory of the old country. He ruled in baronial 
splendor, with Indians as his subjects, and a fort of timber and adobe 
brick as his castle, with twelve guns mounted on the ramparts. Sutter 
built forges and shops, grazed herds on his lands, trapped for furs, and 
carried on a lively trade. The spot was a haven for settlers in the tide 
of overland emigration in the early i84o's. In 1848 the town of Sacra- 
mento was laid out on Sutter's farm, and the first lots were sold in 
January, 1849. 

It was Sutter's boss carpenter, James W. Marshall, who, on Janu- 
ary 24, 1848, found the first gold flake while building a mill for Sutter 
near Coloma (see TOUR 4a) on the South Fork of the American 
River, which resulted in the great gold rush of 1849 and the i85o's 
and in California's admission to the Union as a State. It also led to 
Sutter's ruin. Trampling hordes from the East overran his hospitable 
fort, stole his cattle, drove off his Indians, disputed his rights to the 


land. His white retainers deserted for the mines. Meantime, millions 
of dollars in gold dust passed over Sutter's landing. He moved to 
Pennsylvania in 1873, with only a small pension from California, and 
died at Washington, D.C., in 1880, after vainly beseeching Congress 
for the restoration of his property. 

The settlement became the supply center for the northern mines 
of the mother lode. Thousands of gold-hungry men came pouring in 
to outfit for the diggings. The 1850 census showed 6,820, and the 
population soon jumped to 10,000, with gold seekers camped along the 
river bank in tents, frame houses, and even under trees a packing box 
or a strip of canvas was considered good housing. Bearded men from 
the mines flashed pokes of gold dust with assumed indifference, and spent 
grandly in saloons, fandango halls, and gambling houses. The most 
profitable mining was done by entrepreneurs, who took it out of the 
miners' pockets. Bitter struggles took place between squatters and men 
who claimed titles to farmlands. 

Three disastrous floods came between 1849 and 1853, arid in 1852 
a fire wiped out two-thirds of the town. In 1849 Sacramento had 
offered $1,000,000 for the honor of being the State capital. The Legis- 
lature met in 1852, sitting on hot ashes, and when it officially became 
the capital in 1854, Rood debris was still in evidence. The floods caused 
epidemics, and corpses were shoved into the swollen river to drift 
away. Levees were finally built, and the town pulled itself up out of 
the foot-deep dust of summer and the hub-deep mire of the rainy season. 
For many years the water remained unpalatable for those who had the 
temerity to drink it. Few did. 

In 1856 Sacramento was the terminus of the first railroad in Cali- 
fornia, built as a short line to Folsom by Theodore Dehone Judah, the 
young engineer who planned the first transcontinental railroad through 
the passes of the Sierra Nevada. Four years later came the Pony Ex- 
press, which ran until 1861, when the transcontinental telegraph went 

The Central Pacific Railroad joined East and West in 1869. 
Judah's financial sponsors were all Sacramento storekeepers: Collis P. 
Huntington, Mark Hopkins, Charles Crocker, and Leland Stanford, 
the "Big Four." The Central Pacific branched out and became the 
Southern Pacific, the "octopus" of Frank Norris' novel, which for 40 
years practically controlled the State. Large-scale wheat growing and 
cattle raising soon after lost their lead to more lucrative fields of fruit, 
vineyards, cotton, and vegetables. Land prices rose, and Sacramento's 
prosperity with them. 

Sacramento's position as the capital was challenged by Berkeley in 
1907, and more recently by San Jose and Monterey, but with little 
effect. The river channel was dredged in 1911, and seagoing vessels 
could reach the city when the river stage was high. The early years 
of depression saw several State hunger marches, and in 1938 refugees 
from the labor troubles in Nevada City camped for a week outside the 


Some of the earliest unions in California were formed in Sacra- 
mento, which was rated a "good town" for labor. Industry got a 
start with the gold rush, and soon boiler plants, farm machine factories,, 
breweries, carriage shops, and processing plants were humming. 

Today 1 8 percent of all vegetables and fruits in California is grown 
and canned in this district. A can-manufacturing plant has a daily 
output of a million and a half cans. Every month some crop is har- 
vested or processed in and around Sacramento. River shipments approx- 
imate a half-million tons of freight a year, ranking high in value per 
ton. The city is also a railroad center, its large shops employing 5,000 


i. CAPITOL PARK, L St. between loth and I5th Sts., and ex- 
tending to N St., is a 4O-acre plot with more than 1,000 varieties of 
trees and shrubs from all over the world, including the Cedar of Leba- 
non, camphor tree, gingko, Guadalupe cypress, and the Australian 
bunya-bunya. Three acres are planted exclusively with California 
flora. A central plot of half an acre contains trees from Civil War 
battlefields. The CAPITOL BUILDING is on a gently sloping terrace, ap- 
proached by short flights of stone steps. Begun in 1860, it was dedi- 
cated with the laying of the cornerstone May 15, 1861, and was com- 
pleted 13 years later. The building, designed by F. M. Butler and 
completed under the supervision of Reuben Clark, G. P. Cummings 
and A. A. Bennett, is E-shaped, with four stories and a basement. It is 
of Roman-Classic architecture adorned with Corinthian columns and 
pilasters. The wing is semicircular on the east facade. In the center 
of the plan is a rotunda topped with the great gold dome. The ball sur- 
mounting the lantern above the dome is 237 feet from the ground. The 
basement and first story are of California granite, while the remainder 
of the structure is of brick, painted white. The main west entrance 
is protected by a pedimented Corinthian portico. The entrance vesti- 
bule is finished in white sandstone, trimmed with onyx and marble. 
On the floor of each of the entrances is the Great Seal of California in 
colored mosaic. On the walls of the rotunda are 12 murals by Arthur 
F. Mathews, a California artist, each depicting a historical period in 
the State. In the center of the rotunda stands a heroic statue, Columbus 
before Isabella, by Larkin G. Mead, presented to the State by Darius 
Ogden Mills, a pioneer banker. 

On the first floor are the offices of the Governor, the secretary of 
State, and the State treasurer. The legislative chambers are on the 
second floor, the Senate to the south and the Assembly to the north. 
On the third floor are the entrances to the galleries, open to visitors 
when the legislature is in session. Committee rooms occupy the fourth 

There is an excellent view of the city and surrounding country from 
the second balcony of the dome (take south elevator to fourth floor). 
No children are allowed in the dome without parent or guardian. 


BRARY AND COURTS BUILDING (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri., 9-12 
Sat.; 8-4 July and Aug.), loth St. between L and N Sts., extending to 
9th St., are twin five story buildings of neo-classic design, adorned with 
Ionic porticoes and colonnades, completed in 1928. The State Building 
houses State government departments; the library, across a terraced 
garden, contains 800,000 volumes, including many rare items of Cali- 
forniana, 65,000 volumes of law, and the only Braille library in Cali- 
fornia. The library was begun in 1850 with a collection of books 
donated by John C. Fremont. GILLIS HALL, at the entrance to the 
reference room, contains murals by Maynard Dixon depicting a Span- 
ish-Mexican and an American migration pageant. The octagonal 
APPELLATE COURT ROOM, also in this building, is finished in Roman 
Corinthian style. The room has gilded walls and columns, bronze- 
embedded windows, purple velour upholstery, and a gold and alabaster 

3. The MEMORIAL AUDITORIUM, I5th St. between J and I 
Sts., and extending to i6th St., of Italian Romanesque design, is a 
massive dark red brick building with colonnaded loggia and stone trim. 
It was completed in 1927, as a memorial to World War veterans. The 
main auditorium seats 3,200; the Little Theater in one wing seats 300, 
and the Memorial Hall in the other wing 200. The auditorium con- 
tains a huge stage, a movable floor and a $35,000 organ. Chimes above 
the building strike each quarter hour, and every evening at 6 o'clock 
play "The Star Spangled Banner." 

4. The CITY PLAZA, SE. corner 9th and I Sts., was given to the 
city by Sutter in 1849. On the south side of the park, facing J Street, 
is a statue by Albert Weiner, erected "by his co-workers" in 1899 to 
A. J. Stevens, "a friend of labor," and a prominent railroad man of the 
1870*8. A fountain in modernist style by Ralph Stackpole is a memorial 
to W. T. Coleman, a pioneer real estate man. 

5. The SACRAMENTO CITY LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays), 
SW. corner 9th and I Sts., dates from 1857, when the Sacramento 
Library Association was formed, among its founders being the railroad 
"Big Four," then all young men. The three-story building in Floren- 
tine Renaissance style, was erected in 1918, partly with Carnegie funds. 
It contains 350,000 volumes, and has a valuable file of government docu- 

6. The GOLDEN EAGLE HOTEL, 627 K St., was the first 
headquarters of the Republican party in California. Just across the 
street, where a department store now stands, was the headquarters of 
the Democratic party. In the i86o's and i87o's there were pitched 
battles between the two, marked occasionally by showers of rotten eggs. 

and I Sts., has a monument to Theodore D. Judah at the main entrance, 
erected by employees of the railroad in 1930. It is a massive stone struc- 
ture adorned with a bas-relief of Judah, below which is inserted a 
wooden tie from the old Central Pacific Railroad. On the east wall 



6. The Golden Eagle Hotel 

7. The Southern Pacific 
Railroad Station 

8. The Tremont Hotel 

9. The Pony Express Building 

0. The Crocker Art Gallery 

1. Super's Fort 

2. State Fair Grounds 

3. The Site of Sutterville 

1. Capitol Park 

2. The State Office Building 
and the State Library 
and Court! Building 

3. The Memorial Audi- 

4. The City Plaza 

5. The Sacramento City 


of the waiting room is a mural by Arthur McQuarry depicting the 
breaking of ground for the first transcontinental railroad in 1863. 

8. The TREMONT HOTEL, 112 J St., one of Sacramento's first 
"luxury hotels," was built in the early 1 850*8. It is of brick, three 
stories in height, with tall, old-fashioned windows and a wooden 
awning over the sidewalk. It had one of the largest gambling rooms 
in the West, where an ante of $1,000 was required in poker games, 
and as much as $500,000 in gold dust or nuggets sometimes changed 
hands in a single game. 

9. The PONY EXPRESS MUSEUM (open 10-4 daily), 1015 
2nd St., a two-story brick structure with cement facing erected in 1860, 
was for eight months in 1860 and 1861 the office and relay station of the 
celebrated Pony Express from Sacramento to St. Joseph, Missouri. 
With the passing of the Pony Express, the building was bought by the 
Alta California Telegraph Company (later merged with the Western 
Union), which established the first link of the transcontinental tele- 
graph lines. 

10. The CROCKER ART GALLERY (open 10-5 daily in sum- 
mer, 10-4 daily in winter), SW. corner 2nd and O Sts., consists of two 
large Victorian buildings in landscaped grounds. The gallery, which 
mingles once fashionable mediocre canvases with genuine masterpieces^ 
was donated to the city in 1885 by the widow of Judge E. B. Crocker, 
brother of Charles Crocker of the "Big Four." Its collection includes 
studies by Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Rembrandt. In the 
late 1930*5 priceless drawings by Holbein, Diirer, Watteau, and other 
masters were found in the basement. Among the noted paintings in 
the gallery are Durer's St. Joseph and the Virgin Mary, Van Dyck's 
Christ Healing the Blind, Rubens' Portrait, Murillo's Gypsy, a Claude 
Lorraine Landscape, and Guido Reni's Entombment of Christ, cut 
from its frame and stolen in 1923, but returned by mail ten days later 
to a San Francisco newspaper. Crocker built the gallery as a separate 
building. The California Museum Association later bought the Crocker 
home next door and connected the two buildings. 

11. SUTTER'S FORT (open 8-4 weekdays, 10-4 Sun.), 26th and 
L Sts., is a complete restoration on the original site of Captain Sutter's 
ranch house, workshops, home, and fort, erected in 1839. Ivy-covered 
concrete walls, 18 feet high, surround the fort. Immediately inside 
the gate is the bell of Young America Engine Company No. 6, which 
rang for Lincoln's election and tolled for his assassination. Near the 
bell are the cannon that guarded the fort when it was first erected. 

The buildings are in a hollow square, one story high; the central 
museum, which was Sutter's quarters, is raised to two stories by a low 
raftered basement. The original adobe bricks are protected by stucco, 
but the covering is removed in places so they can be seen. The original 
pine door frames were from Fort Ross, which Sutter bought from the 
Russians when they left California in 1841; they were brought from 
Norway around the Horn. The basement and main floor are filled 
with relics of early California days furniture, clothes, printing presses, 


guns, letters from gold seekers to their families back home, mining pans 
and rockers, and saddles and spurs of Pony Express riders. 

On the low doors of the barrack-like side buildings are signs show- 
ing their original use granary, blacksmith shop, wine cellar, quarters 
of the Indian guard, and bunkrooms where immigrants were housed. In 
open sheds are prairie schooners, old fire engines, millstones, stage- 
coaches, and other reminders of the past. 

The Indian Museum, formerly in the capitol, is being removed to a 
building just outside Sutter's Fort. It contains some 40,000 articles 
illustrative of the life and crafts of California Indians. 

12. STATE FAIR GROUNDS, 2nd Ave. and Stockton Blvd., are 
the scene of the California's State Fair. The extensive grounds include 
a race track, where running and trotting races and livestock shows are 
held, pavilions, and free picnic grounds. 

The centrally placed HORTICULTURAL HALL, a buff brick, tile- 
roofed structure of modified Italian Renaissance design with a flat cen- 
tral dome, is used to display California fruits, grains, and other prod- 

13. The site of SUTTERVILLE, the town first projected by Cap- 
tain Sutter in 1844, is S. of William Land Park, across Sutterville Rd. 
The first brick house in California was built here in 1847. All that 
remains is the old Sutterville brewery, built in 1853, a square, two-story 
structure made of brick dug and baked in the immediate neighborhood. 
Here the first steam beer in Sacramento was made. The building was 
a place of refuge from floods before levees were built. 

San Diego 

Railroad Stations: Union Depot, Broadway and Kettner Blvd., for Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe Ry., and San Diego and Arizona Eastern Ry. 
Bus Stations: 120 W. Broadway for Greyhound, Inland Stages, and All Ameri- 
can Lines; 137 E. Broadway for National Trailways; 232 E. Broadway for 
Interstate Transit Lines and Union Pacific Stages. 

Airport: Lindbergh Field, Pacific Hwy. and Laurel St., 1.7 m., for United Air 
Lines and Western Air Express; taxi 35^ for passengers. 
Taxis: 20^ first % m., 10^ each additional % m. ; one to five passengers. 
Streetcars: Zone system, fare 5$ and 10$ ; four 10^ tokens for 30^ ; interurban 
to La Jolla, 50$ round trip, 35^ one way. Weekly urban and interurban passes 
$i to $1.75. 

Ferry: Coronado Ferry Slip, S. end of Pacific Blvd.; 20^ for automobile, 5^ 
per passenger. 

Piers: Bay tours covering harbor, Star & Crescent Pier, W. end of Broadway, 
10 and 2 daily, $i, children 50^. Short bay trips from United Water Taxi Pier, 
1050 Harbor St., 6 a.m.-i2 p.m. daily, every 20 min., 25^. To visit naval 
vessels in harbor, take United Water Taxi, 25^, or ships' shore boats, free; 
visiting days 1-4 Sun. and holidays. 

Accommodations: 148 hotels, rates higher in winter and spring; auto camps 
and trailer courts in environs. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 499 W. Broadway; Plaza Infor- 
mation Booth, 3rd and Broadway. 

Radio Stations: KFSD (600 kc.), KGB (1330 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Savoy Theater, 236 C St., road shows; 

Ford Music Bowl, E. and W. Palisades Drives, Balboa Park, concerts; 20 

motion picture houses. 

Golf: Municipal Golf Course, Pershing Drive, Balboa Park, 18 holes, 50^ 

weekdays, 75^ Sat. afternoon and Sun.; 9-hole course, 25$ per round. 

Tennis: Municipal courts, Balboa Park, 10 courts, free, several lighted; 

Memorial Park, 28th St. and Logan Ave., 4 courts; North Park, Idaho St. and 

Lincoln Ave., 4 courts, lighted, free. 

Swimming: Municipal pool, Balboa Park, open 10-10 daily, May i5-Sept. 15, 

25$, suit and towels 10^, children under 18, 10$. Ocean Beach, open year 

round, 10-10 Mon.-Fri., 10-6 Sat., lifeguards; 25$, suit and towels 10^, children 

15^, adults in bathing suits 15$. Mission Beach Natatorium, Mission Beach, 

open daily 10-10, Fourth of July to Labor Day, lifeguards; 35^, with suit and 

towels 50^, children 15^; Pacific Beach, La Jolla; Tent City Beach, Coronado. 

Riding: Bridle trails in Balboa Park; Silver Strand, Coronado; and Point 

Loma. Horse hire 75$-$!. 50 an hour. 

Boating: Power boats, W. end of Broadway, $2 an hour up; 3O-passenger 

boats $5 an hour. Sailboats and rowboats, Mission Bay, 25$ an hour up; 

Coronado Boathouse, Glorietta Bay, 75^-$! an hour. 

Fishing: Surf, pier, and barge; deep-sea; fresh-water, lakes in back country, 

May i-Oct. 31. 



For further information regarding this city, see SAN 
DIEGO: A CALIFORNIA CITY, another of the Ameri- 
can Guide Series, published 1937 by the San Diego 
Historical Society. 

SAN DIEGO (0-822 alt., 147,995 pop.), the oldest Spanish settle- 
ment in California, is in the extreme lower left-hand corner of the 
United States. Although only 16 miles north of the Mexican bound- 
ary, it is completely American. Its landlocked natural harbor is head- 
quarters for the Eleventh Naval District, for marine and coast guard 
bases, and home port for a fleet of tuna clippers and fishing smacks 
manned by Portuguese and Italian fishermen. 

The city has much of the easygoing spirit of Spanish days, and peo- 
ple dress and live for comfort. Life moves at a modulated pace, par- 
ticularly because of the large number of retired and elderly persons. 
The downtown area, dominated by a group of tall buildings, is small 
for a city of this size; Broadway, the main artery, runs from the water- 
front due east and divides the city into distinct sections. Although 
liners no longer call at the port Max Miller wrote of in / Cover the 
Waterfront, freighters and tramp steamers dock here regularly. Tuna 
clippers bring in big hauls of huge fish, and sport fishing parties return 
with catches of yellowtail, barracuda, and swordfish. Navy shoreboats 
run between ships at anchor and the piers. 

South of Broadway many plain buildings of the iSyo's and ginger- 
bread structures of the 1890*8 are still in use. Markets and grocery 
stores along Twelfth Avenue display fruit and vegetables in pyramids 
and cascades. Third, Fourth, and Fifth Avenues have taverns with 
three-piece jazz bands, shooting galleries, inexpensive movies, hambur- 
ger stands, pawn shops, and small hotels. 

Balboa Park's giant green square begins just north of the business 
district. North and northwest of the park are the newer residential 
districts, and to the west is Middletown, a narrow segment extending 
from the bay to the low hills, occupied by Italian fishermen and airplane 
factory employees. Old Town, site of the original Spanish settlement, 
is northwest of Middletown. It has some fine adobe buildings, fringed 
with rose bushes and flowers, but most of the land is occupied by small 
houses and auto courts. 

Most of San Diego's inhabitants, apart from the shifting Navy per- 
sonnel, are immigrants or descendants of immigrants from the East and 
Middle West. Many are retired ; ten percent of all retired U. S. Navy 
officers live in San Diego. 

In the Logan Heights district, south and east of downtown along 
the curved southern shore, sprawl San Diego's Mexican and Negro 
communities, with Mexican restaurants vending tamales and tacos, and 
with chicken palaces and big ovens where Negroes barbecue meat. 
About 10,000 Mexicans, most of them clinging to their own language 


and customs, live in this district; they are employed mainly as day 
laborers and cannery workers. The 4,500 Negroes are mostly manual 
or domestic workers. The Japanese colony, of about 1,000 persons, is 
in this area also; some in huts on stilts over the water. About 5,000 
Portuguese fisherman, who live on the bay side of Point Loma, form a 
distinct group preserving its own customs. Italian fishermen mingle 
more generally with the community. 

The site of San Diego was visited in 1539 by Father Marcos and his 
followers, from the desert side, in their search for the "Seven Cities 
of Cibola"; in 1542 by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese explorer 
in the service of Spain, who spent six days in the harbor ; and sixty years 
later by Sebastian Vizaino, merchant navigator charting the coast for 

In 1769 Governor Portola, with Franciscan friars and soldiers, 
established a mission and presidio here. The English sloop Discovery, 
engaged in scientific research, visited San Diego in 1793, and in 1803 
the Yankee-owned Lelia Byrd, caught while smuggling otter skins, 
fought a cannon duel with the battery of Ballast Point. San Diego 
became the center of the coastal hide trade, and was organized in 1834 
as a pueblo. By 1838 the population had decreased and San Diego 
became a department of Los Angeles. 

During the Mexican regime, San Diego took on more color. "The 
beautiful senoritas danced their picturesque dances at the balls which 
followed bull-fights and cock-fights." Many Spanish families, on bad 
terms with the Mexican governor, assisted the Americans in their con- 
quest. After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the town came peace- 
fully under American rule. 

In 1850 the present Old Town was incorporated as a city. The site 
of the present city was called New Town, or "Davis's Folly" for Wil- 
liam Heath Davis, who first built there. Alonzo E. Horton, for whom 
New Town was named "Horton's Addition," profited more than he. 
From 1867 to 1872 New Town grew steadily; then a fire wiped out 
Old Town's business district, and New Town became the city's center. 

In 1885 the Santa Fe Railroad laid tracks into San Diego and made 
it a transcontinental terminus. Two years later it had 40,000 residents, 
but the boom collapsed, and by 1890 there were only 17,000. Since 
1910 its population has doubled about every decade. 

San Diego's 335 factories are mostly small enterprises; Consolidated 
Aircraft is the only large-scale industrial plant. Fishing and canning 
are basic sources of income. A large lumber mill handles timber rafted 
in from the Northwest. 

San Diego was an open-shop city until the strong wave of unioni- 
zation in the early thirties; during the bitter "Free Speech Fight" of 
1912 radical headquarters were raided and radicals ordered out of 

Depressions have touched lightly on San Diego. Establishment of 
Army and Navy bases during the World War, completion of the San 
Diego and Arizona Eastern Railway in 1919, and the expositions of 


1915-16 and 1935-36 have contributed to its prosperity. The outdoors, 
however, is San Diego's chief commodity, and tourists are its best cus- 

Music is enthusiastically supported by local citizens. Performances 
by the San Diego Civic Symphony Orchestra and the Federal Music 
Project are well attended, and the service bands conduct free weekly 
programs. The San Diego open forum is well known on the West 


i. BALBOA PARK, entrance Laurel St. and Sixth Ave., 1,400 
acres in area, is the cultural and recreational center of San Diego. El 
Prado (the public walk), a continuation of Laurel Street, runs west to 
east through the landscaped area and is lined with palaces of two exposi- 
tions, galleries, museums, and gardens. 

The eastern section of the park, cut by canyons and covered with 
chaparral, contains the municipal swimming pool, tennis courts, golf 
course, Naval Hospital, city stadium, and San Diego High School. 

(See map for location of lettered points of interest.) 

A. CABRILLO BRIDGE, over Cabrillo Canyon, 450 feet long and no 
feet high, is a concrete cantilever type span, with seven graceful arches. 

B. The CALIFORNIA BUILDING (open 10-4:30 Tues.-Sat., 1-4:30 
Sun.), a cream colored concrete structure designed by Bertram Goodhue in 
the form of a Greek cross, is richly ornamented in the Spanish Churriguer- 
esque style, and houses the San Diego Museum and Archaeological Institute, 
the Hall of Anthropology, scientific library, the Chapel of St. Francis, and 
the California Tower. The Quadrangle Building, with an ornamented 
octagonal dome, is adorned with figures of Spanish explorers and Francis- 
can monks. The Mayan, Aztec, and Indian exhibits in the Museum include 
plaster casts, weapons, and handicrafts. The Hall of Anthropology has a 
permanent exhibit of sculptures illustrating the racial history of mankind. 

C. The ALCAZAR GARDEN, built for the fair of 1915, has Moorish 
fountains in blue, green, and yellow tile, and an ornamental gateway. 

A graveled path leads across Palm Canyon to other exposition buildings 
in Spanish and Mayan styles. The PACIFIC RELATIONS GROUP (open 
Sun.) is a cluster of small Spanish style houses around a pond, in which 
13 national groups display furnishings and handicrafts. 

D. The FORD BUILDING (not open), a modern structure designed by 
Walter Teague, is to be a permanent museum of mechanical development. 

The FEDERAL BUILDING (not open), E. Palisades Drive, a huge 
windowless concrete structure, will be used as a city auditorium. 

E. The SPRECKELS ORGAN PAVILION (open: organ recitals four 
variable days a 'week, 2 p.m.], is an open-air amphitheater, having one of 
the world's largest outdoor organs. 

F. The FINE ARTS GALLERY OF SAN DIEGO (open 10-4 weekdays, 
1-5 Sun.; free except Mon. adm. 25$), a Spanish Renaissance building 
erected in 1925, has paintings valued at more than $1,000,000. Notable 
exhibits include laces, ceramics, Oriental costumes, and ivories. Among the 
art treasures are four rare Flemish Renaissance tapestries, a Spanish altar- 
piece of St. John, El Greco's St. Francis, and canvases by Murillo, Sorolla, 
Rubens, Goya, Zurbaran, Corot, and Zuloaga. Among the moderns are 
Matisse, Henri, and Bellows. 

ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN (open 8-5 daily; adults 25$, children under 
16 free), Avenida de Espana, has the first two mountain gorillas in cap- 



1. Balboa Park 

2. Star of India 

3. The Civic Center 

4. Lindbergh Field 

5. Old Town Plaza 

6. Presidio Hill Park 




tivity (gifts of Martin and Osa Johnson). Snakes are kept in an arcaded 
open-air house, and trained seals are shown in an amphitheater. 

G. MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY (open 9-5 daily] is designed 
in the Spanish Renaissance style. On the ground floor are exhibits of dino- 
saur fossils, minerals, reptiles, and fish. The Stephens collection of mounted 
birds and mammals, and the Ingersoll collection of birds' nests and eggs 
are on the second floor. The top floor has exhibits of fossils, seashells, 
corals, insects, and 1,200 water colors of flowers. 

H. THE SPANISH VILLAGE ART CENTER (open 9-4 daily}, con- 
tains workshops of artists in Spanish colonial cottages. Art work is for sale, 
and there is a puppet show and a cafe. 

2. STAR OF INDIA (opens 8-5 daily, adm. ioj), foot of Second 
Ave., a full-rigged ship, is a maritime museum. The vessel, built on the 
Isle of Man in 1863, carried emigrants between England and New 
Zealand for 30 years. 

3. The CIVIC CENTER, Pacific Highway between Ash and Grape 
Sts., overlooking the bay, is a modern office building with a four-story 
central section and set-back tower. It was completed in 1938 and houses 
municipal offices. 

4. LINDBERGH FIELD, Pacific Highway between Laurel and 
Sassafras Sts., is a 28y-acre airport dredged from the bay, with six 
hangars and an administration building. It was named to commem- 
orate Lindbergh's flight to Paris in a San Diego-made plane the Spirit 
of St. Louis, though he actually took off for the East from North 

5. OLD TOWN PLAZA, Calhoun and Wallace Sts., original 
center of town, retains some of its early Spanish flavor, and around it 
are several houses of interest. 

CASA DE CARRILLO (open 8-5:30 daily), 4136 Wallace St., is a re- 
stored box-like adobe, built about 1820. 

CASA DE BANDINI (private), 2660 Calhoun St., is a two-story adobe 
with an overhanging balcony. Originally one story, it was built in 1829 
by Juan Bandini and enlarged in 1869. Bandini's daughters made the 
American flag that Lt. Stephen C. Rowan raised on the plaza in 1846. 
Commodore Robert Stockton made his headquarters here in 1846-47, and 
Kit Carson brought news to this house of Gen. Stephen W. Kearny's 
plight at the battle of San Pasqual. 

CASA DE ESTUDILLO (open 8:30-5:30 daily, adm. 10$), Mason St. 
between Calhoun St. and San Diego Ave., is known as Ramona's Marriage 
Place. Built about 1825 and restored in 1910, it is now a museum of 
Spanish-California days. Helen Hunt Jackson used this house as a back- 
ground in her novel, Ramona, though it had no connection with the proto- 
types of her hero and heroine. 

The WHALEY HOUSE (private), NE. corner San Diego Ave. and 
Harney St., was built in 1856 by Thomas Whaley, of bricks he himself 
manufactured and of plaster from seashells. 

ADOBE CHAPEL, Conde St. between San Diego Ave. and Congress St., 
a restored light yellow adobe building with low lean-to wings forming a 
cruciform plan, was the original Church of the Immaculate Conception. 
Built about 1850, it was consecrated in 1858. 

the park entrance, was named for Commodore Stockton, who occupied it 


in 1846. The SERRA MUSEUM (open 10-5 Tue$.~$at. t 2-5 Sun.), 
2727 Presidio Drive, of Spanish mission architecture, exhibits local his- 
torical relics. On the river flats below the hill stands the SERRA PALM, 
supposedly planted in 1769. EL PRESIDIO REAL (the royal garrison), 
bisected by Presidio Drive, the area of the original settlement in 1769, 
is the oldest part of San Diego. 


Torrey Pines Mesa, rare trees, 15.9 m.; Mission San Luis Rey, 41.1 m.; 
(see TOUR 2d}. Palomar Observatory, 2oo-inch telescope, 41.7 m. (see 
TOUR 6e). Mount Helix, 12.8 m. (see TOUR 14b). 



San Francisco 

Railroad Stations: 3rd and Townsend Sts. and Ferry Bldg., foot of Market St., 
for Southern Pacific R.R.; by bus from 44 4th St. for Atchison, Topeka and 
Santa Fe Ry.; Ferry Bldg. for Pacific R.R. and Northwestern Pacific R.R.; 
Bay Bridge Terminal, ist and Mission Sts., for Sacramento Northern R.R. 
Bus Stations: 75 Fifth St. for Pacific Greyhound Lines; 44 Fourth St. for Santa 
Fe and Burlington Trailways, Napa Valley Bus Co., Sacramento Northern, 
Key System, and River Auto Stages; 781 Market St. for Dollar Stages and the 
Gray Line; 40 Eddy St. for all American Bus Lines and Airline Bus Co. 
Airport: San Francisco Municipal Airport (Mills Field) 13 m. S. on US 101, 
for United Airlines, Transcontinental & Western Air, Inc.; Treasure Island 
for Pan American Airways; taxi to San Francisco Airport, flat rate from 
downtown business district, $3 one way, $5 round trip, time 25 min. 
Taxis: 25^ first % m., 10^ each additional % m. 

Streetcars and Busses: Fares 5^ and 7^, free transfers; cable railroad fare 5^, 
free transfers; interurban cars serving Peninsula to San Mateo, fare 27^, 
round trip 47^; interurban cars serving Eastbay, fare 21$, round trip 42^. 
Ferries: Ferry Bldg., foot of Market St. for Southern Pacific ferries to Eastbay, 
pedestrians 21^, automobiles 30^ one way, round trip 50^ (i to 5 passengers); 
for Key Route System ferries to Treasure Island, pedestrians only, ictf; for 
Northwestern Pacific ferries to Sausalito, pedestrians only, 15^, round trip 25^. 
Bridges: San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge approaches: 5th and Bryant Sts., 
and Fremont and Harrison Sts.; toll 50^ (i to 5 passengers), 5^ for each 
additional passenger. Golden Gate Bridge approaches: Marina Blvd. and 
Baker St., and Lombard and Broderick Sts.; toll 50^ (i to 5 passengers), 5^ 
for each additional passenger; pedestrians 10$ within turnstiles. 
Piers: Embarcadero, foot of Market St. Coastwise passage in occasional 
freighters only. For travel to East Coast, outlying possessions, and foreign 
countries consult telephone directory or travel bureaus. 

Traffic Regulations: 20 m.p.h. in business district; 25 m.p.h. in residential dis- 
trict; no U-turn in business district; right turn on red when not interfering 
with pedestrians, except in business district. No daytime parking on Market St. 

Accommodations: 1,439 hotels, auto and trailer camps in environs. 

Information Service: California State Chamber of Commerce, 356 Bush St.; 
California Automobile Association (A.A.A.), 150 Van Ness Ave. ; San Fran- 
cisco Chamber of Commerce, 333 Pine St.; National Auto Club, 228 Pine St., 
U.S. Forest Service, 760 Market St. 

Radio Stations: KSFO (560 kc.), KFRC (610 kc.), KPO (680 kc.), KGO 
(790 kc.), KROW (930 kc.), KJBS (1070 kc.), KYA (1230 kc.), KSAN 
(1420 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Three legitimate theaters regularly 
showing; numerous little theaters; 80 motion picture houses. 
Concert Halls: War Memorial Opera House, Van Ness Ave. and Grove St.; 
Veterans* Auditorium, Van Ness Ave. and McAllister St.; Civic Auditorium, 
Grove St. between Polk and Larkin Sts.; Scottish Rite Auditorium, Van Ness 
Ave. and Sutter St.; Community Playhouse, 609 Sutler St.; Dreamland Audi- 
torium, Steiner and Post Sts. 



Athletics: Kezar Stadium, Frederick St. between Willard St. and Arguello 
Blvd.; Kezar Pavilion, Stanyan St., near Frederick (SE. corner of Golden Gate 
Park); Ewing Field, Masonic Ave. between Geary and Turk Sts. ; Roberts 
Field, i5th and Valencia Sts.; Seals' Stadium, i6th and Bryant Sts. (Pacific 
Coast League baseball). 

Golf: Harding Park Municipal Golf Course, 36th Ave. at Sunset Blvd., 18 
holes, 75^ weekdays, $i Sat., Sun., holidays; monthly ticket $3, also 6-hole 
practice course. Lincoln Park Municipal Golf Links, 33rd Ave. and Clement 
St., 18 holes, 50^ weekdays, 75$ Sat., Sun., holidays; monthly ticket $2. Ingle- 
side Public Golf Course, Junipero Serra Blvd. and igth Ave., 18 holes, 75$ 
weekdays, $1.25 Sat., Sun., holidays, except Sat. before n, 75$, after 4, 50$; 
monthly $3. 

Tennis: Municipal courts at 44 recreation centers. Among them are: Golden 
Gate Park Courts (21) free. Excelsior Courts (i), Russian and Madrid Sts.; 
Folsom Courts (2), 2ist and Folsom Sts.; Margaret S. Hayward Courts (4), 
Golden Gate Ave. and Laguna St.; North Beach Courts (2), Lombard and 
Mason Sts., all lighted, free. Palace of Fine Arts Courts (18), foot of Lyon 
St., lighted, $i per hour per court. 

Swimming: Fleishhacker Pool, Sloat Blvd. and Great Highway, heated outdoor 
pool open 8-5, Apr. i-Nov. 15, children 15^, adults 25$ (including locker, suit, 
towel), private dressing rooms 40^. Mission Pool, ipth and Angelica Sts., 
municipal outdoor pool for children 18 years and under, open 10-4, adm. 5$ 
(including suit, towel); girls Mon., Wed., Fri. ; boys Tues., Thurs., Sat., Sun.; 
North Beach Pool, Lombard and Mason Sts., municipal outdoor pool for chil- 
dren 18 years and under, open 10-4, adm. 5$ (including suit, towel) ; girls 
Tues., Thurs., Sat.; boys Mon., Wed., Fri., Sun. 

Riding: Fourteen miles of bridle paths in Golden Gate Park; 25 miles of paths 
along Funston Ave., in the Presidio, and along beach. Average charge for 
horses $1.50 first hour, 75$ each additional hour. 

Horse Racing: Golden Gate Park Stadium (opposite 36th Ave.), occasional 
harness races on Y^ mile track. 

Polo: Golden Gate Park Stadium, games nearly every Sun. in fall and spring. 
Yachting: Municipal Yacht Harbor, Marina Blvd. between Scott and Baker 
Sts.; Aquatic Park Harbor, foot of Polk St. 

Fishing: Municipal Pier at Aquatic Park, N. end of Van Ness Ave.; free. 
Lake Merced; free. 

Annual Events: Shrine East-West football game, Kezar Stadium, Jan. i; 
Chinese New Year celebration, one week between Jan. 2o-Feb. 20; Parilia. 
Artists' ball, Feb.; National Open Matchplay golf championship, Feb.-Mar. ; 
Army Day, Apr. 2; Livestock and Baby Beef Show, first and second weeks in 
Apr.; California Spring Blossom and Wildflower Show, Apr.; Spring Yachting 
Regatta, fourth week in Apr. ; Children's Festival, Golden Gate Park, May i ; 
Rowing Regatta, July 4; Harbor Day, third week in Aug.; Dahlia Show, Aug.; 
Columbus Day Festival, Oct. 12; International Livestock Exposition, fourth 
week in Oct. ; Pacific Auto Show, Civic Auditorium, Oct. 3<>-Nov. 6 ; Opera 
Season, War Memorial Opera House, Nov.-Dec.; Grand National Livestock 
Exposition, Nov. zy-Dec. 5; Symphony Season, War Memorial Opera House, 

SAN FRANCISCO (6 to 956 alt., 634,394 pop.), born of the meeting 
of sea captains and gold seekers, spills over its many hills three times 
Rome's seven at the tip of a peninsula that walls the narrow channel 
of the Golden Gate through which the tides of the Pacific pour into 
San Francisco Bay. The far-flung causeways of the San Francisco- 
Oakland Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge across the strait link 
it with the mainlands opposite. Behind the city the San Bruno Hills 
roll away to the south. 


Once a barren stretch of sand dunes and rocky hills, covered with 
brush, broken here and there by wooded valleys, dotted with swamps 
and lagoons, the site of the present city is in large part man-made. 
Smaller hills have been leveled ; valleys, tidal marshes, and lagoons have 
been filled in. Mission Swamp was drained to provide industrial sites. 
Only the line of cliffs along the Pacific, frequented by sea gulls and 
sea lions, remains almost as it was. 

Approached from the bay, San Francisco appears as a serried skyline 
of hills and tall buildings. In the foreground is the sweeping arc of 
the waterfront, with piers jutting out from the Embarcadero like cogs 
on a giant wheel. High above the broad Embarcadero rises the clock 
tower of the Ferry Building, from which Market Street runs diagon- 
ally southwest, cutting the city in half. A street of large department 
stores, banks, public buildings, and business houses; of pageants and 
parades; of bustling activity, hurrying throngs, and the traffic din of 
automobiles and streetcars on four sets of tracks Market Street is at 
once San Francisco's Broadway and Fifth Avenue. On both sides rise 
clusters of skyscrapers, built back from the bay on steep slopes office 
buildings, hotels, apartment houses, at night alive with sparkling lights. 

In downtown San Francisco, compact and accessible, the shopping 
district centers on Union Square, surrounded by department stores, 
smart women's shops, furriers, fine book stores, theaters, hotels, and 
specialty shops. Here are many of the better apartment houses in this 
city of apartment houses, whole blocks consisting of unbroken rows of 
these super-tenements. Along the sidewalks downtown ar,e numerous 
flower stalls at which the passerby can inexpensively have his choice of 
carnations, chrysanthemums, roses, and a wide variety of blossoms every 
month in the year. 

Of the city's many hills three of the highest are in the northeastern 
section. Telegraph Hill rises abruptly from the bay shore to a height 
of 300 feet; overlooking the bay, the Golden Gate, and farther 
stretches of water, it was long used as a signal tower to inform the 
town of approaching ships. Just westward is Russian Hill, near the 
crest of which in early days was a burying ground for Russian sailors. 
The hills are now covered with residences, apartment houses, and 
studios. Many of the city's artists and writers live in this section. 
Dropping off to the south of Russian Hill is Nob Hill, now clotted with 
towering hotels and apartment houses, once resplendent with the marble 
and stone castles of the Comstock millionaires, derisively titled "Na- 
bobs" by the townsfolk; hence the name of the hill. 

The city's hills account for the continued use of cable cars, which, 
as they slowly crawl up and down the heights, amaze and amuse the 
newcomer. At their terminals some of the cars are turned around by 
hand on a turntable for their return trip. Many San Franciscans de- 
pend on these little old-fashioned cars every day, and while they are 
long since used to them, delight in them quite as much as the stranger. 

South of Market ("south of the slot," as the phrase went when 
cable cars were still plying Market Street) is the Mission district, one 


of the oldest and most densely populated in the city. With a main 
street of the same name, it is almost a city in itself, homogeneous in 
appearance and tone, with marked characteristics of its own; its resi- 
dents, so some say, can be identified by their slightly different accent. 
Between the Mission and the bay lies the old Potrero district, now 
largely industrial; to the south stretch more miles of residential 

The geographical center of San Francisco is Twin Peaks, two hills 
of nearly equal height, offering one of the best views of the city, bay, 
and surrounding country. Southwest is Mount Davidson, the highest 
elevation in San Francisco. The city's westward expansion has re- 
sulted in new residential developments in this section; even the smaller 
houses here are set in lawns or colorful gardens. Along the slopes of 
Mount Davidson, and in such rolling areas as St. Francis Wood and 
Ingleside Terrace, are many more palatial residences on landscaped 

Golden Gate Park, three quarters of a mile wide, extends four miles 
to the ocean, dividing the two largest residential sections of the city: 
the Richmond district to the north, the newer Sunset-Parkside district 
to the south, not many years ago a waste of sand dunes, now almost 
solidly built up. The street pattern of short blocks east and west and 
long blocks north and south has stimulated the building of almost iden- 
tical houses in long rows; the houses built wall to wall, with a raised 
basement story and garage at the street level, crowd the sidewalk. 

From the days of '49 San Francisco has been a great banking center, 
the largest west of Chicago. But since the first white man came, the 
city's prosperity has been founded on its maritime trade. San Fran- 
cisco, a port of entry since 1849, possesses one of the finest land-locked 
harbors in the world, 3 to 12 miles wide, with 50 miles of frontage 
and 15 miles of wharfage. It pulsates with activity as ships from the 
Orient and the South Seas disgorge pungent and aromatic cargoes, and 
freighters from the East Coast creakily unload steel and heavy crates 
of machinery. A luxury liner disembarks her fashionable cargo as a 
tramp steams west through the Golden Gate, bound for strange places 
on the seven seas. Small but self-assertive tugs toot their shrill whistles 
as they run in and out among the ferries plying to Oakland and other 
cities; occasionally a gray man-of-war rides lazily at anchor in the blue 

Naturally, this direct and continuous contact with the world has 
created a cosmopolitan city. Foreign sailors deserting ship during the 
gold rush, the influx of Orientals, successive waves of European immi- 
gration, have made San Francisco a city of many races and tongues. 

The Chinese are the predominant minority group, although more 
than fifty percent of them are native-born. In San Francisco's China- 
town, the largest Chinese settlement outside the Orient, pagoda roofs 
and iron-grilled balconies appear side by side with American tin roofs 
and straight fronts; a Chinese graduate of an American medical school 
practices modern surgery in competition with a native herb doctor ; men 


and women in the dress of old China rub elbows with those frantically 
following the latest occidental fashions. The old Chinatown of 
brothels, opium dens, gambling houses, and sluffls was destroyed by the 
great fire of 1906. Today, it is an orderly sect/oh, where old men 
quietly read the latest news bulletins, laboriously printed by hand in 
Chinese word-signs. It is a section of restaurants catering to those who 
know and enjoy Chinese cuisine; of shops and bazaars selling porcelains, 
lacquer- work, silks, jewelry, and trinkets of every kind; of Chinese 
theaters and joss-houses, or temples, in which the Chinese worship as 
their ancestors have for thousands of years. Chinatown is at its best 
during the Chinese New Year celebration; the streets are lined with 
flower stands, the shrines in every shop are lavishly decorated, and a 
spirit of goodwill and revelry prevails. 

The Latin Quarter, a densely populated area around Telegraph 
Hill, is a gourmet's paradise. Of the many nationalities in the district 
the Italians are the most numerous, although there is a generous sprinkl- 
ing of French, Spanish, and Portuguese. la some blocks not a single 
sign is written or printed in English. To this section, dotted with res- 
taurants, San Franciscans turn for a variety of foods, for embedded in 
the local mores is the custom of dining out. In one cafe Italian 
ravioli and fritto misto are served ; in another, Mexican chile con carne 
and chile rellena; in a third, French bouillabaisse and escargots. The 
food, as a rule, is well cooked, and except for a few more elaborate cafes 
and hotels, inexpensive. 

The San Francisco of the old vice-ridden Barbary Coast days is 
gone, but the traditions established by hordes of happy-go-lucky's miners, 
gamblers, adventurers of all kinds, epicures, and others of the city's first 
American population have not been entirely obliterated. Those were 
the days of laissez-faire, of easy-come-easy-go, of good-natured toler- 
ance, not unnatural in a city where fortunes were made and lost over- 
night, where a bartender one day was a nabob the next, where today's 
bonanza king was tomorrow's roustabout. Here, as in few cities, side 
streets downtown were named for reigning belles among the filles de 
joie. San Francisco has always cherished its eccentrics; it has been 
inclined to regard graft with a tolerant eye; it has always prided itself 
on the international flavor of its food and drink, and its cosmo- 
politan tastes in feminine beauty; it has always been a "good" town 
for the actor and the musician. 

The first men known to have visited the site of San Francisco were 
Tamal Indians from present Marin County, north of the Gate, who 
braved treacherous bay tides in frail canoes to obtain salt in the marshes 
here. For years the Spanish sought to find a good harbor in this 
region to serve as a stop on the long voyage from Mexico to the Philip- 
pines, but three expeditions between 1542 and 1602 failed of their pur- 
pose. A century and a half passed before the great harbor here was 
discovered, quite by accident, and not by sea but by land, when in 1769 
an expedition was led northward from San Diego by Don Caspar de 
Portola. A reconnoitering party was detached under the command of 


Sgt. Jose Ortega, who with his handful of men reached the shores of 
San Francisco Bay in November, 1769. 

Settlement began seven years later when Don Juan Bautista de 
Anza, with his "army" of 30 soldiers and their families, marched some 
2OO colonists overland to the tip of the peninsula, where they began 
erecting shelters in 1776. A presidio and a mission were immediately 
laid out; the latter was established by Father Junipero Serra and named 
San Francisco de Asis, later known as Mission Dolores. 

For seventy years the new colony of Yerba Buena was no more than 
an isolated outpost, occupied largely by the military. Its few civilians 
and priests carried on sporadic trade in tallow and hides, sea otter and 
seal pelts. For the most part they lived in tents and adobe huts. The 
first house, it appears, was erected in 1835 by an Englishman, Capt. 
William A. Richardson, for whom Richardson's Bay was named. Jacob 
Primer Leese, an American, opened the first store in the following 
year; Jean Vioget, a Swiss, made the first attempt to lay out streets 
in the straggling settlement, which had been named Yerba Buena (good 
herb), for a grass that grew thickly on the sand dunes. 

By 1840 the Spanish- Americans of Yerba Buena were threatened 
with foreign invasion by Anglo-Americans from the East. In July, 
1846, within three months of the outbreak of the Mexican War, Capt. 
John B. Montgomery landed marines from the Portsmouth on the 
plaza, hoisted the Stars and Stripes, and took possession of the town 
in the name of the United States. Soon the plaza was Portsmouth 
Square ; the street passing along it was rechristened in honor of Captain 
Montgomery; and Yerba Buena became San Francisco. 

Some 20 nationalities and races were represented in the population of 
the settlement when, in 1846, a group of thrifty and energetic Mormon 
artisans arrived under the leadership of Samuel Brannan, who had tried 
unsuccessfully to induce Brigham Young to abandon Utah and settle 
in California. For twenty years Brannan was a powerful figure in San 
Francisco; in January, 1847, he established its first newspaper, the 
California Star, and later was the principal organizer of the first vigi- 
lantes. Brannan and Brigham Young continually bickered over the dis- 
position of tithes collected by Brannan from the Mormons in California ; 
on several occasions Young sent his Destroying Angels to seize them by 
force, but they were never successful. Although he amassed a fortune, 
Brannan became a drunkard and died in poverty. 

When news reached San Francisco that on January 24, 1848, James 
W. Marshall had picked up a gold nugget on the South Fork of the 
American River, its first effect was to depopulate the town. Almost 
every able-bodied man hurried off to the diggings. Ships lay abandoned 
in the harbor as crews and, in some cases, their officers turned from the 
sea to dig feverishly for gold. Communications were slow, and it was 
autumn before the East had first account of the discovery. The news 
trickled north, south, and into the Middle West, setting thousands of 
fortune-seekers in motion toward the Golden Gate, augmented by 
throngs from Central and South American countries. By 1850 the city 


had a more or less settled population of almost 25,000, of every race, 
creed, and color. Those that remained in San Francisco probably 
profited more than miners at the diggings. Lodgings were scarce ; rooms 
rented from $200 to $300 a month ; washing cost $20 for a dozen pieces ; 
an apple brought $5, an egg $i, a loaf of bread 75^. Many huge for- 
tunes had their inception in San Francisco during this era of profiteering. 
In the last nine months of 1849, 549 vessels dropped anchor. 

Portsmouth Square became the city's amusement center. In the 
streets spreading fanwise from it, dozens of gambling houses opened, 
some in lean-tos or tents. In the early days of the rush women were so 
few that the passage of one down the street emptied the ubiquitous 
saloons and gambling dens. Theatrical performances and other amuse- 
ments were rare; gambling and drinking were the sole diversions left 
to the miners. 

Six great fires devastated the town within four years; one in 1850 
consumed 18 blocks of frame houses in 10 hours. Necessity directed 
attention to fireproofing of buildings and paving of streets, for in the 
rainy season the latter were quagmires into which horses, wagons and 
fire engines sank. 

After the fires came the days of vice and extensive gambling. Dozens 
of saloons studded Portsmouth Square and environs, each a gambling 
hall and a recruiting station for the brothels of the world-notorious 
Barbary Coast on Pacific Street, from Sansome Street to Grant Avenue. 
This area was closed in 1917, but many of the old frame buildings still 
bear signs of their boisterous heyday "Spider Kelly Presents Texas 
Tommy" "Purcell's Liveliest Colored Show in Town" "No Minors 
Allowed." In dark corners of the city were hideouts of such vicious 
gangs as "The Hounds" and "The Sydney Ducks," the latter composed 
largely of escaped convicts from Botany Bay, Australia. These gangs 
preyed on other thugs and respectable citizens without discrimination, 
entering business places and helping themselves, invading the Chinese 
and foreign sections and clubbing the residents unmercifully. Their 
leaders were allied with powerful politicians, and they generally escaped 

The city might smile at the gambling and the Barbary Coast, but it 
could not condone gangsterism married to crooked politics. The first 
Vigilance Committee was formed in June, 1851, an organization that 
at the height of its influence had several thousand members, who took 
the law into their hands, hanged the worst offenders, and inspired a 
general exodus among the others. A grand jury indicted nine of the 
vigilantes, but they stood high among the "respectables" and the serious 
charges against them were dropped. During the relatively peaceful 
years between 1852 and 1854 the Committee disbanded. 

By the summer of 1855 the city was again swarming with swindlers, 
thieves, highwaymen, and thugs. A few months later U. S. Marshal 
George W. H. Richardson was shot and killed by Charles Cora, an 
Italian gambler, with powerful political supporters. A demand for his 
immediate trial and conviction was led by thundering editorials in the 


Bulletin, established in October, 1855, under the editorship of James 
King of William, who signed his name thus to distinguish himself from 
other James Kings. He was bitterly opposed by James Casey, rival 
editor and local politician, who, exhausting his verbal weapons, shot 
King down as he emerged from the office of the Bulletin in May, 1856. 
Confident of protection, Casey immediately gave himself up to the 

A crowd began to collect at the police station, summoned by the 
tolling of a fire bell. As it grew, confederates rushed Casey to the 
county jail, where a large force of armed deputies and militia was mus- 
tered to defend him from the mob. Before nightfall a new Vigilance 
Committee was begun, and during the night it enrolled some 2,000 
members, all sworn to absolute secrecy, under the leadership of William 
T. Coleman and other members of the Vigilance Committee of 1851. 
An executive committee of thirty-three was formed; all vigilantes, soon 
numbering almost 10,000, were equipped with arms and organized into 
military companies ; headquarters were established in a mercantile build- 
ing on Sacramento Street, which was fortified with cannon as "Fort 
Gunnybags." Unlike its predecessor, the committee of 1856 was a 
deliberately planned and well-knit organization. 

Four days after the shooting of King, the vigilantes surrounded the 
jail and demanded Casey and Cora, both of whom were surrendered 
wjthout a struggle. They were tried, found guilty, and hanged from 
in Fort Gunnybags on May 22, two days after the death of 
, whose large funeral procession was directed down Sacramento 
past the dangling bodies. A cleansing and reform of the local 
government was instituted, with salutary effects for years to come, and 
the 'Vigilance Committee disbanded in August, 1856. San Francisco 
continued to be a lively and lighthearted city, but with less physical and 
moral Valence. 

An-erfi of expansion followed, broken by brief excitement during the 
Civil (War, when California heatedly debated whether to support the 
Union cause or set itself up independently as the Pacific Republic. 
Oratory w$xed loud and feeling ran high in the city until the State 
legislature .vpted against secession. During these years Bret Harte 
contributed tp the Golden Era and in 1864 became secretary of the U. S. 
branch mint;;Mark Twain paused momentarily, one jump ahead of his 
creditors ; ,a YJozen newspapers were established, and as many weeklies, 
some of which are still extant. From the fabulous Comstock and Mother 
lodes, from the^entral Pacific Railroad, came the vast fortunes that 
Leland Stanford,: Charles Crocker, Collis P. Huntington, Mark Hop- 
kins, James Flood, William S. O'Brien, John W. Mackay, James G. 
Fair, William C. Ralston, "Lucky" Baldwin, and others spent on 
ornate Victorian palaces on Nob Hill, Lucullan banquets, enameled 
carriages w.ith -liveried footmen, great country estates, and on the fabri- 
cation and lubrication of political machines as relentless as steam rollers. 
There were frequent scandals and occasional duels. Dennis Kearney 
addressed large - crowds of workers on the sand lots; the base of San 


Francisco's development as a union town had been laid previously 
with the formation of the Working Men's Trade and Labor Union. 

In 1873 the lumbering horsecars and the unique round "balloon 
cars" were supplemented with and later superseded by Andrew Halli- 
dies' cable cars. The city's population doubled in two decades, and 
San Francisco celebrated in 1894, with tne Midwinter Exposition, its 
first great carnival, in "Opal City," Golden Gate Park. Weathering 
the depression of 1893-96 and its attendant strikes, it became increas- 
ingly the railroad and maritime center of the Pacific Coast. In those 
days a traveler from any point along the coast between the Mexican 
and Canadian borders simply asked for a ticket to "the City" with 
complete assurance that he would be routed to San Francisco. Although 
Seattle profited most, the Klondike gold strike brought new wealth and 
residents; by 1903 the city had a population of 425,000, and plans were 
laid for immediate improvements and future expansion. 

Steps were being taken for rezoning, for the creation of additional 
public parks, for the elimination of slum areas, when at 5:16 o'clock 
on the morning of April 18, 1906, the great San Andreas fault, extend- 
ing up and down the coast, settled violently. The greatest earthquake 
ever to strike California shook San Francisco to its foundations. With 
the breaking of gas and water mains, fire broke out and for three days 
roared through the city unchecked ; it was finally brought under control 
by dynamiting buildings along Van Ness Avenue. An early edition 
of a Los Angeles newspaper, so it is said, carried a huge headline, "San 
Francisco Punished!" In New York, Will Irwin, an adopted son, sat 
down and wrote sadly of "the city that was." 

But the city's decease, like Mark Twain's, was greatly exaggerated, 
although it had suffered a staggering blow. Casualties included 500 
dead and missing ; four square miles, including virtually all of the busi- 
ness district, were destroyed an area of 497 blocks, some 30,000 build- 
ings. Damage was estimated at 500 million dollars, of which 200 
millions remained a net loss after payment of insurance. Food and 
clothing for the thousands of homeless were rushed from all parts of 
the United States; Europe and Asia contributed millions to relieve 

The ruins were still smoking when plans for reconstruction were 
started. The first contract for a new building was signed six days 
after the disaster. "Don't talk earthquake, talk business," read placards 
on the streets. New building and fire laws insured that no catastrophe 
of such proportions could occur again. Within three years, in spite 
of graft scandals and civic turbulence, 20,000 new buildings had been 
constructed. Within seven, a new City Hall and a new Public Li- 
brary were under way, and electric tramways had replaced the cable 
lines except on the hills. 

For four years before the fire the government of San Francisco had 
been dominated by the notorious Ruef-Schmitz machine. Masquerad- 
ing as the Union Labor Party, the ring was financed by gambling 
houses, saloons, the brothels of the Barbary Coast but principally 


by the city's traction and utility corporations. The attack on the 
machine was launched by Hearst and followed up by Fremont Older of 
the San Francisco Bulletin, Rudolph Spreckels, and James D. Phelan. 
The newspaper campaign was interrupted by the earthquake and fire, 
but shortly after was resumed and the charges against Ruef and Schmitz 
led to their indictment. Other figures prominent in promoting public 
utilities were named codefendants. Francis J. Heney was appointed 
special prosecutor and detective William Burns was retained. The 
trials dragged on for two years amidst considerable violence, in the 
course of which Older was kidnapped, Heney was shot (to be replaced 
by Hiram Johnson), and the residence of an important witness was 
dynamited. The trials ended with the conviction of Ruef, and the cases 
against his codefendants, the utility promoters, were not pressed. 

In 1914 the city acquired control of the Hetch Hetchy watershed, 
near Yosemite, ultimately to supply 400,000,000 gallons of water daily. 
The opening of the Panama Canal on August 15, 1914, was of immense 
benefit to the city's maritime trade. In 1915 the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition at "Rainbow City," built beside the Presidio on 
the Marina was inaugurated. At its close, the exposition presented the 
city with funds to build the Municipal Auditorium. 

The history of the years from 1915 to the building of the bridges 
and the planning of the Golden Gate International Exposition for 1939, 
has been in part a story of labor unrest, particularly during the World 
War and the depression of the 1930*8 (see LABOR). 

The bombing of the Preparedness Day Parade made the year 1916 
a black one. The conviction of Tom Mooney and Warren K. Billings 
for the bombing on questionable evidence inspired a world-wide protest 
that was not allayed until 1939, when Governor Olson unconditionally 
pardoned Mooney. On the following day Mooney led a large parade 
up Market Street, lined for miles on both sides with cheering crowds. 
Above the cheers screamed the siren on the Ferry Building, opened full 
blast, as it had been to announce the bombing 23 years before. 

In 1936 the Pan-American Airways initiated weekly passenger ser- 
vice from San Francisco to the Orient by means of giant flying "clipper 
ships," but the crowning accomplishment of 1936 and 1937 was the 
completion of the two great bridges the San Francisco-Oakland Bay 
Bridge in November, 1936; the Golden Gate Bridge in May, 1937. 
The site of the Golden Gate International Exposition of 1939 is 
Treasure Island, created by dredging the bay near Yerba Buena Island 

San Francisco has been associated in larger or smaller measure with 
the careers of many who have made names for themselves in the arts, 
notably, Jack London; Isadora Duncan, the dancer; George Sterling, 
the poet; Bret Harte; Henry George, founder of the single tax move- 
ment and at one time managing editor of the local Times. It has been 
the subject of innumerable stories, novels, and non-fiction works. First 
described as an unlovely Spanish settlement by Richard Henry Dana 
in Two Years Before the Mast, the city has been pictured in Frank 


Norris' McTeague, Gertrude Atherton's Rezanov, Stewart Edward 
White's The Rose Dawn (vigilante days), Dashiell Hammett's The 
Maltese Falcon, and William Saroyan's stories. From the days when 
audiences showered gold nuggets and pouches of gold dust at a popular 
performer's feet, when a theater was built and given to Edwin Booth 
to keep him from deserting his public, when "road shows" skipped from 
Chicago to Salt Lake City and San Francisco and back East again with- 
out a stop, the city has been stage-struck and music-mad. It has a club 
founded by artists and art lovers, which has grown and prospered until 
it possesses* massive quarters on a downtown street, and holds an annual 
musical festival in its own private forest. 

Perhaps some of San Francisco's glamor has been drowned under a 
flood of neon lights; skycrapers have replaced some of the rambling 
buildings mellowed by time and weather; and old-timers lament the 
happy-go-lucky days "before the fire." But it is still a gay city, con- 
vivial and dignified, for its gayety has always worn a silk hat; and it 
heatedly objects to the nickname " 'Frisco," used by unsuspecting out- 
siders. San Francisco has granite qualities as well ; fogs cannot dampen 
its ardor; earthquakes, political scandals, and labor wars have failed 
to shake its confidence in itself and the future; it has remained unmis- 
takably itself. It is still "the City." 


(See San Francisco Map for Nos. /-j, 41-76; see San Francisco Down- 
town Map for Nos. 4-4.0.) \ 

(Market Street and Downtown) 

1. The FERRY BUILDING, foot of Market St., completed in 
1903, has a 24O-foot central tower topped with a four-faced clock and a 
set-back "belfry" and cupola in four stages. Each dial of the clock is 22 
feet in diameter, with numerals 3 feet long. The clock was stopped at 
5:16 a.m., April 18, 1906, by the earthquake, and remained so for more 
than a year until repairs were completed. The first ferry sheds, erected 
in 1877, succeeded a wharf built here as early as 1850. The State 
Division of Mines has a GEOLOGICAL MUSEUM (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri., 
9-12 m. Sat.; July and Aug. 8-4 Mon.-Fri., 8-12 m. Sat.) Along the 
entire second floor corridor is a huge relief map of California, broken 
only by entrances to the upper decks of ferry boats. 

The EMBARCADERO, formerly called East St., is a crescent- 
shaped street lined with piers and wharves paralleling the bay shore for 
three and one-half miles. The west side is largely given over to stores 
and lodging houses frequented by sailors and longshoremen. During 
the maritime strike of 1934 the Embarcadero was the scene of numerous 
battles between police and strikers. 

BOMBING (1916), SW. corner Steuart and Market Sts., is un- 
marked but has been kept continually in the public mind by unremitting 


efforts to establish the innocence and obtain the release of Tom Mooney 
and Warren K. Billings from prison. Mooney was pardoned by Gov- 
ernor Olson on January 7, 1939. The Southern Pacific Building now 
covers this site. 

Francisco approach from Bryant and 5th Sts., completed in I937> was 
designed and constructed by the Department of Public Works of the 
State of California. Spanning the broad waters of the East and West 
Bay, this magnificent steel and concrete bridge serves as a giant traffic 
artery between San Francisco and the neighboring towns in Alameda 
County. It stretches its lofty spans from the anchorage in San Fran- 
cisco to Yerba Buena Island, and continues at an oblique angle to the 
eastern approaches of Berkeley and Oakland. The bridge proper, in- 
cluding the island crossing, is approximately 4.5 miles long, and more 
than 8 miles in length from the ends of the east and west approaches. 

The bridge is a double-deck structure, with six traffic lanes for 
automobiles on the upper level, and three truck lanes and two interur- 
ban tracks on the deck below. The western section of the bridge, 216 
feet above the water, consists of two suspension spans, fastened midway 
between San Francisco and Yerba Buena to a steel and concrete an- 
chorage, the latter rising 502 feet from the rock floor of the bay. The 
two center spans on each side of the anchorage are 2,310 feet in length. 
The bridge is illuminated at night with strings of yellow sodium vapor 
lights, the brilliant rays of which can penetrate the thickest fog. 


I, 2, 3. See San Francisco map. 22. Fairmont Hotel 

4. San Francisco Terminal 23. Pacific Union Club 

5. Donahue Monument 24. Grace Cathedral 

6. Nevada Bank Building 25. Kong Chow Temple 

7. Lotta's Fountain 26. Mandarin Theatre 

8. Palace Hotel 27. Chinese Hospital 

9. Telephone Building 28. Chinese Telephone Exchange 

10. San Francisco Stock Exchange 29. Tin How Temple 

11. Russ Building 30. Old St. Mary's Church 

12. St. Patrick's Church 31. St. Mary's Square 

13. The Turntable 32. Portsmouth Square 

14. Native Sons Monument 33. Montgomery Block 

15. Union Square 34. "Golden Era" 

1 6. St. Francis Hotel 35. Hotaling Building 

17. 450 Sutter Building 36. Stevenson and Booth Houses 

1 8. Native Sons Building 37. Pioneer Park 

19. Olympic Club 38. SS. Peter & Paul Church 

20. Bohemian Club 39. California School of Fine Arts 

21. Mark Hopkins Hotel 40. Fishermen's Wharf 




At YERBA BUENA ISLAND (formerly called Goat Island) 
midway between San Francisco and Oakland, a 3OO-acre Government 
reservation (open only with written pass, obtainable at 100 Harrison 
St.), the roadway passes through a double-deck tunnel, 76 feet wide by 
50 feet high, the largest bore tunnel in the world, and emerges on the 
East Bay sector of the bridge. The main cantilever span of 1400 feet 
has 5io-foot anchor arms. East of this span are five truss spans, each 
509 feet in length, and 14 truss spans, 291 feet long. 

The east or Alameda County approaches, each accommodating two- 
way traffic, are on Ashley Avenue in Berkeley, and on 3 8th and 37th 
Streets, at Market and Cypress, and at Cypress and Seventh Streets, in 

The west approaches in San Francisco are in the form of long over- 
head runways with a system of branching loops to minimize the inter- 
section of incoming and outgoing traffic lines. 

Mission Sts., completed in 1939, the final unit of the Bay Bridge Elec- 
tric Railway facilities, was constructed under the jurisdiction of the 
California Toll Bridge Authority by the State department of public 

This modern building is virtually an enclosed system of ramps and 
stairs connecting the elevated tracks of the Interurban Electric (S.P.), 
the Key System, and the Sacramento-Northern Railways, which enter 
the terminal over a looping viaduct from the bridge to the streetcar 
concourse and the street. There are six railway tracks on the upper 
level, arranged in pairs, with long 7oo-foot platforms between. The 
tracks and platforms are 164 feet wide, roofed over with large sky- 
lights. From these platforms spacious ramps and stairs lead to a 
mezzanine concourse half way between the upper level and the street, 
with access to an outer streetcar platform at the same level, and to the 
main passenger entrance on Mission Street. 

5. The DONAHUE MONUMENT, intersection Market, Bush, 
and Battery Sts., locally known as the "Mechanics' Monument," is the 
work of Douglas Tilden, noted deaf-mute sculptor. Executed in bronze 
and dedicated to Peter Donahue, founder of one of the city's first iron 
works, it consists of a fountain surmounted with a group of three 
artisans struggling to force the blade of an enormous mechanical punch 
through plate metal. A tablet set in the pavement at the foot of the 
monument marks the shoreline of Yerba Buena (San Francisco) in 

6. In the NEVADA BANK BUILDING, NE. corner Market and 
Montgomery Sts., loth floor, is a MUSEUM (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri., 9-12 
Sat.) of California history. Among the Wells-Fargo relics here are a 
stagecoach shipped around the Horn in the 1850*5; the massive scales 
used in the Wells-Fargo office at Columbia, Tuolumne County, and 
said to have weighed 55 of the 87 million dollars worth of gold mined 
in the Mother Lode ; the mining tools used by James W. Marshall, 
discoverer of the gold ; and a priceless collection of nuggets loaned by 


the Menendez estate. Another exhibit contains a large collection of 
Colt firearms. 

7. LOTTA'S FOUNTAIN, intersection of Market, Kearny, and 
Geary Sts., transformed from a watering trough for horses to a drink- 
ing fountain for humans, is of bronze, in the ornate style of the 1 870*8. 
It was presented to the city in 1875 by Lotta Crabtree, the beloved 
actress of gold rush days. Here on Christmas Eve, 1910, Luisa Tet- 
razzini, who won her first acclaim in San Francisco, sang carols to great 
throngs in the streets. 

8. The PALACE HOTEL, SW. corner Market and New Mont- 
gomery Sts., is a seven-story, yellow brick structure erected in 1910 by 
Trowbridge and Livingston of Boston on the framework of the early 
hostelry gutted by the fire of 1906. Its main attraction was the drive- 
way extending into the huge Palm Court, enabling guests to alight from 
their carriages at the desk. Within the walls of these successive build- 
ings a king and a president have died King Kalakaua of Hawaii 
in the old, President Warren G. Harding in the new. In the Pied 
Piper Buffet is a Maxfield Parrish mural depicting the legend, and 
many caricatures of local and national celebrities by Antonio Soto- 

9. The TELEPHONE BUILDING, 140 New Montgomery St., 
designed by Miller, Pflueger and Cantin, is a modern setback skyscraper 
erected in 1923, one of the first in San Francisco. It rises twenty-six 
stories on a steel frame faced with off-white terra cotta tile. Pilasters 
capped by a cluster of stylized flowers. The setbacks are adorned with 
pilasters, and a row of eagles crowns the towers. As the official storm- 
warning station in the city, the building has a high flagpole flying storm 
and hurricane flags by day and supporting three great electric lanterns 
at night. 

Pine and Sansome Sts., consists of a one-story structure, housing the 
trading room, and an adjoining ten-story office building, both designed 
in the neo-classic style. Flanking the Doric entrance loggia of the trad- 
ing room are heroic sculptures by Ralph Stackpole. Above the entrance 
to the office on Sansome St. is a bas-relief figure by the same sculptor. 
The interior of the trading room is adorned with concrete bas-reliefs by 
Robert Boardman Howard, while in the luncheon club room are fres- 
coes by Diego Rivera, representing the growth of California's agricul- 
ture, mining, and industry. 

11. The RUSS BUILDING, Montgomery St. between Bush and 
Pine Sts., is an imposing 3 1 -story skyscraper of stone and terra cotta 
facing, with modified Gothic detail. Before the fire of 1906 this site 
was occupied by the Russ House, once San Francisco's finest hostelry, 
built by Christian Russ, a pioneer of 1847 a d proprietor of an im- 
mensely popular beer garden and concert hall in the early days. The 
building was designed by George Kelham. 

12. ST. PATRICK'S CHURCH, Mission St. between 3rd and 4th 
Sts., is sometimes called "the most Irish church on this continent." 


Constructed of brick, with a slender tower and steeple, it is the fourth 
building and the third site of this parish, established in 1851 by Father 
Maginnis, then the only English-speaking priest in San Francisco. The 
interior of the church is finished in green translucent Connemara marble 
and Caen stone, for which the late pastor, Father Rogers, searched Ire- 
land. On the floor is a mosaic, The River of Life. The crucifix and 
vestments are by Mia Cranwill, Irish artist, after designs of the sixth 
and eighth centuries. 

13. On the TURNTABLE, Powell and Market Sts., the southern: 
terminus of the Powell Street cable line, the cars are turned around 
bodily by the crew before starting the journey up the hill again. 

14. The NATIVE SONS MONUMENT, intersection of Mar- 
ket, Turk and Mason Sts., by Douglas Tilden, is a tall granite shaft sur- 
mounted by a bronze figure holding an open book inscribed "September 
9, 1850," the date of California's admission to the Union; below stands 
a male figure holding a flag with a new star for California. The col- 
umn was presented to the city in 1897 by Sen. James D. Phelan, then 

15. UNION SQUARE, Post St. between Stockton and Powell Sts., 
extending to Geary St., originally a huge sandbank known as O'Farrell 
Mountain, was presented to the city in 1850 by John W. Geary, first 
mayor of the American City. The plot, leveled and landscaped, was 
given its present name because of pro-Union meetings held here before 
and during the Civil War. In 1864 the Mechanics' Institute held a 
fair in the pavilion on the square; after the 1906 disaster the square was 
dubbed "Little St. Francis" because of the temporary building erected 
here to house guests of the St. Francis Hotel. In the center of the 
square is the VICTORY MONUMENT, by Robert Ingersoll Aitken, com- 
memorating Dewey's victory in Manila Bay, a 96-foot granite shaft 
topped with a bronze figure symbolizing naval conquest. 

1 6. The ST. FRANCIS HOTEL, SW. corner Post and Powell 
Sts., a gray stone structure, is one of San Francisco's largest and best- 
known hotels. Almost destroyed by the 1906 fire, its walls were scarcely 
cold when a banquet was held in the White and Gold Room to celebrate 
the beginning of reconstruction. The rebuilt hotel has a Borgia Room, a 
replica of the room of that name in the Vatican at Rome. A large 
painting of Mount Tamalpais by Jules Mersfelder hangs over the desk 
in the main lobby. 

17. The 450 SUTTER BUILDING, 450 Sutter St., is a modern 
25-story skyscraper of steel, glass, and terra cotta, designed by Miller 
and Pflueger. Light buff in color, it has windows set flush with the 
outside walls, accentuating the vertical mass. Ancient Mayan hiero- 
glyphs and stylized ornament carry out the decorative motif in both ex- 
terior and interior detail. 

18. The NATIVE SONS BUILDING, 414 Mason St., a red 
brick building with terra cotta facing, is the headquarters of the Native 
Sons of the Golden West, an organization of native-born Californians. 
Around the two entrances are tile plaques representing California ex- 

Cities II 






















.. *! 




plorers and pioneers. The building has an auditorium seating 1,300, 
frequently used for lectures. 

19. The OLYMPIC CLUB (private), 524 Post St., is a buff 
brick building with the club's "winged O" symbol carved over the white 
stone entrance. The club was organized in 1860 and claims to be the 
oldest amateur athletic club in existence. In the club is a large swim- 
ming pool supplied with salt water directly from the Pacific Ocean. 
Annually on New Year's Day it holds a modified beach marathon along 
the ocean shore, after which participants take their first plunge of the 
new year. 

20. The BOHEMIAN CLUB (private), NE. corner Post and 
Taylor Sts., a massive dark red brick building, houses one of San Fran- 
cisco's best known artistic organizations. Originally, its membership 
was limited to distinguished artists and writers, but others interested in 
the arts are now permitted to join. Every January the club sponsors a 
free exhibition of paintings by its members, one of the rare occasions 
when women are admitted to any part of the building, and during its 
''Mid-summer Jinks" at Bohemian Grove on the Russian River (see 
TOUR 2a) holds an annual Grove Play, with text, music, and per- 
formance members. On the Post Street facade is a bronze bas-relief 
memorial to Bret Harte, the work of Jo Mora. 

21. The MARK HOPKINS HOTEL, SE. corner California and 
Mason Sts., a buff brick skyscraper, combines baronial French and 
Spanish Renaissance styles. The hotel, perpetuating the name of Mark 
Hopkins, one of the railroad "big four," occupies the site of the old 
Hopkins residence, a "magnificent monstrosity" destroyed in 1906. 
The Room of the Dons contains murals of early California history by 
Maynard Dixon and Frank van Sloun. The Peacock Court has a 
lunette of Leda and the Swan, by Ray Boynton, done by the ancient 
method of encaustic painting, in which hot wax and color are applied 
directly to the wall. 

22. The FAIRMONT HOTEL, NE. corner California and 
Mason Sts., was built in 1906, by Mrs. Herman Oelrichs, daughter of 
James G. Fair, one of the bonanza kings of the Comstock Lode. In this 
massive granite hostelry are the TERRACE PLUNGE (open 10 a.m.-io 
p.m. daily)] the CIRCUS ROOM, with murals by Esther Bruton; and 
two rare sixteenth century Florentine mirrors, the only examples of 
this type in America, brought from the Castello de Vincigliata, Flor- 
ence, by Mrs. Oelrichs. The hotel contains a theater seating 200. 

23. The PACIFIC UNION CLUB, NW. corner California and 
Mason Sts., the only one of the brownstone Nob Hill mansions little 
damaged by the great fire, was formerly the home of James C. Flood, 
bonanza king who began his career as a saloonkeeper. 

24. GRACE CATHEDRAL, NE. corner California and Jones 
Sts., is an uncompleted gray stone building of modified Gothic design, 
the work of Lewis P. Hobart. The spire will rise 500 feet above sea 
level, and in size its nave will exceed that of any English cathedral. The 
Chapel of Grace, the apse, and half of the nave are finished (1939) ; the 


carillon, donated by Dr. N. T. Coulson, will be used in the Golden 
Gate International Exposition before being installed in the bell tower. 
Off the south nave, the Chapel of Grace, a delicate structure in Gothic 
style and the gift of Ethel Sperry Crocker, contains a tenth century 
stone altar from Brittany and a fourteenth century carved stone table 
used as a credence table. The cathedral stands on the site of homes 
built by Charles Crocker, the "hurry-up man" and hard driver of the 
"big four," and his son, William H. Crocker, a banker. Heirs of the 
family donated the land to the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Cali- 
fornia in 1910. 

(Chinatown and Old San Francisco) 

25. The KONG CHOW TEMPLE (open W a.m.-i a.m. daily; 
voluntary offering), 520 Pine St., is the largest Chinese joss house in 
America and is one of two in San Francisco open to the white public. 
Dedicated to the hero Quan Dai, it has two altars; before one tea is 
served every morning; on the other are paper and pencil for recording 
worshipers' requests. On the balcony, overlooking the courtyard, is the 
"prayer tree" in which written prayers may be placed. 

26. The MANDARIN THEATER (open 7:30-12 p.m. daily, 
adm. 25$-$0<j; f 2$$ after g p.m. patrons may enter at any time), 
1021 Grant Ave., is at the northern end of Chinatown, where it 
merges with "Little Italy." The uninitiated Occidental is apt to 
be amazed at the performance, which lasts from 7 130 p.m. to mid- 
night. The stage is devoid of curtains or scenery, and "props" are 
brought on and removed throughout the performance by nonchalant 
stagehands; there are no actresses, for all female roles are played by 
males; the musicians, when not playing, sit on the side of the stage and 
sip tea; meanwhile, the audience comes and goes, interrupts the players 
at will, and chews watermelon seeds continuously. The Chinese theater 
in the United States originated at the Mandarin, although another 
on Jackson Street occasionally presents Chinese operas (see the 

27. The CHINESE HOSPITAL, Jackson St. between Stockton 
and Powell Sts., a four-story stone building, is the only one in the 
United States. It is completely modern in equipment and procedure and 
largely staffed by Chinese doctors and nurses. There are 57 beds, in- 
cluding a small maternity ward. White patients are welcome. 

p.m. daily), 743 Washington St., a building of Chinese architecture, is 
a branch of the Pacific Telephone and Telegraph Company, being the 
only completely Chinese exchange outside of China. The operators are 
Chinese girls who are required to know, in addition to English, five 
Chinese dialects, and to memorize the numbers of 2,300 subscribers, for 
most Chinese call by name and not by number. 

29. The TIN HOW TEMPLE (open 10 a.m.-i a.m.; voluntary 
offering), 125 Waverly PL, the oldest Chinese joss house in San Fran- 
cisco, is situated on the fourth floor of the building (ring for priest or 


assistant), because no human creation but a roof is allowed to stand 
above the gods. This joss house was established by Day Ju, one of the 
first three Chinese to arrive in San Francisco. The altar to Tin How, 
Queen of the Heavens and Goddess of the Seven Seas, was installed on 
their ship for daily worship and later removed to the temple. The 
present main altar, covered with gold leaf and intricate carvings repre- 
senting the life of Confucius, is many centuries old. In the temple are 
ceremonial wands resembling ancient battle-axes; massive bronze urns 
containing prayer sticks ; and Yuen Bo Pon, a fireplace in which written 
messages to the gods can be burned and thus recorded in the ether. 

30. OLD ST. MARY'S CHURCH, NE. corner Grant Ave. and 
California St., in the heart of Chinatown, is a red brick structure of 
Victorian Gothic design. Material for the structure was brought both 
from China and around the Horn; in 1855 bells arrived, were hung, 
and blessed. The church, the main part of which was built by Arch- 
bishop Alemany in 1854, l ater became the Roman Catholic Cathedral, 
and in 1894 was transferred to the Paulist Fathers. The congregation 
is still white although there is a Chinese branch of the church at Stock- 
ton and Clay Streets. The clock in the California Street tower bears 
the inscription, "Son, observe the time and flee from evil." 

31. ST. MARY'S SQUARE, opposite Old St. Mary's Church, for- 
merly explained the inscription on the church tower, for it was once 
St. Mary's Alley, a part of the old red-light district. This grass- 
covered municipal square is a favorite romping place for Chinese chil- 
dren. In the center is a stainless steel and concrete STATUE OF SUN 
YAT SEN by Beniamino Bufano. 

32. PORTSMOUTH SQUARE, Kearny St. between Washing- 
ton and Clay Sts., the birthplace of San Francisco, was Candelario 
Miramontes' potato patch in 1833; then it became the Spanish and 
Mexican Plaza. A plaque in the NW. corner commemorates Mont- 
gomery's raising of the American flag here in 1846. In the square also 
is a BRONZE GALLEON, mounted on granite, "to remember Robert Louis 
Stevenson," who frequented the park and its environs for local color. 

33. The MONTGOMERY BLOCK, 628 Montgomery St., built 
in 1853 by Gen. H. W. Halleck with bricks and cement brought in 
clipper ships from England and France, is the oldest of San Francisco's 
"fireproof" buildings. Once the home of the Stock Exchange, the ram- 
bling structure, affectionately nicknamed the "Monkey Block," is now 
the heart of the city's Bohemia; many artists and writers have had 
studios in the building. During the fire of 1906 it narrowly escaped 
dynamiting by the Army. 

In 1938 the revived "Order of E Clampus Vitus," the gold miners* 
burlesque fraternity, placed a commemorative plaque on the site of 
Parker's Bank Exchange Saloon, at the Washington Street corner of 
the block, where Duncan Nichol invented the celebrated drink, Pisco 
Punch. This saloon was frequented by the mad "Emperor" Norton 
and the reform editor, James King of William, who was brought here 
after being shot by Casey. 


Joshua A. Norton, the "Emperor," was born in England in 1819- 
At the age of 30 he arrived in San Francisco with $40,000, which he 
pyramided to a quarter of a million. Attempting to corner the rice 
market, he and his colleagues lost their fortunes. Norton went into 
seclusion for several years; when he reappeared, his mind was unbal- 
anced, and he soon became the favorite ward of the city. Clad in an 
old uniform and military cap, with a small sword dangling at his side 
and a stick or umbrella in his hand, trailed always by two mongrel 
dogs, Bummer and Lazarus, he was a familiar figure on the downtown 
streets. Norton declared himself Emperor of the United States and 
Protector of Mexico: one of his frequent proclamations dissolved the 
Democratic and Republican parties in the interests of peace; another 
dissolved a steamship company because a purser, violating imperial 
privilege, had summarily put him ashore; a third called the public's 
attention to the duty of replenishing his wardrobe. He was the first 
to "propose" a bridge across the bay. He was permitted to eat, drink, 
and amuse himself gratis, and to draw checks up to 50 cents on San 
Francisco banks. These checks were always honored, and Norton added 
to his cash by selling 5O-cent bonds and by collecting "taxes." He 
dropped dead on the street in 1880 and was given an elaborate funeral 
by the city. 

34. The "GOLDEN ERA," 718-20 Montgomery St., an old red 
brick building now used as a plumbing shop and Chinese laundry, is the 
last of San Francisco's noted ship buildings. These odd structures were 
built around abandoned ships drawn up and fastened at what was then 
the waterfront. In the interior the tapered woodwork on the forecastle 
leads to a forepeak. It was here that Bret Harte worked as a com- 
positor on the Golden Era and wrote his earliest works. 

35. The HOTALING BUILDING, 451 Jackson St., a three- 
story stone and brick building designed in the style of the French Second 
Empire, has been continuously occupied since 1866 by a wholesale 
liquor company. Some of the original furniture is still in use desks, 
chairs, and bookcases of beautiful hardwood in excellent condition. 
Prints of early San Francisco hang on the walls. After the earthquake 
and fire of 1906, a popular ditty by Charles K. Field ran: 

If, as they say, God spanked the town 
For being over-frisky, 

Why did He burn all the churches down 
And spare Hotaling's Whiskey? 

36. The STEVENSON AND BOOTH HOUSES, 287 and 289 
Union St. between Sansome and Montgomery Sts. (accessible only on 
/oo/), are pointed out as the former homes of the author and the actor. 
Actually, the decrepit little frame house at 287, with steeply pitched 
roof and gingerbread trim, was the home of Edwin Booth's hostler 
(Booth himself lived on Pine Street), and the modernized stucco studio 
building next door was Booth's stable. Robert Louis Stevenson, how- 
ever, did live at 289 during the early i87o's. 


37. In PIONEER PARK, on the crest of Telegraph Hill, stands 
the COIT MEMORIAL TOWER (elevator service 9-4 daily; adm. 25$), 
erected in 1933 with a legacy left by Mrs. Lillie Hitchcock Coit. It is 
a cylindrical concrete structure 210 feet high, affording a fine view of 
the city and bay. The frescoes on the walls of the ground floor, depict- 
ing life and labor in California, are by the Public Works Art Project. 
A plaque at the main entrance marks the site of "the inner signal sta- 
tion 1849, and the first Western Telegraph Station 1853." 

38. SS. PETER AND PAUL CHURCH, 650 Filbert St., facing 
Washington Square, is of Romanesque design, with two 191-foot tur- 
reted towers of terra cotta. It was built in 1924 by Charles Fantoni. 
Two mosaics are in preparation (1939) for the front entrance, depict- 
ing Columbus disembarking on American soil and Dante at work on 
the "Paradise." In the heart of San Francisco's Italian section, this 
church is known locally as the "Church of the Ten Commandments," 
because part of the motion picture of that name was filmed here. Shortly 
after the construction of the church it was bombed three times by an 
unknown fanatic but was not seriously damaged. 

and Jones Sts., of modified Italian Renaissance design, is constructed of 
unpolished concrete, with a campanile. In one of the exhibition rooms 
a huge fresco by Diego Rivera in seven sections illustrates the painting 
of a fresco, and shows a startling rear view of the Mexican artist him- 
self. The Anne Bremer Memorial Library, one of the best art libraries 
in America, has received numerous donations from the well-known col- 
lector, Albert Bender. 

The school was started in 1874 an d is still maintained by the San 
Francisco Art Association. In 1893 the Mark Hopkins residence was 
deeded in trust to the University of California for the Art Association, 
and under the name of the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art it became well 
known. The catastrophe of 1906 left it a heap of ruins, but the school 
carried on in temporary buildings until the site was sold in 1923, and the 
present building was erected on the top of Russian Hill, affording match- 
less views of the Bay. The college gives fine and applied arts courses, 
a special four-year normal school course for art teachers, and courses in 
commercial art and design. In 1938 it had an enrollment of 600. 

40. FISHERMAN'S WHARF, Taylor St. at the Embarcadero, is 
the embarking and landing point for the city's many Italian fishermen. 
Brightly painted fishing boats, mostly in blue, the Virgin's color, lazily 
tug at their anchors or mooring lines as weather-beaten old men, wear- 
ing large gold earrings, mend nets with wooden needles on the wharf. 
When vessels arrive with their day's catch, the wharf seethes with 
activity as dealers and fishermen haggle over prices. Along Taylor 
Street are sidewalk stands displaying shellfish, and at the curb big iron 
cauldrons boil large freshly caught crabs to be eaten there or carried 
away by the purchaser. In the neighboring sea-food restaurants, the 
diner has the assurance that his favorite dish was swimming in the 
Pacific only a few short hours before. 


(Marina and Presidio) 

41. ST. BRIGID'S CHURCH, SW. corner Van Ness Ave. and 
Broadway, probably the only church in the world built of old paving 
blocks, is constructed of slabs of hewn granite that served as pedestrian 
crossings in the days of cobblestone streets. It is of Romanesque design, 
with a terra cotta entrance carved with liturgical symbols. Henry A. 
Minton was the architect. 

42. The OCTAGONAL HOUSE (private), 2618 Gough St., a 
two-story adobe structure covered with frame, was built in 1864 for 
Mrs. Harriet Sober McElroy, a pioneer. This house with a small 
cupola has eight sets of double windows on each floor. The rooms are 
square, with the angles taken up by closets. In front of the house are 
three California live oaks. 

43. AQUATIC PARK (open daily), foot of Polk Street and Van 
Ness Ave., San Francisco's newest recreation center, was built by the 
WPA and opened in January, 1939. The landscaped park spreads 
along a semicircle of beach on a cove in the lee of Black Point. The 
municipal pier, circular in shape, encloses a half-mile stretch of water 
for swimming, boating, and racing. Inland rises the white Casino, four 
stories high toward the sea, with ends rounded like a ship's stern, and 
stories, or decks, semielliptical in shape. Its seaward face is almost 
entirely of glass. On the lowest floor are bathing facilities to accom- 
modate several thousand persons a day. In the Polk Street entrance is 
a large slate sculpture executed by the Federal Art Project; the central 
lounge room on the second floor is decorated with murals by the Federal 
Art Project, picturing marine and undersea life; elsewhere are statues 
of St. Francis and Sun Yat Sen. Opening from the main lounge is a 
glass-enclosed dining salon in yacht club motif. Above, on the smaller 
floors or decks, are other lounges and dining rooms, with windows like 
portholes on the land side, and wide expanses of glass toward the sea. 
On each side of the Casino are stone bleachers and a promenade running 
the length of the beach. At the eastern and western extremities of the 
playground are 5O-foot towers in modernistic style, containing loud- 
speakers to broadcast sporting events and music. 

44. FORT MASON, Van Ness Ave. and Bay St., is an Army Sup- 
ply Depot and contains the residences of the commanding general and 
ranking staff officers of the Ninth Corps Area. This 67-acre reserva- 
tion was once the home of John C. Fremont, who built a house here in 
1853, since occupied by 36 commanding officers. 

THE ARMY TRANSPORT DOCKS, northwest shore of the reservation, 
are three in number, one 500 feet long, the others 650 feet; each year 
they receive and ship to and from Pacific and Far East posts about 
45,000 officers and enlisted men. 

45. YACHT HARBOR, Divisadero St. and Marina Blvd., is pro- 
tected on the north by a narrow spit, Marina State Park. Hundreds 
of pleasure craft are berthed here, from small speedboats and sailboats 
to palatial private yachts. The ST. FRANCIS YACHT CLUB (private) 


is on the eastern tip of Marina State Park. To the south of the harbor 
is MARINA PARK, fronting the bay, a long grass-covered strip, popular 
on Sundays with promenaders. 

46. The PALACE OF FINE ARTS, Baker St. between Jefferson 
and Bay Sts., is the last surviving building of the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition of 1915. This neo-classic structure, built on land 
reclaimed from the bay, is of brown stucco with a Roman rotunda and 
Corinthian peristyle. Once an art gallery, it is now used for indoor 
tennis. Two ornamental gondolas float on the lagoon before the Palace 

47. The PRESIDIO (open: night parking prohibited), entrance 
gate at Baker and Lombard Sts., once the garrison of Spanish soldiers 
protecting the mission, is a U. S. military reservation of 1,542 acres, and 
the headquarters of the Ninth Corps Area. Within the reservation is 
the LETTERMAN HOSPITAL for service men and their families. One 
block to the west is the old STATION HOSPITAL, built in 1854 and still 
in use. Its brick foundations and pine and hemlock girders were shipped 
around the Horn. The CEMETERY, largest national cemetery in the 
United States with the exception of Arlington, contains the graves of 
more than 15,000 veterans and their wives. One woman interred here 
is not a veteran's wife Pauline Cushman Tyler, a young actress, who 
was a Union spy during the Civil War and later commissioned an 
honorary officer of the Army. At the southern anchorage of the Golden 
Gate Bridge stands FORT WINFIELD SCOTT, on a site fortified since 
1776, but from which a hostile shot has never been fired. It was 
originally known as the Castillo de San Joaquin. In 1846 Fremont 
stole over from the Sausalito and spiked its guns, and the American flag 
was hoisted over the Presidio on July 9 of that year. In 1854, tne bluff 
at Fort Point was graded to the water's edge, and the present fort, 
somewhat similar to Fort Sumter, was completed in 1860. The old fort 
is now dismantled, but plans are under way to restore it as a historical 
monument, with old artillery pieces remounted and their muzzles point- 
ing out over the Golden Gate. The OFFICERS' CLUB, once the Spanish 
comandante's headquarters and the oldest building standing in San Fran- 
cisco, is a long low adobe structure built about 1776; the Presidio 
MARKER nearby records its history. In front of the marker stand two 
old Spanish guns, named "Poder" and "San Pedro," bearing the Span- 
ish coat-of-arms and inscribed, "Lima, Peru 1673." 

On August 27, 1915, in a destructive fire at the Presidio, the wife 
and three daughters of Gen. John Pershing lost their lives. 

48. The GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE, main San Francisco ap- 
proach from the Presidio, was designed by Joseph B. Strauss, and com- 
pleted in May 1937 at a cost of $35,500,000. The huge web-like span, 
illuminated at night with strings of yellow sodium vapor lights, sus- 
pended high above the water, links northern California to the peninsula 
of San Francisco. Two enormous steel towers, erected on concrete piers, 
act as props and hold up the giant "clothes line" cables from which the 
bridge is hung. The massive steel framework of these towers consists 


of two soaring steel legs which rise in five tapering stages, with heavy 
diagonal and horizontal cross braces or struts to the cable saddles at the 
top. The legs of the tower, each 32 feet by 53 feet, rise 746 feet above 
the water (the height of a 65-story building). The skeleton super- 
structure of the towers, together with the steel framework of the bridge 
floor and the sweeping cables, forms an impressive silhouette. 

The main central span, 4,200 feet in length, is the longest single 
span in the world. The minor spans at either end are each 1,125 feet 
in length. Above are the two sagging cables, each more than a yard in 
diameter and fastened at both shores to huge concrete anchorages. The 
suspended floor structure is 90 feet wide and 25 feet deep, and supports 
a reinforced concrete six-lane roadway and sidewalks. The center of 
the span clears the water by 220 feet. 

At the south end of the bridge proper are a large steel arch passing 
over Fort Winfield Scott, four 125-foot truss spans, and finally the Toll 
Plaza, from which lead two roads, one to the northeastern section of 
San Francisco and the other southward. The Marin County end of 
the bridge has five 175-foot truss spans and is in Fort Baker, a U. S. 
Army reservation. 

49. TEMPLE EMANU-EL, Arguello Blvd. (ist Ave.) between 
Lake and Clay Sts., erected in 1925, is a huge, cream-colored concrete 
edifice of modified Byzantine design with a red tile dome. Standing in 
the Pacific Heights residential district, this temple is the home of the 
largest Jewish congregation in San Francisco. 


50. The UNITED STATES POST OFFICE, NE. corner 7th 
and Mission Sts., one of the few public buildings to withstand the fire of 
1906, is Italian Renaissance in design. Constructed of granite, it was 
built in 1905 under the direction of James Knox Taylor, then super- 
vising architect of the Treasury Department. The first floor corridors, 
decorated by skilled artisans brought from Italy, are of Pavonezza 
marble trimmed with glass mosaic; the floors and ceiling are of 
mosaic tile. 

51. The CIVIC CENTER, just off Market St., roughly bounded 
by McAllister, Franklin, Hayes, and Leavenworth Sts., has a number 
of municipal and Federal buildings designed in Italian Renaissance style 
grouped about it. 

The FEDERAL OFFICE BUILDING, McAllister St. between Leaven- 
worth and Hyde Sts., extending to Fulton St., is a five-story colonnaded 
structure built around a central court, with entrances at the north and 
south ends. The building, newest of the Civic Center group, was erected 
in 1936 and houses practically all the Federal offices of San Francisco 
except the Post Office, and those in the Appraisers Building. 

The SAN FRANCISCO PUBLIC LIBRARY (open Q a.m.-io p.m. week- 
days; 1:30-5 Sun.), SE. corner McAllister and Larkin Sts., is on the site 
of the old City Hall and Public Library destroyed in the 1906 fire. De- 
signed by George Kelham, the new granite structure was completed in 


1917, the Carnegie Foundation donating a third of the cost. The principal 
facade is designed with a colonnaded loggia at the second story, adorned 
with coupled Ionic columns and sculpture. The entrance hall and staircase, 
and the main delivery room on the second floor are finished in travertine 
marble. Along the second floor corridor are low-toned murals of California 
scenery by Gottardo Piazzoni; in the reference and reading rooms are 
murals by Frank Vincent DuMond, depicting various phases of the State's 
history. The library has an excellent music department, with a piano for 
the use of patrons wishing to try out selections. The main stack room 
accommodates 500,000 volumes, 40,000 by foreign writers; on exhibition 
and in the library are the Max John Kuhl collection of fine printing and 
binding, and the James D. Phelan Memorial, a collection of manuscripts 
and first editions of the works of California writers. 

The STATE BUILDING, McAllister St. between Larkin and Polk Sts., 
is a five-story granite structure of neo-Classic design, housing the San 
Francisco offices of the State government, chambers of the California 
Supreme Court, and the Hastings College of Law of the University of Cali- 
fornia. The LAW LIBRARY (open only to students and alumni, g-i, 2-5 
daily} contains about 46,000 volumes. 

The CIVIC AUDITORIUM (also called Municipal Auditorium and 
Exposition Auditorium), facing Grove St. between Polk and Larkin Sts., 
is a heritage from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition of 1915. 
Constructed of granite, and designed in the Italian Renaissance style, with 
a triple-arched central section, flanking wings and low octagonal dome, the 
auditorium was designed by Arthur Brown, Jr. and cost $2,000,000. The 
main auditorium has an elaborate canopied ceiling and seats more than 
10,000 persons; there are n smaller halls. The building contains one of 
the largest pipe organs ever constructed. The 1920 national convention of 
the Democratic Party was held here. 

MARSHALL SQUARE, Hyde St. from Fulton to Grove Sts. and extend- 
ing to Larkin St., used frequently for open-air meetings, is the city's nearest 
approach to a "Hyde Park." The PIONEER MONUMENT, at the southeastern 
corner, was donated in 1894 by James Lick, founder of the Lick Observa- 
tory. The work of Frank Happersberger, it is really a group of five 
monuments, the central figure representing California and the others char- 
acterizing significant periods in the State's history. 

The PUBLIC HEALTH BUILDING, SW. corner Polk and Grove Sts., 
constructed of granite and marble, is designed in harmony with the civic 
group and contains the Central Emergency Hospital, a detention hospital, 
and the offices of the city health department. 

The War Memorial Group, facing Van Ness Ave., consists of twin 
buildings erected as a unit in 1932 the MUNICIPAL OPERA HOUSE, the only 
one in the United States, and the VETERANS WAR MEMORIAL BUILDING 
both constructed of granite, and designed in modified Italian Renaissance 
style, with arched and rusticated first story walls, Doric colonnaded loggias 
and ribbed metal roofs. The Opera House seats 3,000 and possesses the 
most modern equipment. The basement has an emergency hospital and a 
buffet. The War Memorial Building, commemorating San Franciscans 
killed in the World War, is headquarters for almost 150 veterans' organ- 
izations. In the SOUVENIR AND TROPHY GALLERY {open Q-Q daily) on the 
first floor stands a granite shaft with sod from a soldier's grave inside it 
and a perpetual light burning over it. The gallery contains relics of the 
Civil, Spanish-American and World Wars. The fourth floor of the build- 
(open i-io daily], in which permanent and traveling exhibitions of all 
schools and periods are presented. 

The CITY HALL, facing Polk St. between McAllister and Grove Sts., is 
modeled after the U. S. Capitol, its dome being 13^ feet higher. Designed 
by Bakewell and Brown in the Italian Renaissance style, it is constructed 
of granite; the interior is finished with carved sandstone and marble. Its 


two main facades have central Doric pedimented pavilions, flanked by long 
two-story colonnades. The high drum of the central dome is adorned with 
a colonnade of the same order, and topped with an elaborate cupola. In 
the interior, winding stairs lead up from the center of a vast rotunda, with 
balconies on the four upper floors looking down into the lobby. Facing the 
building is a formal French garden with flower beds, fountains, tiled walks, 
and flocks of pigeons. Left of the Polk Street entrance is a bronze STATUE 
OF LINCOLN by Haig Patigian, while at the McAllister Street side is a 
MONUMENT TO HALL MCALLISTER, a distinguished lawyer of early days; it 
is the work of Robert Aitken. 

SOCIETY (open 10-4 Mon.-Fri. t 10-12 Sat.}, 456 McAllister St., 
opened in 1938 and conducted in conjunction with the Society of Cali- 
fornia Pioneers, contains rare prints and other material illustrating the 
State's history, including "State documents" by "Emperor" Norton, a 
notice of an exhibit of "the head of the renowned bandit, Joaquin 
Murrieta, and the hand of three-fingered Jack, notorious robber and 
murderer"; solid ivory poker chips used by the bonanza kings in their 
$75,000 games at the old Palace Hotel; the watch of Luis Antonio 
Arguello, first Mexican governor of California; and the whisky flask 
that Jack London carried on his celebrated voyage on the Snark. 

53. ST. MARY'S CATHEDRAL, NW. corner Van Ness Ave. 
and O'Farrell St., a brick building of Victorian Gothic design, dates 
from 1891 and is the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese of San Fran- 
cisco. The church narrowly escaped destruction in 1906 when flying 
brands ignited the belfry. Two priests climbed to the roof and extin- 
guished the blaze by means of buckets and a garden hose. 

54. In LAUREL HILL CEMETERY, entrance Bush St. and 
Presidio Ave., dating back to 1854, are tne graves of Senator David C. 
Broderick, William C. Ralston, James King of William, Senator James 
G. Fair, Senator William Sharon, and many other pioneers and mining 
kings. Samuel Woodworth, author of "The Old Oaken Bucket," has 
a tombstone here, although his body has been removed. On the tomb- 
stone of Judge Sanderson, an early jurist, is the inscription, "Final 

55. The MEMORIAL COLUMBARIUM (open 9-5, daily], en- 
trance, i Loraine Court, is a cream-colored building constructed entirely 
of stone, metal, and glass. The structure has a metal dome and is 
adorned with mosaic ornaments and stained glass windows. The only 
columbarium in San Francisco, its niches contain the ashes of more than 
25,000 persons. 

St. between Parker and Masonic Aves., opened in 1932, is a Roman 
Catholic institution offering a four-year arts course to girls of any 
denomination. The buildings, of Gothic design, are finished in pale 
pink stucco, and the campus occupies the whole arc of Lone Mountain, 
one of the city's major hills. 

tween Clayton St. and Parker Ave., founded as St. Ignatius College in 


1855, was granted a State charter in 1859. In 1930, on the 75th anni- 
versary of the founding, the name was changed to the University of San 
Francisco. After the acquisition of the present 2O-acre campus, the 
cornerstone of the first of its pinkish concrete buildings was laid in 1920. 
The university, coeducational and with an average enrollment of about 
1,000, consists of a day school for men, and a law school and night 
school for both men and women. Although the institution is controlled 
by the Jesuits, its faculty and student body are nonsectarian. 

58. ALAMO SQUARE, Fulton St. between Steiner and Scott Sts., 
and extending to Hayes St., was part of the squatter's stronghold held 
by Charles and Jack Duane in the iSso's. Charles P. (Dutch Charlie) 
Duane, a lieutenant in the political army of Senator Broderick and chief 
engineer of the fire department, narrowly escaped hanging by the vigil- 
antes in 1851 after he shot and killed a theater manager who had 
refused him free admission. The second Vigilance Committee "de- 
ported" him from the city, and the municipality finally gained possession 
of the property in 1877 a ^ ter nme separate suits. 

is still in process of rehabilitation (1939). A few of the old wooden 
buildings erected when the college was founded in 1899 still remain, 
but they are being superseded by one-story buff colored concrete build- 
ings of Mediterranean style. On the campus are tennis and basketball 
courts, and the Roberts Stadium. This was originally a teachers' col- 
lege, being distinguished in the field by the pioneer work of Dr. Fred- 
erick Burk; authorized in 1937 to offer a B.Ed, degree, it has a faculty 
of 8 1 and 1,970 students. 

60. The UNITED STATES MINT, NW. corner Duboce Ave. 
and Buchanan St., completed in 1937, replaced the old mint at 5th and 
Mission Streets, where Bret Harte once worked. The present struc- 
ture, designed by Gilbert Stanley Underwood, Treasury Department 
architect, was built at a cost of $1,500,000. Three stories high in the 
rear and five in front, it has heavy exterior walls of reinforced concrete 
and granite. The seventy of the walls is relieved by a row of medallions 
below the fourth floor, representing all coins issued by the United States. 
Precautions against robbery include electrically controlled doors, a gun 
tower, and tear gas lines. The Mint stands on a loo-foot cliff, with 
foundations set deep into solid rock, and was considered impregnable 
until January 1939, when two schoolboys by daylight scaled a wall by 
means of a drain pipe, slipped through a window opened for ventila- 
tion, and threw out a copper plate, "just to see if it could be done." 

61. The SPANISH WAR MONUMENT, just below Market 
St. in the parkway that intersects Dolores St., a Tilden sculpture, 
erected in honor of California's volunteers in the Spanish-American 
War, represents an equestrian Victory of heroic size, with a young 
soldier marching beside her. 

62. The MISSION DOLORES (open 9-5 daily, May-Sept.; 9:30- 
4:30, Oct. -Apr.), Dolores St. between i6th and I7th Sts., was founded 
in 1776 by Father Junipero Serra. First named in honor of St. Francis 


of Assisi, common usage soon gave it the name of Mision de los Dolores 
from a nearby marsh known as Laguna de Nuestra Senora de los 
Dolores (Lagoon of Our Lady of Sorrows). The first mass was sung 
five days before the Declaration of Independence was signed at Phila- 
delphia. The adobe building was begun in 1782 and is an unusual 
example of Spanish mission architecture. Due to the angle of the 
coping line on the fagade, the original roof line is believed to have been 
changed. The rectangular structure is constructed of stone covered 
with plaster. The fagade is designed with a simple arched entrance 
and a superimposed surface colonnade of crudely shaped Doric columns. 
A thin iron railing once extended along the cornice above the doorway. 
The side and rear walls have been covered with clapboards. No nails 
were used in its construction; the wooden beams of the arched roof 
were tied with leather thongs by Indian workmen. The Indians 
painted the interior walls with vegetable colors that are still bright after 
more than 150 years. The high hand-carved altar covered with gold 
leaf was brought from Mexico in 1870. The earthquake of 1906 dam- 
aged the building, but failed to raze it. 

Behind the mission in the high-walled, flower-covered GRAVEYARD 
are buried many of the famous dead of San Francisco's early days, 
including Don Luis Argiiello, a native San Franciscan and the first 
governor of California under Mexican rule. Argiiello was a brother to 
Concepcion Argiiello, famed in California legend and stories because of 
a romantic love affair with Rezanov, the Russian plenipotentiary. The 
graves of Casey and Cora, hanged by the vigilantes in 1856, are a 
reminder of lawless days. Many of the graves are unmarked. 

63. MOUNT OLYMPUS, lyth and Clayton Sts., is crowned with 
the LIBERTY MONUMENT, the work of the Belgian sculptor, Antoine 
Wiertz, and a gift of Adolph Sutro in 1887. Sometimes called "The 
Triumph of Light," it portrays a woman symbolizing Liberty, with a 
male figure, representing Despotism, cowering at her feet. The figure's 
torch and sword, it is said, were removed by ship masters because the 
statue threw them off their course to the Golden Gate. 

64. TWIN PEAKS (910 alt.), Twin Peaks Blvd., appear in 
legends of the Tamal Indians, and were called by the Spanish Los 
Pechos de la Choca (the breasts of the Indian maiden). The figure- 
eight drive around the peaks affords a wide view from all vantage points. 
At night the lights of the city twinkle far below. The long tunnel con- 
structed under Twin Peaks by the Municipal Railway, leading from 
Market Street to the St. Francis Wood and Ingleside districts, stimu- 
lated the development of these residential districts. On Twin Peaks 
will be erected Beniamino Bufano's i8o-foot stainless steel statue of St. 
Francis, storm center of a spirited controversy. 

OF CALIFORNIA, Parnassus Ave. between Arguello Blvd. and 4th 
Ave., consist of the Hooper Foundation for Medical Research, the 
University of California Hospital, and the Schools of Medicine and 
Dentistry of the University of California. The Hooper Foundation 


and the Medical Research Library (private) are housed in a single 
brown brick building; the Dental School in another. The Hospital, the 
Medical School, and the Experimental Research Laboratory are in new 
buildings of concrete and white stone. The Hooper Foundation con- 
ducts experiments in hygiene, surgery, and preventive medicine, and has 
accomplished important work in botulism, infantile paralysis, sleeping 
sickness, and undulant fever. 

66. SUTRO FOREST, a large tract northwest of Twin Peaks and 
through which paved roads have been constructed, is dark with cypress 
and eucalyptus trees, and alive with small animals and birds. The forest 
was planted by Adolph Sutro in the iSyo's and has been enlarged by 
additional plantings by school children. Mount Sutro, 909 feet high, 
occupies the center of the area; this originally barren hill was part of 
San Miguel Rancho. 

(Along the Ocean) 

67. LINCOLN PARK, entrance 33rd Ave. and Clement St., ex- 
tends northwest almost to the ocean. A flagpole in the park marks the 
western terminus of the Lincoln Highway (US 3040). Here at one 
time were the city's cemeteries, each segregated according to nationality. 
The old Chinese Cemetery is now the Municipal Golf Links, on which 
the first hazard is the sacrifice stone, a stone oven used for roasting pigs 
to propitiate the gods. Near the I5th green is a 25-foot bronze monu- 
ment to Mrs. Rebecca H. Lambert, founder of the Ladies' Seamen's 
Friend Society. 

The PALACE OF THE LEGION OF HONOR (open 10-5 dally; free 
organ recitals 3-4, Sat. and Sun.), adjacent to the golf links, is designed 
in the manner of the Legion of Honor Palace in Paris. The entrance 
to the classic U-shaped building is through an impressive forecourt in 
form of an Ionic peristyle with a massive central arch. It was con- 
structed as an art museum and presented to San Francisco in 1924 by 
Mr. and Mrs. Adolph B. Spreckels as a memorial to the California 
soldiers who lost their lives in the World War. The palace has 19 
galleries exhibiting permanent and loan collections of paintings, sculp- 
ture, porcelain, tapestry, antique furniture and prints ; it also has a little 
theater, two enclosed gardens, and a pipe organ used for recitals. 

68. LAND'S END, a precipitous promontory reached by a path 
leading northeast from Lincoln Park along the route of the former 
"Scenic Route" streetcar line, has long been a favorite haunt of lovers 
of the sea. From here is a fine view of Mile Rock Lighthouse, a few 
hundred feet offshore, which can be reached by boat (by arrangement 
with U. S. Lighthouse Service at Customs-house). Beyond Mile Rock, 
toward the Marin shore, is an area of ocean known as the Potato Patch, 
usually covered with whitecaps, which mark a navigable channel 
through the dangerous shoals near Golden Gate. 

69. SUTRO HEIGHTS (house private; visitors on foot permitted 
in garden), Point Lobos Ave. and Great Highway, was the home of 
Adolph Sutro, Nevada capitalist and former mayor of San Francisco. 


The house, built in 1879, is surrounded by a 20-acre garden donated to 
the city by Sutro's daughter, Dr. Emma Sutro Merritt; the shrubbery 
is dotted with marble statues from Belgium, carried to San Francisco 
in ships as ballast. 

70. CLIFF HOUSE, Great Highway opposite Sutro Heights, has 
been a noted restaurant since the first house of that name was built in 
1858. The original Cliff House, bought by Adolph Sutro in 1883, 
was destroyed by fire in 1894, and its successor likewise in 1907. The 
present house, erected in 1907, was remodeled and reopened after being 
vacant a number of years. The building has a dining room overlooking 
the ocean, and a redwood cocktail bar. From the lookout platform by 
the Cliff House is a view offshore of the sharply pointed SEAL ROCKS, 
on which hundreds of "seals" (actually California sea lions) disport 
themselves, being protected by State law. Binoculars can be rented for 
a close-up view. On clear days the Farallon Islands are visible. 

OCEAN BEACH, extending from the Cliff House to Golden Gate 
Park, is not much used for bathing at this end because of a strong under- 
tow, but the Esplanade flanking the beach affords a broad view of the 
Pacific Ocean and is crowded with sun bathers on warm days. On the 
east side of the Great Highway below Sutro Heights is a miniature 
Coney Island, with restaurants and the usual attractions. 

71. The FLEISHHACKER POOL (open 8-5 daily], PLAY- 
GROUND (open 9-5 daily), and ZOO (open 10-5 daily), Great 
Highway and Sloat Blvd., occupy a 128-acre tract. The open-air pool 
is 1,000 by 100 feet, with a i5O-foot offset in the center for races, and 
contains 6,500,000 gallons of water. It has locker accommodations for 
5,000, and 20 lifeguards are on duty. 

On the Playground are tennis courts, a baseball field, sand boxes, a 
miniature steam railway, and a wading pool. 

The Zoo is being remodeled (1939) by the Works Progress Ad- 
ministration on the cageless plan, under which the animals will live in 
a reproduction of their natural environment with deep moats between 
them and the public. The zoo has 900 specimens, including a notable 
collection of members of the cat family. 

72. MOUNT DAVIDSON (956 alt.), in Mount Davidson Park 
and accessible only on foot, is the highest point in the city. On the sum- 
mit stands the Easter Cross of concrete and steel, iO3-feet high, before 
which Easter sunrise services are held, attended by 60,000 persons and 
broadcast from coast to coast. During Easter Week floodlights illum- 
inate the cross. At its base is a crypt containing relics from Palestine; 
the crypt is sealed with concrete mixed with water from the Holy Land. 
The present permanent cross is the fifth on the site. 

(Golden Gate Park) 

73. GOLDEN GATE PARK, Stanyan St. between Fulton St. and 
Lincoln Way, extending to the ocean, contains 1,013 acres. A half 
mile wide and more than four miles long with its "Panhandle" to the 


east, the park was created from bare sand dunes in the 1870*5 by John 
McLaren, a Scotsman, who is still superintendent (1939) in spite of his 
9O-odd years. The park is noted for its rhododendrons; the Midwinter 
Fair of 1894 was held here. 

KEZAR STADIUM, Frederick St. between Stanyan St. and Arguello Blvd., 
is a concrete bowl accommodating 60,000 spectators. Municipally owned, 
it is the scene of the annual All-Star East and West football game on New 
Year's Day sponsored by the Shrine. During football season the stadium 
is used by college teams that are not members of the Coast League. 

The CONSERVATORY has a collection of rare orchids and begonias, and 
many varieties of ferns. In front of the Conservatory is a large flower bed 
on which various messages adapted to the season or special events are 
spelled out with flowers. The building, similar to the conservatory in Kew 
Gardens, London, was bought by popular subscription. 

The DEYOUNG MEMORIAL MUSEUM (open 10-5 weekdays; 1-5 Sun.; closed 
holidays] houses a broad art and historical collection, much of which has 
never been catalogued. The museum is especially rich in Aztec, Mayan, 
Incan, and pre-Columbian American Indian art. The original building 
was a gift of M. H. deYoung in 1919; in 1920 a new wing, designed by 
Louis C. Mullgardt in the Spanish Renaissance style with elaborate bas- 
relief frieze and cresting, was added, with sculptures by Haig Patigian. 
This wing includes 56 galleries and a sunken court. Near the museum, 
among other statues, are the ROBERT BURNS STATUE, by Earl Cummings, the 
MENT by Jo Mora, depicting Don Quixote and Sancho Panza kneeling 
before their creator. 

A stone BANDSTAND, the gift of Claus Spreckels, is an open-air shell in 
the Music Concourse; the Municipal Band presents concerts here every 
Sunday afternoon. 

The JAPANESE TEA GARDEN, an authentic reproduction of an original in 
Nippon, includes a zashiki, or Japanese home ; a granite shrine with an 
altar; and an arched bridge built in the shape of a drum. In and around 
the thatched tea houses, rice cakes and tea are sold by girls dressed in 
native costume. 

The NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM (open 10-4 weekdays; 10-5 Sun. and 
holidays], together with the Steinhart Aquarium and the Simson African 
Hall, is conducted by the California Academy of Sciences. The museum 
contains departments of ornithology, herpetology, and paleontology, but the 
half million persons who visit it annually are mainly attracted by its 
mammal groups, mounted animals in social or family assemblage against 
natural backgrounds. Other exhibits include flowers, semiprecious stones, 
butterflies, herbariums, and Indian baskets. Set in the pavement at the 
main entrance of the academy building are four old millstones, the oldest 
of which was brought around the Horn for use in a local flour mill in 1851. 

SIMSON AFRICAN HALL (open 1-5 Sun., 1-4. Wed.}, was built in 1932 
to house a number of habitat groups of African mammals collected by 
Leslie Simson and mounted by Frank Tose, who spent many years in 
Africa. In the basement is an exhibit of fish, and on the second floor one 
of insects, neither of which is specifically African. 

The STEINHART AQUARIUM (open 10-5 daily, 1-4. in winter], approached 
through an open court in which are five large pools, was named for 
Ignatz Steinhart, who donated $240,000 for its foundation. The large 
reinforced concrete aquarium contains one of the most colorful collections 
of live fish in the world, including many Hawaiian and Orieiftal speci- 
mens. Outside the aquarium is a tank in which California sea lions swim 
and sun themselves on artificial rocks. 

The SHAKESPEARE GARDEN, suggested in 1923 by Miss Alice Eastwood of 
the Academy of Sciences, contains every flower mentioned in Shakespeare's 


plays. The only duplicate of the bust of Shakespeare in the Stratford 
(England) church was presented to the city by Sir Archibald Flower, mayor 
of Stratford-on-Avon. This bust is preserved, and a bronze reproduction 
is displayed in the garden. 

STOW LAKE, the largest of the park's ponds, all of which are artificial, 
holds 25,000,000 gallons of water and is densely populated with waterfowl, 
from mud hens to swans. The San Francisco Fly Casting Club, with 
headquarters here, holds contests every Saturday and Sunday from March 
to November. 

The PRAYER BOOK CROSS, a gift of George W. Childs, Philadelphia pub- 
lisher, is an lona cross of Colusa marble, 57 feet high, designed by Ernest 
Coxhead and erected under the auspices of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese 
of Northern California. It commemorates the first Christian service held 
in English on the Pacific Coast, in 1579, by Sir Francis Drake's chaplain 
on the shore of Drake's Bay (see TOUR la). 

On Lloyd Lake, beyond Lindley Meadow, is the celebrated PORTAL OF 
THE PAST, a classic marble doorway from the A. N. Towne home destroyed 
in the fire of 1906. The doorway, flanked by Irish yews, bears an inscrip- 
tion relating its history. 

SPRECKELS LAKE is the scene of miniature yacht races every Sunday. The 
owners of the model yachts, built to scale, complete in detail, and not more 
than three feet long, are members of a model yacht association and hold 
occasional regattas. Beyond Spreckels Lake is the Chain of Lakes, a 
"waterscaped" series of artificial lakelets with artificial islands and banks 
of waterlilies. 

The DUTCH WINDMILLS, facing the ocean, at the northwestern and south- 
western corners of the park, are operated by electric pumps. The water 
enters a reservoir two miles away to feed the park lakes. To the left of 
the northern windmill is the ship GJOA (pronounced Yoah), presented to 
the city by the late Roald Amundsen, the Norwegian explorer. This tiny 
vessel was the first craft to navigate the Northwest Passage, the objective 
of many of the early voyages to the New World. 

ELK GLEN is a fenced enclosure containing several varieties of elk, so 
tame that they accept leaves and grass from visitors' hands. 

Beyond the ARBORETUM, which includes trees from many parts of the 
world, the southeastern section of the park is devoted to recreation, with a 
baseball park, handball courts, bowling greens, and a children's playground. 
To the north is DELAVEAGA DELL, with its rhododendrons and bear pits. 


74. ALCATRAZ ISLAND (Sp., pelican), in the bay between San 
Francisco and Sausalito, is one of the world's most feared and widely 
publicized penal institutions, the Federal prison for incorrigibles (visi- 
tors by wardens permission only). Alcatraz, known colloquially as 
"The Rock," a 12-acre island, was fortified by the Spanish prior to 
American occupation. From 1859 it was used as a military prison and 
a United States Army disciplinary barracks; during and after the 
World War many conscientious objectors were removed here from Fort 
Leavenworth. Alcatraz was made a Federal penitentiary in 1933, to 
house unruly prisoners from other Federal institutions. The rigid dis- 
cipline, its elaborate barriers to prevent escape, including the "electric 
eye" to detect the presence of metal on a prisoner, and the names of its 
notorious inmates have combined to make thousands of newspaper head- 
lines. Swift currents flowing around a The Rock" make escape by water 


practically impossible. Two prisoners made the attempt in 1938, but 
their ultimate success or failure is unknown. 

75. ANGEL ISLAND {Government boats make free trips from 
Fort Mason and Pier 5, Ferry Building, daily, 7 a.m.-i2 p.m.), N. of 
Alcatraz and the largest island in the bay, is the district headquarters 
and detention barracks of the Immigration and Naturalization Service; 
here immigrants arriving via the Pacific are received, and deportees to 
the Orient and the Antipodes are shipped out. It is also the quarantine 
station of the Public Health Service, and an overseas replacement depot 
for the U. S. Army. 

The first white visitor to the island was Juan Manuel de Ayala, 
who came in 1775 and gave the island its name. In 1851 a prison brig 
was anchored near it, but escape proved too easy and the prisoners were 
removed to San Quentin, which was completed in 1854. Angel Island 
was the scene of many duels, the most famous being the Johnston- 
Ferguson encounter in 1858, over the slavery question. Senator Wil- 
liam I. Ferguson was killed, and his antagonist, George P. Johnston, 
clerk of the U. S. Circuit Court, was tried and acquitted. In 1853 
Johnston, then an assemblyman, had advocated severer punishment for 

76. The FARALLON ISLANDS (closed) consist of three groups 
of small islands in the Pacific, 26 miles west of the mainland, and visible 
on clear days from the Cliff House and other points. They are a con- 
stituent part of San Francisco, yet no county or city official may set foot 
on them without the permission of the lighthouse superintendent. The 
bare waterless islands are inhabited by four lighthouse keepers, seven 
Navy men in charge of the Radio Beam Compass Station, and their 
families. The light, one of the most powerful on the coast, stands 358 
feet above water at high tide. The islands are a bird refuge; only 
Italian fishermen visit the Farallon Banks regularly. 


San Jose 

Railroad Stations: 65 Cahill St. for Southern Pacific Lines. 
Bus Stations: Union Bus Station, 25 S. Market St., for Pacific Greyhound and 
Peerless Stages; San Jose Travel Bureau, 44 W. San Carlos St., for Airline Bus 
Line and Dollar Line. 

Airport: San Jose Airport, 4.2 m. NW. of business district; taxi 6otf to 85^; 
no scheduled service. 

Taxis: Meter system, 15$ first half-mile, 10$ each additional half-mile, no 
charge for extra passengers ; zone system, 10^ to 25$, 10$ for each additional 

City Busses: Fare 7^, 4 tokens for 25$. 

Traffic Regulations: Pedestrians have right-of-way except at controlled cross- 

Accommodations: 33 hotels; nine auto trailer camps. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, Civic Auditorium, San Carlos 
and S. Market Sts.; American Automobile Assn., 926 The Alameda; California 
State Auto Assn., 1024 The Alameda. 

Radio Station: KQW (1010 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Main Theater and Dunn Little Theater 

in Civic Auditorium, San Carlos and S. Market Sts., road shows and concerts; 

10 motion picture houses. 

Golf: Hillview Public Golf Course, Tully Rd. and Swift Lane, 18 holes, greens 

fee 50$ weekdays, 75$ Sat., $i Sun. and holidays. 

Tennis: San Jose Tennis Courts, 7th and E. Humboldt Sts., lighted; Backesto 

Park, i3th and Jackson Sts., 12 courts; City Playfield, Home St. and Delmas 

Ave., 4 courts. 

Swimming: Alum Rock Park, 7 m. NE. on Alum Rock Ave. (pool open Mar.- 

Nov.), adm. 50$, includes suit and towel, children, 25^; Roosevelt Junior High 

School pool (open to public during evenings in summer), i7th and Santa Clara 

Sts., adm. 35$, includes suit and towel. 

Riding: Twenty-five miles of bridle paths in Alum Rock Park, 7 m. NE. on 

Alum Rock Ave.; $i first hour, 75$ each hour thereafter. 

Annual Events: Maximum bloom of 100,000 roses in Municipal Rose Garden, 
Naglee and Dana Aves., early May; Fiesta de las Rosas Golf Tournament, 
Hillview Public Golf Course, Sept. 

SAN JOSE (pronounced San Ho-say'; 100 alt., 57,651 pop.) is built 
on the flat alluvial soil of the Santa Clara Valley at the southern 
and shallow end of San Francisco Bay, 50 miles south of San Francisco. 
The city itself is eight miles from the waters of the bay, separated by 
low ground and marshlands. Mountains are visible from almost any 
point in the city: brown, bare foothills merge into the peaks of the 
Mount Hamilton Range to the east and to the west is the green and 
thickly wooded Coast Range. These mountains trap rains and fogs 
generated over the ocean and give San Jose a semi-arid climate with no 



rain at all during the summer months. The Guadalupe and Coyote 
Rivers run through the city, but water flows in their channels only in 
early spring. 

San Jose's business district, compact and busy, particularly during 
the packing season, is roughly in the form of a cross, with its arms 
running north and south and east and west. * Office buildings, depart- 
ment stores, hotels, theaters, and shops are grouped along First and 
Santa Clara Streets. The geographical center of town is the crossing 
of these two streets. West of First Street, business buildings merge 
into an industrial district of shops, warehouses, garages, and factories. 

East of First Street is the older residential district, its streets run- 
ning at right angles, landscaped with lawns, gardens, and rows of palms, 
oaks, and willows. The older houses are of frame construction, built of 
local redwood; newer residences are stucco. North of the business 
district on First Street is another of the older residential sections frame 
mansions built during the iSyo's and i88o's. These sedate homes give 
way farther out to bungalows and more pretentious houses in the 
Spanish-Colonial style. Fringing the city limits are new residential 

Santa Clara (see TOUR 2b) is a separate city northwest of San 
Jose, but connected with it by solid blocks of houses and stores. The 
main artery between the two cities is The Alameda, a broad avenue 
lined with willow trees originally planted as windbreaks and for pro- 
tection against wild cattle. Along The Alameda are some fine examples 
of the gingerbread school of architecture: large Victorian frame man- 
sions with tall windows, towers and turrets, stained glass, intricate fret- 
work decorations, built by wealthier citizens during the city's first agri- 
cultural prosperity; they are being gradually replaced by modern 

San Jose was California's first town, as distinguished from forts and 
missions, and was the first capital of the State following American 
occupation. It is the seat of Santa Clara County, and has a State 
College, which was the first and for many years the only normal school 
in California. 

First known inhabitants of this section were the Olhone Indians, 
who painted themselves with cinnabar ore from New Almaden and 
worshiped the sun. Mission life and white men's diseases and ways 
gradually exterminated them. An anthropologist in San Jose has a 
standing offer of $500 to anyone who will bring him a full-blooded 

The population now includes a few descendants of early Spanish 
settlers, such as the Bernals, Ortegas, Peraltas, and Berryessas; a solid 
core of "old families" descended from Americans who settled after 
1840; farmers, workers, business and professional men, students, and 
teachers, all largely of native American stock; and groups of Italians, 
Mexicans, Portuguese, Slavs, and a few Negroes, attracted by farming 
and industry. These groups retain only a few of their folk ways, chiefly 
manifested in religious festivals. 


On November 29, 1777, in response to orders from the viceroy of 
Mexico, nine soldiers, five pobladores (settlers) with their families, and 
one cowboy, were detailed to found the Pueblo de San Jose de Guada- 
lupe, named in honor of St. Joseph. This was the first of a series of 
towns established in Alta^California to foster agriculture and handicraft 
and make the territory self-supporting. Each man was allotted two 
cows, two oxen, two mules, two sheep, two goats, seed, necessary imple- 
ments for cultivation of the soil, and was promised monthly stipends 
of about $10 during his first years. The missions were not pleased 
by this encroachment, but could do nothing about it. The first settlers 
built their small huts about a mile north of the present business section. 
In later years the town was moved to higher ground because of seasonal 
floods from the Guadalupe River. 

Mexico broke from the Spanish Crown in 1821, and the Mexican 
flag was raised over Monterey, the capital, the next April (1822) ; but 
it was not until May 10, 1825, that San Jose got around to acknowl- 
edging Mexican rule. Then there was a three-day public celebration, 
complete with music and dancing. 

In 1831 the town had only 524 residents (Indians were not 
counted). The chief industry was stock raising; only enough crops 
were grown to satisfy local needs. The main interest of the young 
bloods was the bull and bear fights; bears were lassoed in the foothills 
and brought back to town in a bullock cart. The bear and bull were 
tied together and the fight continued one bear usually being good for 
three or four bulls until a fresh bull finally gored the tired bear to 

In the i84o's, with the beginning of mass emigration from the East 
on the overland route, San Jose began to grow. Descendants of such 
noted expeditions as the Bidwell-Bartleson, the Donner, and the Murphy 
parties still live in San Jose, some of them grown rich through min- 
ing and real estate operations. 

When Capt. Thomas Fallon, with 19 men, entered San Jose on 
July 14, 1846 and raised the United States flag over the town hall, he 
found a sleepy pueblo, its population composed mostly of Mexicans, 
Peruvians, Chileans, Spanish Californians, and Indians. The gold rush 
changed all that. San Jose became one of the supply cities for men on 
their way to and from the mines in the Sierra foothills. It grew so 
fast that in 1849 it was the logical choice for State capital. 

The first California Legislature convened in San Jose on Dec. 15, 
1849. It was known as "the legislature of a thousand drinks." Because 
of the shortage of local women, the countryside was "raked for 
senoritas," who, at the appointed time, made their appearance at the 
Assembly Hall and danced and imbibed with the solons of the region. 
"The legislators were good drinkers they drank like men. If they 
could not stand the ceremony on any particular occasion, they would lie 
down to it with a becoming grace." Drinking and gaiety did not end 
with the first grand ball. A fandango usually cheered the weary legis- 
lators each evening after strenuous hours of deliberation. But accom- 


modatfons were poor in San Jose and in Feb. 1851, the capital was 
moved to Benicia. 

Meanwhile the city was incorporated in 1850, with a population of 
3,000. Stage and boat connections were established with San Francisco, 
but were discontinued in 1864 when the first railroad came through. 
In the i88o's the steady growth of the city was stimulated by a real 
estate boom which came to a climax in August 1887. Land sales 
zoomed to a high of $2,000,000 a day, and then collapsed. After the 
Civil War, when the gold fever had run its course, experiments in prune 
and apricot growing were made in the fertile regions around the city. 
Growth of apricots, prunes, and grapes promised to be profitable. Ranch 
land rose in value, and San Jose, with its rail connections, became the 
region's logical shipping center. 

San Jose is today the largest canning and dried-fruit packing center 
in the world, and a distributing point for the prune and apricot industry. 
There are 18 canneries, 13 dried-fruit packing houses, and 12 fresh-fruit 
and vegetable shipping firms. It was one of the first California cities to 
develop industries for making all the mechanical equipment for special- 
ized farming or ranching, as it is called in the West. There are also 
pottery works, meat-packing houses, lumber and boatbuilding yards, and 


CITY HALL PARK, a double landscaping of S. Market St. be- 
tween San Carlos and W. San Fernando Sts., is the civic center of San 
Jose. The Civic AUDITORIUM, San Carlos and S. Market Sts., is a 
one-and-a-half-story, yellow concrete building, erected in 1936. Besides 
offices, it contains the Main and Little (Dunn) Theaters. CITY HALL, 
at the south end of the park, a four-story red brick building, contains 
city offices. North of City Hall is a plaque commemorating the site of 
California's first State capitol. The actual site is at San Antonio and 
South Market Streets. 

ST. JAMES PARK, N. 1st St. between St. John and St. James 
Sts.j is planted with shrubs and flowers and is distinguished for its tall 
palms and elm trees. In 1933 two men accused of kidnapping and mur- 
dering the son of a wealthy merchant were dragged from jail and 
hanged to trees in the park. The country rang with details of the 
lynching, and James Rolph, Jr., then Governor, caused further re- 
verberations by approving the mob's action. The trees, stripped of bark 
and twigs by souvenir hunters, had to be cut down. 

COUNTY COURT HOUSE, on ist St. facing the park, of classic 
design with a wide portico supported by Corinthian columns and sur- 
mounted by a dome, was built in 1866-68. 

SAN JOSE STATE COLLEGE, main entrance S. 4th and San 
Antonio Sts., in the center of Washington Park, is the oldest State- 
owned public educational institution in California. It was opened on 
this site in 1862. The original building, a towering frame structure 
built of California redwood, burned in the seventies and was replaced 


by a four-story brick building, fronted by a wide lawn. In the early 
igoo's the campus was enlarged to 26 acres, and the older buildings 
were erected at this time. New groups of California mission style build- 
ings have been added, with red tile roofs and arched windows. The 
student body numbers 2,600. 

The EDWIN MARKHAM HOME, 430 S. 8th St., is a simple 
three-story redwood building with a wide front porch a typical family 
home of the period. The poet lived here between 1857 an d J 899; in the 
last year of his residence here he wrote "The Man with the Hoe." 
The building is now the infirmary, or Health Home, of the San Jose 
State College, from which Markham was graduated. 

The SOUTHERN PACIFIC STATION, main entrance on The 
Alameda at Stockton Ave., built in 1935, is of glazed brick in yellow 
and dull red shades. It is designed in a modified mission style, modern- 
ized by bronze doors and window frames. In the waiting room is a 
mural by J. MacQuarrie depicting an early California scene, with sky- 
scrapers and a railroad train in the background. 

glee Ave., is the center of the Ancient and Mystical Order of the Rosy 
Cross (AMORC) for the Western Hemisphere, This fraternal order 
claims to be the only genuine representative of the ancient Rosicrucian 
Order, and states that it is neither a school, a forum, nor a religious 
body. The buildings are all of stone and concrete in the Egyptian style 
of architecture. 

(open 9-5 Mon.-Fri., 7:30-9 Mon., 9-1 Sat., 12-5 Sun.; guide) the 
walls, painted in the ancient Egyptian manner, are hung with gold and 
bronze plaques and with tapestries said to be from temples in Cairo and 
Luxor. The interior is lighted by artificial moonlight. The Museum 
contains a full-size reproduction of an Egyptian rock tomb of the seven- 
teenth or eighteenth dynasty. 

The PLANETARIUM (open 3:45-5 and 7:30-9 Sun., free; lecture 
and demonstration 4 and 8 p.m. Sun., adm. 25$, children 15$) is one 
of the few in the United States and the only one in northern California. 

The AMENHOTEP SHRINE, a stone pylon in the center of the park, 
bears a descriptive tablet. The other buildings include the Francis 
Bacon Auditorium and Convention Hall, the Science Lecture Hall and 
Laboratories (for classes and correspondence courses in "esoteric 
science"), and the General Administration Building and Library. 

Naglee and Dana Aves., of five-and-a-half acres, was opened in 1931. 
The finest collection of roses in the United States has been built up by 
donations from private sources. Mrs. Fremont Older gave bushes from 
1 8 of the 21 California mission gardens. Besides 1,686 varieties of old- 
fashioned climbing and hedge roses, there are 42 species, 2,451 varieties 
of show roses, two of which have never been on the market. Choice 
items are the red and white Lancaster- York rose, symbolizing the peace 
that ended the English War of the Roses; the Damascene rose of the 


Crusaders; and the Viridifolia, a Chinese rose with green petals. In 
the center of the garden is a reflecting pool, bordered by copper-colored 
and yellow roses. The garden is at its best early in May, when 100,000 
are in bloom, but there are always blossoms. 


Winchester Mystery House, externalization of a psychopathic mind, 4 m.; 
Alum Rock Park, 8.5 m.; New Almaden Village and Quicksilver Mines, 
worked since 1844, 12.3 m.; Lick Observatory, 18.8 m. (see TOUR 2b). 


Santa Barbara 

Railroad Stations: State and Montecito Sts. for Southern Pacific Lines. 

Bus Station: 29 W. Carrillo St. for Greyhound Lines. 

Airport: Municipal at Goleta, 8 miles N. on US 101, for United Air Lines; 

taxi $i, time 20 min. 

Taxis: 15^ first % m., 10^ each additional l / 2 m. ; five passengers permitted 

for one fare. 

Busses: $$ and 10^ fare zones. 

Traffic Regulations: Pedestrians have right-of-way at all street crossings. 

Accommodations: 18 hotels; auto courts. 

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 14 E. Carrillo St.; Community 
Center, Carrillo and De la Vina Sts. 

Radio Station: KDB (1500 kc.), KTMS (1220 kc.). 

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Lobero Theater, 33 E. Canon Perdido 
St., commercial and community productions; four motion picture houses. 
Golf: Montecito Country Club, Summit Road, Montecito, 3.7 m., 18 holes, guest 
cards available through Santa Barbara Golfers' Association; greens fee $i 
weekdays, $1.50 Sun. and holidays; club rental, 75$ per set. La Cumbre Golf 
and Country Club, Modoc Road (Hope Ranch), 4 m., fee $1.50 per day, short- 
time memberships available. 

Tennis: Oak Park, W. Junipero St. at Mission Creek; Plaza del Mar, W. 
Cabrillo Blvd. and Castillo St., meter lights; Biltmore Hotel courts, Channel 
Drive and Olive Mill Rd., Montecito, free; Stadium Tennis Courts, US 101, 
opposite Bird Refuge, 9 courts, 4 meter lighted. Shower and lockers free in 

Swimming: West Beach, 320 W. Cabrillo Blvd., still water and surf, public 
dressing rooms, 20$ up; East Beach, E. Cabrillo Blvd. and Por la Mar Drive, 
surf, dressing rooms, May to Sept., 20$; wading pool for children. 
Riding: 30 miles of bridle paths in foothills, 20 on beaches; rates usually $i 
per hour. 

Polo: Fleischmann Field, Serena, 8 miles E. on US 101, Dec.-Apr., free week- 
days, 50^ Sun.; July-Sept., 50^ daily. 

Fishing: Surf fishing off breakwater and Stearns Wharf, S. end of State St. 
Deep-sea and channel fishing for halibut, tuna, marlin, swordfish, mackerel, cod, 
and black sea bass; boats for rent at Stearns Wharf. 

Annual Events: Garden Tours, from Recreation Center, no E. Carrillo St., 
spring and summer; Old Spanish Days, 3 days full moon of each Aug.; horse 
and dog show in summer; Semana Nautica, marine celebration, July 4; Artists' 
Street Fair, July. 

SANTA BARBARA (37 alt., 33,613 pop.) lies on a coastal shelf 
that rises from a curving beach into the southern slopes of the Santa 
Ynez Mountains. With its extensive landscaped estates, and the pre- 
dominant Spanish flavor of its architecture, Santa Barbara has long 
maintained a reputation of ease and leisure, principally because of its 



large proportion of wealthy residents. The earthquake of 1925 created 
the opportunity to condense within a few years the rebuilding of a city 
in harmony with the dominant architectural motif. As a result, it has 
an air of spaciousness and quiet comfort; even the railroad roundhouse 
is disguised, and looks like a Spanish bull ring. 

During the iSyo's the city overcame a temptation to number and 
letter its streets, which commemorate ancient Spanish families (De la 
Guerra, Carrillo), the Indians (Yanonali), and even an outlaw 
(Valerio). Canon Perdido (lost cannon), Salsipuedes (get out if you 
can), and Indio Muerto (dead Indian) all refer to episodes in Santa 
Barbara's history. 

Santa Barbara has carefully preserved the beauty of its waterfront. 
From the foot of State Street a broad strand stretches for several miles 
to the east, a large section of it operated by the city as a public bathing 
beach. The paralleling highway is landscaped, and an area of marsh- 
land near the beach's eastern extremity has been converted into a bird 

The city is bisected by its main thoroughfare, State Street, which 
carries a steady stream of coastwise motor traffic. It is flanked by 
residential sections, the more restricted areas being to the north. Upper 
State Street is lined with swanky shops and motion picture theaters; 
the lower end is a district of second-hand stores, "second-run" movie 
houses, drinking places, and a small Mexican quarter. A few hun- 
dred Negroes also live in this area, and there is a small group of 
Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos near the old presidio area. In out- 
lying districts meandering streets and roads conform to the rolling 
and hilly terrain. 

For three days during the full moon in August the city returns to 
its past in "Old Spanish Days," a fiesta inaugurated in 1924. It com- 
mences with a reception and pageant held on the steps of the old 
Mission, where Franciscan padres welcome the participants beneath 
chiming ancient bells. The following afternoon thousands line the 
main streets for the parade, depicting the city's past from Indian times 
to the arrival of American troops. Squealing carretas (carts) carry 
old Spanish families, and scores of fine horses mounted by distin- 
guished visitors pass between red and gold banners along the line of 
march. Gaily caparisoned serenaders stroll the streets singing songs 
of Spanish days, and descendants of pioneer families dance the folk 
dances of their forefathers. There is a pageant on the site of a 
Canalino village, street dances every night, and a variety of free 

In 1542, when the navigator Cabrillo came up the coast, he was 
met in the channel by a fleet of Canalino (channel) Indians, who 
greeted him from great canoes. Cabrillo's account states that "most 
of the Indian chiefs were men, but the ruler of one of the villages 
was a very wrinkled old woman, which seemed very queer to us." 
Cabrillo was fatally injured in a perilous landing and lies in an 
undiscovered grave on one of the Channel Islands. Vizcaino entered 


the channel on Saint Barbara's Day, December 4, 1603, and named 
the region Santa Barbara. 

In 1768, rumor reached Spain that Russia intended to explore and 
claim the territory south of Alaska, and King Charles III ordered 
the Viceroy of Mexico to establish presidios and missions in California. 
Spanish colonization had already begun when Capt. Jose Francisco 
Ortega, accompanied by Governor Neve, Father Junipero Serra, and 
fifty men, entered Santa Barbara on April 21, 1782, and founded the 

Indians, paid in food and clothing, brought fish and game and 
assisted in hewing timbers and making adobe bricks for the fort. After 
their conversion to the Catholic faith, they were set to work, under 
supervision of the padres, constructing dwellings, building the mission, 
cultivating large acreages, and raising cattle. After secularization of 
the Missions in 1834 tne presidio officers became barons of wide estates 
and prolific herds, and the Indian population waned. (The last sur- 
vivor of the Canalino tribe died in 1930.) The presidio "dons" were 
of a proud heritage, many bearing noble names, and they indulged 
their traditions of urbanity and social grace. Mexico shook off the 
yoke of Spain in 1821, Yankee trade developed, and the exchange of 
New England wealth for hides and tallow greatly enriched them. 

The Barbarenos enjoyed this productive economy for three decades. 
"My house is your own, Senor," was the greeting, and mahana was 
the philosophy. An occasional revolution was staged, bloodless and 
courteous as a tennis match. 

But the influx of the Yankees foretold a change. The serene exist- 
ence of the Californios had led many a Yankee sea captain to desert 
his calling for marriage with a wealthy senorita; American trappers 
had been drawn by the rich hauls of seal and otter at the Channel 
Islands. Commodore Stockton landed in Santa Barbara Bay in August 
1846, ran up the American flag, and left a small garrison. Several 
weeks later the garrison was attacked, and given the choice of surren- 
der or flight. It fled, but in Christmas week of the same year Lt. Col. 
John C. Fremont, after dodging an ambush in Gaviota Pass, re-entered 
Santa Barbara and held it. Three weeks later California was ceded 
to the United States. 

Under the new American regime the town prospered. Great herds 
of cattle were driven north to feed the miners. "Every bullock was 
a skinful of silver and his marrow as fine as gold." Luxurious furnish- 
ings filled adobe dwellings, and fine silks trailed on clay floors. The 
civilization of the dons reached its apex, with gay Castillian cavalcades, 
the gallantries of caballeros and fan-wielding senoritas, cock-fighting 
and gambling. 

The decay of all this glory began with a drought in 1864. There 
were 200,000 cattle in the county in 1863; only 5,000 gaunt crea- 
tures were alive the following year. A primitive wharf built two 
years later put an end to landings in small boats through the surf such 
as those described in Two Years Before the Mast. In 1872 a more 


elaborate wharf was completed to which ships and side-wheel steamers 
could tie. The real estate boom of the early 1870*5 collapsed in 1877 
because of another drought, and Santa Barbara dozed in gentle dignity 
until the Southern Pacific Railroad entered the city from the south 
in 1887. In 1901 the line was extended to San Francisco; Santa 
Barbara took its place on the tourist map and began its metamorphosis 
into a wealthy residential community. 

There are oil wells on the mesa south of the city, and some com- 
mercial fishing, but industry is almost nonexistent. Cattle raising and 
agriculture are important in surrounding areas. 


pamu and Anacapa Sts., is a rambling, white stucco structure with 
wide arches and towers, resembling the palace of a Spanish prelate. 
The assembly room (open g-$ weekdays} on the second floor has murals 
by Dan Sayre Groesbeck portraying the arrival of Cabrillo, the build- 
ing of the mission, and the coming of the American troops. 

(open 2-4 Mon.), at the top of the circular staircase, contains Indian 
relics, saddles, branding irons, and the like, and the canon perdido 
(lost cannon), which was cast ashore on the wreckage of the American 
brig Elizabeth, lost off the coast of Santa Barbara during the winter 
of 1847-48. The 12-pound brass cannon was found by a group of 
native Californians, who hid it in the vicinity of the present Canon 
Perdido Street. Fearing that the natives might use the gun against 
the Americans, Governor Mason levied a fine of $500 on the town 
of Santa Barbara, and sent soldiers from Los Angeles to collect it. 
Tradition relates that the State returned the money to the town to 
build a jail. Local officials, dissatified with the amount, sought to 
increase it to $1,000 by staking it in a game of Yankee poker. They 
lost the whole $500, and shamefacedly gave up their plan for a jailhouse. 

The CARRILLO ADOBE, 15 E. Carrillo St., the old Joaquin 
Carrillo House, is occupied by the Santa Barbara Foundation and an 
antique shop. Little of the original structure remains, but the restored 
patio is notable. This house belonged a century ago to one of the most 
illustrious families of the region. Leo Carrillo, actor of Spanish and 
Mexican roles in motion pictures, is a descendant. 

LOBERO THEATER, 33 E. Canon Perdido St., a commercial 
playhouse presenting foreign films, legitimate drama and concerts, occa- 
sionally stages amateur community plays, as it did exclusively before 
1937. The original Lobero Theater was built in 1872 by Jose Lobero, 
an Italian who opened a saloon in Santa Barbara in the sixties and 
made the fortune he later lost in sponsoring local-talent orchestras 
and grand operas. In 1924 the original adobe buildings were torn 
down and the present structure erected by the Community Arts Asso- 


EL PASEO DE LA GUERRA, 15 E. De la Guerra St., called 
the historical center of Santa Barbara, is built around the house of 
Don Jose de la Guerra, comandante of the presidio a century ago. 
Courtyards and passageways simulating streets in old Spain, with 
small shops and a restaurant opening into them, have been built around 
the original adobe. Another notable house on this street is 29 E. de la 

The COVARRUBIAS ADOBE, 715 Santa Barbara St., built 
about 1817, and still in excellent repair, is a notable example of 
Spanish-Colonial architecture. 

The YACHT HARBOR, bordering W. Cabrillo Blvd. SW. from 
the foot of State St., is a placid 92-acre shelter for transient and resi- 
dent craft, protected by an L-shaped breakwater 2,364 feet long. The 
municipal West Beach, also protected by the breakwater, attracts sum- 
mer bathers to its restrained surf. 

ANDREE CLARK BIRD REFUGE (open 9-5 weekdays}, E. 
end of E. Cabrillo Blvd., is a landscaped preserve of 49^ acres with an 
island-dotted lake in the center, where geese, swan, and other wild 
fowl live; the land was reclaimed from a swamp and is maintained 
by the city. There are bridle paths among the trees, and a large 
parking space on the east shore. 

St., completed in 1937, is a 4 5 OOO-seat amphitheater where a historical 
play is produced annually, as part of the city's "Old Spanish Days" 
festival. Its large revolving stage 75 by 40 feet holds two sets at 
once. Cut stone seats follow the natural contour of the canyon in which 
the bowl is built. The bowl is also used for concerts and other pro- 

small group of concrete buildings of Eastern Mediterranean architecture 
standing on an i8-acre hillside campus overlooking the city and the 
sea, has a four-year teacher training course and uses the city schools 
as a laboratory for directed teaching. A new 66-acre site on Cliff Drive 
along the mesa is being developed as the future home of the college. 

It was founded in 1909 by Ednah Rich Morse as a State normal 
school of manual arts and home economics. The LIBRARY of 30,000 
volumes contains the 7,ooo-volume William Wyles collection of Lin- 
colniana and Civil War and Reconstruction treatises. 

SANTA BARBARA MISSION (open 8-5 weekdays, 11-5 Sun.}, 
Los Olivos St. between Garden and Laguna Sts., called Queen of the 
Missions in the days when it was rich and powerful, is the best pre- 
served and architecturally one of the finest missions. A blending of 
old Spanish and Moorish architecture, it was constructed in 1815 by 
the padres, using Canalino Indian labor, to replace the building de- 
stroyed in the 1812 earthquake. The original mission chapel was 
made of boughs in 1786. Damage to mission buildings by the 1925 
earthquake was promptly repaired. 

The church, designed by Padre Riptoll, is constructed of native 


sandstone, painted ivory. It is rectangular in plan with massive square 
front towers of solid masonry and arcaded and domed belfries. The 
towers are flanked by heavy buttresses. The design of the classic facade, 
with its engaged columns of modified Ionic order, its dentiled cornice 
and frieze adorned with a heavy fret motif and its crowning pediment, 
is based upon the detail of a plate of the classic orders, appearing in a 
Spanish volume of Vitruvius, still in the Mission library. In the 
tympanum of the pediment is a niched figure of Saint Barbara. Sur- 
mounting the pediment are three seated figures and a stepped gable 
cresting topped with a cross. 

Across the entire width of the facade is a traditional broad-stepped 
platform. The deeply recessed arched entrance with its simple classic 
trim has double paneled doors. Above the entrance is a circular "rose" 
window with deep splayed reveal. At the left is the long, low arcaded 
mission house with red-tile roof, enclosing one side of the rear patio. 

The interior of the long narrow nave is lighted by small splayed 
windows in the side walls. It is finished in plaster with Ionic pilasters 
painted in imitation of veined marble rising in support of a painted 
dentil cornice and has a flat wooden ceiling, embellished with painted 
and carved rosettes. The structural roof timbers are concealed. 

At the left of the entrance is a door leading to the Mission House 
and a spiral stairway in the left tower. The walls of the nave are 
flanked by side altars with religious paintings above. In the first bay, 
left and right, are chapels, recessed in the deep side walls. The main 
altar is screened by a painted and paneled reredos, adorned with Roman 
Doric columns, painted floral festoons and figures. On the Epistle 
side of the main altar is the tomb of Father Francisco Garcia Diego y 
Moreno, first Bishop of California, flanked by Ionic columns and topped 
with a pediment. A doorway to the left of the sanctuary leads to the 
sacristy and the choir room. The stations of the cross were brought 
from Mexico in 1797. 

Two small side doors near the center of the nave lead to the patio 
or Monks Garden, on the left, and the Mission Cemetery on the right. 
The patio is landscaped with trees, flower beds, and radiating walks 
around a central well. Two sides are enclosed by the rooms and 
arcaded corridors of the Mission House. Especially notable are the 
deeply recessed windows with their turned wooden grilles and the 
unstilted arches of the arcades, supported by heavy square piers. 

This is the only California mission in which the altar light has 
not been extinguished since the founding. Bodies of Franciscan friars 
are interred in crypts set in the thick walls of the building, and 4,000 
Indians are buried in trenches across the garden. Art and relics of 
the Canalino tribe are exhibited in the curio rooms. The mission has 
old paintings, creased in their journey from Spain and the pack-trip 
across Mexico, and a copy of Murillo's Assumption of the Virgin, 
which research may prove an original. 

The MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY (open 9-5 week- 
days, 10-5 Sun.), Puesta del Sol Road and Mission Creek, its one-story 


stucco Spanish-Colonial type buildings grouped upon two acres of 
sycamore and live-oak studded grounds, has pavilions with permanent 
exhibitions of the flora and fauna of the region, natural habitat groups 
of animals from all parts of the world, artifacts of the Hunting People 
and the Oak Grove and Canalino Indians, and a library on natural 
science. Lectures and motion pictures on natural science are presented 
in a 4io-seat auditorium. 

The museum, maintained by gifts, endowments and memberships, 
publishes pamphlets on natural history and geology, gives special classes 
four afternoons a week and broadcasts over KTMS on Friday after- 
noons during the winter. 

BLAKSLEY BOTANIC GARDEN (open 9-5 weekdays, 10-5 
Sun.), 1289 Mission Canyon Rd., is a 3<>acre creekside tract planted 
with trees, shrubs and flowers indigenous to California. Specimens 
are labeled and arranged in ten sections to show characteristic flora 
of the desert, foothill, canyon, waterside and other plant associations. 
Literature on plants and birds in the garden is available near the en- 
trance. Experimental culture here has added to existing knowledge 
on the habits of native plants and their adaptability to home-gardening. 


Mission San Buenaventura, 27.9 m.; Mission Santa Ynez, 45 m. (see 



Railroad Stations: E. Weber Ave. and Sacramento St. for Southern Pacific 

R.R. ; San Joaquin and Taylor Sts. for Santa Fe R.R.; Main and Union Sts. 

for Western Pacific R.R. 

Bus Stations: 227 N. Hunter St. for Pacific Greyhound; 27 E. Weber Ave. for 

Byron and Brentwood ; 245 N. Hunter St. for River Auto Stages. 

Airport: Stockton Airport, 5 m. SE. on Sharp's Lane, private planes only. 

Streetcars: Fare 7$, 4 tokens for 25$; free transfers. 

Accommodations: 88 hotels; 4 tourist camps. 

Information Service: California State Auto Assn. (AAA), 929 N. El Dorado 
St.; Chamber of Commerce, 234 N. El Dorado St. 

Radio Stations: KGDM (noo kc.) ; KWG (1200 kc.). 

Motion Picture Houses: Seven. 

Golf: Stockton Municipal Golf Course, 7th St. and Sharp Lane. 9 holes; 50^, 

75$ Sat. and Sun.; monthly tickets $3; children 25^ weekdays. 

Tennis: 10 municipal courts, Oak Park, Victory Park, Municipal Baths, Arbor 

Park; all free. 

Swimming Pools: Stockton Municipal Baths, S. end of S. San Joaquin St.; open 

9-5, 20$, children 10^, suit and towel 10$; American Legion Park Lake, 1400 

N. Baker St., free; lifeguards in summer. 

Riding: Bridle paths around Municipal Golf Course and in Louis Park; 

horses 75$ an hour. 

Annual Events: Concerts by Stockton Symphony Orchestra, winter; Port Stock- 
ton Regatta and Water Carnival, May 30 and 31; San Joaquin County Fair, 
last full week of Aug. 

STOCKTON (23 alt., 47,963 pop.), at the head of tidewaters on 
the San Joaquin River, has something of the appearance of a coastal 
city. Its northernmost section, campus of the College of the Pacific, 
borders the Calaveras River, which flows into the San Joaquin on the 
west. The Stockton Channel extends eastward from the San Joaquin, 
cutting through the city and stopping at its center. Other waterways 
wind in and around the city, among them the Mormon Channel, 
through the southern part of Stockton. 

The 32-foot Stockton Channel nucleus of the Port of Stockton 
is the shipping point for agricultural products of the fertile San Joaquin 
Valley. A flotilla of barges and launches, the "Mosquito Fleet," goes 
out from here, carrying to market the rich produce of the netherlands 
farms; huge ocean-going freighters ply the river from Stockton to 
San Francisco. The Port is the outstanding commercial feature of the 
city, and warehouses, factories, and mills line the Channel. 

The business district radiates from Courthouse Plaza, Weber Ave- 
nue and Hunter Street. The tall office buildings, modern shops, metro- 


politan stores, and Civic Center reflect the new Stockton, starting 
point for trips to such places as the Bret Harte country, Lake Tahoe, 
and Yosemite Valley, while only a few blocks west, along Main and 
El Dorado Streets, stand the aged landmarks of the pioneer days, when 
Stockton was a wide-open gold rush town, the jumping off place for the 
Mother Lode country. Twenty-six tracts are set aside as parks, play- 
grounds, and squares, including Victory Park, a 27^-acre landscaped 
area in the heart of the northwest residence district. 

Ten per cent of Stockton's population is Mexican. It is also a 
center for Basque sheepherders. There are many Basque restaurants, 
where wine is poured Basque fashion in a stream from the leather flask 
into the drinker's open mouth. There was at one time a considerable 
number of Hindus in California's Central Valley, brought into the 
State for their knowledge of irrigation; in recent years many of them 
have returned to India with money they managed to accumulate. 
Bearded, turbanned Sikhs, grave and dignified, may still, however, 
occasionally be seen in the streets of Stockton. 

Capt. Charles M. Weber, a native of Germany who came to Cali- 
fornia with the Bidwell-Bartellson party in 1841, is generally recognized 
as the founder of Stockton. Weber first settled in San Jose, where he 
met William Gulnac, a naturalized Mexican citizen. The two men 
formed a partnership to establish a colony in the San Joaquin Valley: 
and to this end Gulnac obtained a tract from the Mexican government, 
about 50,000 acres, including the site of Stockton. Gulnac led the 
first group of settlers to the area, which they called El Campo de los 
Francesces (Sp. French Camp), but in 1845 he became discouraged and 
sold out to Weber for a $60 grocery bill. 

Weber remained in San Jose, though in 1847 ne founded the town 
of Tuleburg on the site of the present levee of that name. He built 
corrals, planted wheat, and set up houses for ranchers. After discovery 
of gold in 1848, Weber moved to Tuleburg, which he planned to pro- 
mote as a supply post for miners. He surveyed the town in 1849, 
renaming it Stockton for his friend Commodore Robert Stockton. 

The Gold Rush took Stockton by storm. Bayard Taylor, noted 
author and traveler, found it in 1849 "a canvas town of a thousand 
inhabitants, and a port with twenty-five vessels at anchor ! The mingled 
noises of labor around the click of hammers and the grating of saws 
the shouts of mule drivers the jingling of spurs the jar and jostle 
of wares in the tents almost cheated me into the belief that it was 
some old commercial mart. . . . Four months had sufficed to make 
the place what it was." One of a dozen new wholesale firms already 
had done $100,000 worth of business. A lot 80 by 100 feet sold for 
$6,000; a common, one-story clapboard house cost $15,000 to build. 

In 1850 Stockton became the county seat, and within three years 
the population grew from a few hundred to 5,000. Between the time 
he became an outlaw in 1851 and his death in 1853, the Mexican 
bandit Joaquin Murrieta ranged as far north as Stockton. On one 
occasion he rode into town, noticed a sign offering a reward for his 


capture, wrote underneath it "I will give $10,000 Joaquin!" then 
galloped off through the crowd, unmolested. An incendiary fire in 
1851 destroyed many structures, as a result of which Stockton has 
few historic landmarks. 

The settlers of Stockton built churches and schools as early as 
1850, despite the gold rush. The introduction of irrigation after the 
i86o's and the decline of the gold mines turned attention once again 
towards agriculture. Grain poured into the city's warehouses to await 
shipment by the railroad which first reached the city in 1869. This 
increased the demand for farm implements, and Stockton began pro- 
duction of tractors, harvesters, and other farm machinery. The cater- 
pillar tractor, first machine to use the track-laying traction principle, 
originated in Stockton; the device employed in these tractors was later 
applied in the development of the military tank, first used in the 
World War. 

The Deep Water Project, an $8,000,000 harbor development, be- 
gun in 1928, has provided 18 miles of water front, with 24 miles of 
undeveloped frontage along the various side channels. The channel 
is now navigable for 90 per cent of all ocean-going vessels, permitting 
the shipment of Stockton's wide variety of manufactures paper and 
cedar products, motorboats, road-building and farm machinery, canned 
goods, flour and feeds, and bricks. 

In June 1934 the last of the Pony Express riders, William Camp- 
bell, died at Stockton. He was on the 95-mile run from Fort Kearney 
to Fort McPherson. Chased once for miles by a pack of wolves, on his 
return he left a poisoned ox on the trail for their benefit. His reward 
was a dozen dead wolves whose hides brought $50. 


Hunter Sts., designed in 1890 by E. E. Myers & Son of Detroit, is built 
in classic style, with a lofty, gilded dome bearing a figure of justice. 

The two-story brick SIKH TEMPLE (open), 1930 S. Grant St., 
is said to be the only temple of this sect in the United States. The 
building has high stained-glass windows and an ornate mosaic entrance 
framed by a horseshoe of electric lights. The first floor contains a 
library and a meeting room. Visitors must take off their shoes and 
leave them on the veranda before entering the temple proper, which 
occupies the entire second floor. There are no chairs, and the floor is 
carpeted with green velvet. Among its possessions is a fine portrait 
of Guru Nanak, born in 1469, founder of the Sikh religion, a dissent- 
ing sect from Brahmanical Hinduism. The Guru Sacred Book 
(Grant h Sahib) is covered with rich silk draperies from India. Sikhism 
combines the teachings of Hinduism and the Persian Sufis; it rejects 
caste and practices purity of life and toleration. 

The FORTY-NINE DRUGSTORE, Main and El Dorado Sts., 
a two-story building of gray stone with gingerbread trim, has been 


used continuously for the same purpose since 1850, when E. S. Holden 
built it and opened Stockton's first pharmacy. The main room, with 
its vaulted ceilings, is the same one in which bearded miners of the boom 
days purchased their medicines. 

Another landmark of the middle iSso's is the ODD FELLOWS 
HALL, 17 El Dorado St., a two-story brick building, once fraternal 
headquarters for lusty miners on holiday from the gold fields. It now 
has a fish market on the lower floor, and a twenty-cents-a-night hotel 
on the second. 

The SITE OF WEBER'S HOUSE is on the S. side of the Chan- 
nel at Center St. Weber first lived in an adobe hut surrounded by 
a stockade and a ditch. In 1850 or 1851, he brought his bride to 
Tuleburg, and built a two-story frame house adjacent to his adobe. 
The house, constructed of lumber shipped around the Horn, and sur- 
rounded by spacious gardens, was destroyed by fire shortly after Weber's 
death in 1881. 

CITY HALL, El Dorado and Lindsay Sts., is a stone structure of 
modern design. This site is called Lindsay's Point for Thomas Lindsay, 
one of the company that came here in 1844 under the leadership of 
Gulnac. The tule hut Lindsay erected on the point just back of the 
City Hall was the first house built by a white man within the city 
limits. A smallpox scare drove out most of the settlers soon after their 
arrival, and in the spring of 1845 a band of Indians killed Lindsay, 
set fire to his hut, and drove off the cattle. He is buried on the Point. 

HISTORICAL MUSEUM (open 1:30-5 daily except Man.; free), 
Magnolia St. and Pershing Ave., was given to the city by Louis Terah 
Haggin, who had immense holdings of land and dominated stock rais- 
ing in pioneer days. Haggin, of Turkish descent, was an art collector 
and his collection of 300 nineteenth century European and American 
paintings forms the nucleus of the gallery. There are also on exhibit 
numerous relics of early California, among them the weapons of a party 
that came over the Oregon Trail, old wagons, fire engines, porcelains 
and silverware. 

The COLLEGE OF THE PACIFIC, Pacific Ave. and Stadium 
Drive, oldest incorporated educational institution in California, is con- 
ducted by the Methodist Church on an interdenominational basis. The 
school has a student body of about 450. The 1 1 buildings on the 
5O-acre campus are in English Gothic style, of red brick with light stone 
trim. WEBER MEMORIAL HALL, honoring the founder of Stockton, 
stands near the Pacific Avenue entrance to the campus. It houses the 
school auditorium and the College of Pacific Little Theater. For its 
first 20 years (1851-1871) the college was in Santa Clara, having been 
founded there by Isaac Owen, the first Methodist minister in California. 
It was moved to San Jose in the 1870*8, and since 1924 has been in 


Up and Down the State 

Tour i 

Westport Fort Bragg Point Arena San Francisco Santa Cruz 
Monterey Carmel San Simeon Morro Bay San Luis Obispo 
Las Cruces; 554.5 m. State I. 

Roadbed paved except for stretches between Pismo Beach and Las Cruces, 

winding continuously, with frequent sharp turns; occasional slides during rainy 


Southern Pacific Lines parallel route between Davenport and Pacific Grove. 

Accommodations limited except in larger towns. 

State I skirts closely the waters of the Pacific. It swings outward 
around headlands and inland past sandy-edged coves in a succession of 
hairpin curves; it climbs barren slopes and dips into brush-choked 
ravines. At times it edges along sheer bluffs high above the surf. East- 
ward, wind-swept hills, wooded only in patches, rise to the timbered 
crests of the Coast Range. After the first rains these hills are briefly 
green; at other times their slopes are brown with dried grass, close- 
cropped by grazing sheep. 

Walled off by mountains, the narrow coastal shelf is sparsely settled 
except around San Francisco and Monterey Bays. The half-primitive 
ways of the seventies and eighties, when lumbering, fishing, and sheep 
raising flourished, linger on in the isolated villages and farms. The 
region now affords only a meager living to its hard-working inhabitants. 
Along the northern section, where redwoods grow down to the sea in 
forest-choked ravines, the lumber towns at the mouths of rivers, once 
shipping points for logs hauled by narrow-gage railways from the for- 
ested hinterland, are sinking into decay beside abandoned mills. 

Fishing is still a gainful pursuit at such points as Noyo, Tomales 
Bay, Monterey, and Half Moon Bay. Flocks of sheep roam over the 


hills up and down the coast and great herds of dairy cattle over the 
knolls and hollows around Tomales Bay. Berries and peas are grown 
around Fort Bragg; Brussels sprouts and artichokes, in the foggy strip 
near Half Moon Bay; and apples in the Pajaro Valley; but most of 
the country is too rough, too bleak for farming. The occasional 
weather-beaten farm buildings huddle behind ragged, protective files of 
wind-battered cypress or eucalyptus trees. 

The coastal strip between the mouth of the Russian River and Big 
Sur attracts increasing numbers of vacationers every year. It is a 
picturesque stretch, indented with rocky, islet-studded coves where 
crescent-shaped beaches of white sand lie between bold promontories. 
Along the highway in this area are a succession of resort towns and 
camps that offer bathing and fishing in the surf, clam and abalone hunt- 
ing along the shore, and riding and hiking in the forested hinterland. 

Section a. WESTPORT to SAN FRANCISCO; 2054 m. 

On the maps the northern end of State I is extended to a junction 
with US 101 not far south of Eureka, with feeders from US 101 north 
of Westport; but these connections are barely passable even in good 

WESTPORT, m. (50 alt., 200 pop.), a rambling settlement of 
frame houses with rickety picket fences, perched on bare bluffs. First 
named Beal's Landing for Lloyd Beal, who arrived in 1864, the town 
was renamed Westport at the instigation of James T. Rogers, a native 
of Eastport, Maine. After construction of two wharves in 1878, it 
became for a while an important lumber-shipping point. 

North from Westport on a poor road (the sketchy continuation of State 
i), past ROCKPORT, 11.5 m., a small lumber camp with bleak, weather- 
beaten shacks, to the junction with a narrow, ungraded dirt road, 14.5 m. 
Right here, up a long, steep forested grade to a summit, 25.5 m., then 
downward to a junction with US 101, 30.1 m. (see TOUR 2a). 

South of Westport State I winds over close-cropped pasture lands 
sloping to the sea. Crossing the marshy bottoms of sluggish Ten Mile 
River, 7.8 m., it strikes through an eerie wilderness of storm-blasted 
pine and cypress groves, edged at intervals by sand dunes. Patches of 
farm land and orchard, crisscrossed by files of cypress windbreaks, hedge 
the road. 

FORT BRAGG, 16.2 m. (60 alt., 3,022 pop.), spreads over a slop- 
ing coastal shelf to the edge of a wild and rocky coast line. A settle- 
ment of wooden buildings false-front stores, steepled churches, and 
gabled frame houses in fenced yards it has a weather-worn, settled air. 
Fort Bragg's chief stock in trade is lumber, but it also ships farm and 
truck-garden crops (especially berries), poultry and dairy products, and 
fish. Its racial make-up is mixed: Finns and Swedes predominate; after 
them, Germans and Italians. 

In June 1857 Lt. Horatio Gates Gibson was ordered to establish a 
military post within the boundaries of the Mendocino Indian Reserva- 

TOUR I 319 

tion. The fort he set up here and named for Gen. Braxton Bragg of 
Mexican War fame covered a lO-acre clearing. The land was thrown 
open for purchase in 1867, when the reservation was abandoned, and a 
lumber town grew up. It was damaged by the earthquake of April 18, 
1906, but rebuilt at once. 

The heart of the town's industrial life is the UNION LUMBER COM- 
PANY PLANT, a large redwood sawmill with a capacity of 350,000 to 
400,000 board feet a day. Its red-painted mill buildings, lumberyards, 
and log pond lie along the railroad yards at the edge of the rocky bluffs. 
NURSERY (open workdays 8-5), on Main Street (R) near the southern 
outskirts, established in 1922, raises redwood and other seedlings for 
systematic reforestation of cutover lands. 

NOYO (boats for ocean fishing rented}, 17.9 m. (sea level, 93 
pop.), lies at the mouth of placid, winding Noyo River, crowded with 
small fishing craft tied up alongside tumble-down warehouses. Noyo 
was the name given by Northern Porno Indians to their village at the 
river's mouth. The village escaped the fate of most former lumber 
towns along the Mendocino coast by turning to fishing for a living. 
Settled largely by Italian fishermen, it is now the center of the area's 
commercial fishing industry. It has fish-canning and drying plants and 
a deep-water harbor protected by a breakwater. 

CASPAR, 22.3 m. (52 alt., 250 pop.), on the edge of high bluffs at 
the mouth of Caspar Creek, is a collection of old frame houses amid 
weed-grown vacant spaces, dirt paths, and picket fences. The lumber 
mill beside the log pond and chute, occasionally operated, was built in 

At 25.2 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road 0.3 m. to RUSSIAN GULCH STATE PARK HEAD- 
QUARTERS (camping 50$ per car a day, picnicking 25$ per car a day}. 
The park contains more than 1,000 acres of second-growth redwood. Along 
the fern-banked canyon bottom, deep among redwoods, alders, and Douglas 
fir, are scattered camp sites and picnic grounds. 

MENDOCINO, 27.3 m. (41 alt., 500 pop.), ranges over the north- 
ern shore of a half-moon-shaped bay at the mouth of Big River a 
jumble of weathered, gabled wooden buildings fronting dirt streets, 
edged by the gloomy pine woods of encircling hills. It was named for 
Cape Mendocino, which Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo discovered in 1542 
and named for Don Antonio de Mendoza, first viceroy of New Spain 

Intermittent lumbering provides Mendocino's main support. A party 
sent out from Bodega in 1851 to salvage tea and silk from a vessel 
wrecked nearby carried back information of the country's rich timber 
resources to Alderman Harry Meiggs of San Francisco, lumberman 
and mill owner. On July 19, 1852, the brig Ontario, chartered by 
Meiggs, arrived with sawmill machinery imported from the East. 
Meiggs, finding that one William Kasten had staked out a claim to the 


water-front, purchased the claim with the first lumber from his sawmill 
the first on the Mendocino coast as part payment. 

The architecture of Mendocino's well-preserved buildings (there has 
been only one serious fire) reflects the New England origin of most of 
its early settlers. Notable remnant of a bygone era is the MASONIC 
HALL (R), on Main Street. A buff-colored, gable-roofed structure, 
the hall bears on its cupola a piece of sculpture carved from a single 
block of redwood. It represents the Masonic emblem and the symbolic 
figures of Masonic lore: the broken pillar, the maiden beside it with 
a sprig in her hand, and Father Time dallying with her wavy locks. 

At 30.1 m. is the junction with a graveled road. 

Right on this road 0.3 m. to VAN DAMME BEACH STATE PARK 
HEADQUARTERS (camping and picnicking fees as at Russian Gulch). 
This i,8oo-acre tract fronting a lagoon with a sloping bathing beach 
stretches 4 miles up the forested canyon of the Little River. The chief 
attraction for visitors is the fishing: trout are caught in the Little River; 
red, blue, and China cod in the surf; leaf cod and salmon in the bay. 

ALBION, 34.3 m. (37 alt., 75 pop.), a village of brightly painted, 
shingle-roofed cottages, overlooks the cove at the mouth of the Albion 
River, where an abandoned lumber mill decays amid half-ruined com- 
pany shacks. A sawmill was erected here in 1852-53 and operated until 
1928. Today the inhabitants subsist chiefly by fishing and berry picking. 

At 38.6 m., in a deep valley where the broad Navarro River winds 
over marshy bottoms and through a sand bar into the sea, is the junction 
with paved State 28. 

Left on State 28, which runs along the riverbank, shadowed by a forest 
of second-growth redwood, 8.4 m. to DIMMICK MEMORIAL PARK (pic- 
nicking), a i2-acre reserve. The Navarro River offers fine swimming, and 
is one of the best trout and bass streams in the State. 

On State 28 at 14.8 m. is NAVARRO. Many of its gray, weathered 
houses stand empty, reminders of its lively past as a lumber town. 

The road enters Anderson Valley, a fertile basin given over to apple 
growing, and reaches BOONVILLE, 30.2 m. (pop. 315). Named in 1868 
for an early settler, W. W. Boon, the settlement today furnishes supplies 
to ranchers and travelers. It celebrates an annual County Fair and Apple 
Show in October. 

Southwest of Boonville the highway climbs over a succession of hills, 
winds past rolling sheep pasturage, and joins US 101 (see TOUR 2a) at 
57.5 m. 

ELK, 44.6 m. (20x3 pop.), also known as Greenwood, lying along 
the highway skirting the very edge of steep bluffs is a string of 
frame store buildings, most of them left to sag and gather cobwebs since 
lumbering operations stopped in 1931. In its heyday, when two or 
three boats anchored offshore every week to load lumber brought from 
inland by railroad, Elk had nearly a dozen saloons and half as many 
hotels. The loading trestle remains, flung from the edge of the bluffs 
to a jagged islet in the surf. In the debris-littered gravel bottoms just 
south of town lie the remains of the mill, rusted and rotting. 

State i winds between fences over sheep ranges and strips of farm 

TOUR I 321 

land that roll upward from the narrow coastal shelf to forest-fringed 
hills. A vast sweep of surf-scalloped shore line appears at intervals, 
curving off in the long promontory of Point Arena (see below). A far 
stretch of rolling country sweeps to timbered hills (L) as the highway 
strikes inland from the shore. 

MANCHESTER, 58.8 m. (300 pop.), a handful of buildings 
widely scattered among farms and pastures, lies in a farming, dairy- 
ing, and sheep- and cattle-raising region, one of the few sections along 
the northern coast level enough to permit extensive farming. 

At 62.6 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Right on this road 2.5 m. to POINT ARENA LIGHT STATION 
(visitors /-j 1 Mon., Wed., Fri.), where gray, red-roofed frame houses 
cluster around the tall cylindrical white light tower. On November 10, 
1792, Capt. George Vancouver spent the night off this promontory in his 
ship Discovery, en route from Nootka to San Francisco. He named it 
Punta Barro de Arena (Sp., point sand bar). A brick light station erected 
here in 1870 was replaced, after its destruction in the 1906 earthquake, by 
the present ii5-foot tower, which has a light of 380,000 candle power. 

POINT ARENA, 64.5 m. (39 alt., 385 pop.), has scattered cot- 
tages in cypress-sheltered gardens and trim, stuccoed business buildings, 
churches, and schools. It traces its history to the opening of a store here 
in 1859. Although it was said to be the most thriving town between 
San Francisco and Eureka at the height of lumbering operations, it was 
not incorporated until 1908. Today it is a trading center for a dairy- 
ing region. 

South of Point Arena State I again skirts the coast, running through 
dense patches of dwarf-pines and dipping into gulches choked with 

GUALALA, 79.6 m. (sea level, 15 pop.), is on a curving beach at 
the mouth of the broad, forest-bordered Gualala River. Its name 
(pron. Wah-la-la), is probably the Spanish spelling of the Porno In- 
dians' "wala'li" or "wa'lali," meaning a meeting place of waters. 
Gualala had its lumbering boom in the i86o's and iSyo's although 
its sawmill, abandoned now at the river's mouth, was operated until 
1920. Its life centers today around the two-story, white frame 
GUALALA HOTEL (1903), with veranda and balcony. The fishing 
season attracts many visitors. 

STEWART'S POINT, 91.3 m. (20 alt., 30 pop.), named for a 
pioneer lumberman and settler, is a handful of frame houses around a 
general store. On the rocky point at the edge of the cove, hidden by 
trees, are the abandoned sheds and trestle from which lumber was once 

As State I winds southward, through rolling stretches thickly wooded 
with dwarf pines and littered with boulders, the coast becomes more 
and more rugged saw-toothed with jutting promontories and rocky 
inlets where the surf crashes on kelp-strewn crags. The route makes 
a short swing inland through the KRUSE RHODODENDRON 
RESERVE, 99.3 m., maintained in its natural state, where the rhodo- 


dendrons, growing 20 to 30 feet high, blossom in late May and early 

FORT Ross, 107 m. (100 alt.), once chief outpost of Russian civiliza- 
tion in California, stands on a high shelf sloping from wooded hills to 
the edge of the cove. At this place, in the spring of 1812, the Russian- 
American Fur Company's vessel, the Ghirikov, deposited a party of fur 
traders and Aleut hunters under command of Ivan Alexander Kuskof. 
Since 1806, when the Tsar's chamberlain, Nikolai Rezanof, had visited 
the San Francisco Presidio (see SAN FRANCISCO) in quest of food 
for the starving Russian settlement at Sitka, Alaska, the Russian-Ameri- 
can Company had planned to establish settlements in California as 
sources of food supply for its fur-trading posts in the north. On May 
15, 1812, Kuskof 's party began building a fortress; three months later, 
on August 30, they dedicated it with ceremony, naming it Rossiya 

The settlement, laid out in a rectangle, was enclosed by a 1 4-foot 
stockade of hewn timbers and guarded by two-story blockhouses with 
portholes for cannon at the north and south corners. There were 59 
buildings. Inside the enclosure were the chapel, the commandant's 
house, barracks, two warehouses, blacksmith and other shops, and a jail. 
Outside clustered the redwood huts of the Aleut hunters, a windmill, 
several farm buildings, and a tannery. At the foot of the steep bluffs 
were a small wharf, a workshop for shipbuilding, a blacksmith shop, a 
bathhouse, and sheds for the bidarkas (skin boats) of the Aleuts and for 
storing lumber. 

Despite the efforts of apprehensive Spanish officials to check the 
growth of La Fuerte de los Rusos (the fort of the Russians), the 
colonists began a thriving trade with the San Francisco Presidio and 
mission, exchanging tobacco, sugar, kitchen utensils, iron, cloth, and 
wax candles for grain, peas, meat, tallow, flour, and hides. When 
Missions San Rafael and San Francisco Solano (see TOUR 2a) were 
founded to halt Russian expansion southward the Russians extended 
their trade to the missions themselves. 

The Russian settlement began to face economic difficulties, however, 
when the revenue from sea-otter hunting diminished with the rapid 
extermination of the otter along the coast. Unable to make a living 
from farming, the colonists turned to shipbuilding; they used the green 
timber of oak to construct four vessels, two of 160 and two of 200 tons, 
between 1819 and 1824; but the timber decayed so rapidly that this 
activity was abandoned. The settlement was in the end a failure. 
Restrained from expanding southward by the Spanish, Russia agreed 
in 1824 to limit its future settlements to Alaska. 

The man into whose hands Fort Ross finally passed, when in 1841 
the Tsar ordered withdrawal of his subjects, was Johann August Sutter, 
founder of New Helvetia (Sacramento). The price agreed on for the 
entire property buildings, chattels, livestock, and even the 2O-ton 
schooner Constantine was $30,000; of this Sutter agreed to pay 
$2,000 in cash and the rest in yearly installments of produce, chiefly 

TOUR I 323 

wheat. Sutter dismantled fort and buildings and shipped everything he 
could carry on his schooner to New Helvetia. The transferred property 
included 1,700 head of cattle, 940 horses and mules, 9,000 sheep, agri- 
cultural implements and industrial machinery, and an arsenal, including 
brass pieces, cannon, and muskets all French weapons picked up in 
1813 in the path of Napoleon's retreat through the snow from Moscow. 
Even a 2O-foot-square conservatory, with glass windows and doors, was 
removed in sections to Sacramento ; Madame Rotchev, the Russian gov- 
ernor's wife, had begged Sutter (he wrote) "not to destroy the garden 
house which she had built and in which she had spent so many happy 
hours. . . . However . . . my men . . . could not put it together 
because they did not understand the workmanship of the Russian car- 
penters . . ." 

The few remaining buildings were neglected until in 1906, after 
damage by the earthquake, the State began restoration. The only part 
of the original stockade left is a heap of rotting redwood logs the 
remains of the heptagonal blockhouse that stood at the north corner. 
At the eastern corner is the partly restored GREEK ORTHODOX CHAPEL 
(open 8-5 except Tues.}, a crude structure 20 feet wide and 25 long, 
with a squat, dull yellow belfry and dome on its weather-worn red- 
gabled roof. Exhibited in its two rough-boarded rooms are Russian, 
Spanish, and Indian relics. The RUSSIAN COMMANDANT'S HOUSE, a 
spacious edifice with a shingled roof sloping over a wide veranda, pre- 
serves remnants of the original structure including the fireplace and 
the log finish between the doors and windows of the facade reinforced 
by later additions. 

South of Fort Ross State I winds tortuously around brush-grown, 
rocky hillsides and through twisting ravines, on a narrow ledge over- 
hanging the boiling surf. At 118.8 m. it swings up the broad valley 
of the Russian River (see TOUR 2a), which finds its way to the ocean 
through a narrow strait in the great sand bar that holds back its waters 
in a wide, placid lagoon. 

JENNER-BY-THE-SEA, 119.7 m. (o alt., 160 pop.), is a resort 
with peak-roofed white and green cottages hugging the steep slopes 
above the river. 

At 120.8 772., where State i crosses Russian River on a giant con- 
crete and steel bridge, is the junction with paved State 12 (see TOUR 

At 121.7 77z. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road 0.2 m. to BODEGA-SONOMA COAST STATE 
PARK, which stretches along 5 miles of picturesque ocean shore from the 
mouth of the Russian River to Bodega Bay. The shore waters abound 
with shellfish and abalones and the surf with fish that can be caught by 
line from the rocks or by net in the breakers. 

At 122.9 m. on State I is the junction with an oiled road. 

Right on this road 0.2 m. to SHELL BEACH in Bodega-Sonoma Coast 
State Park. 


WRIGHT'S BEACH is at 124.3 m. and ARCH ROCK BEACH 
at 127 m. Both are wide sandy strands sheltered in rocky coves in the 
State park. 

SALMON CREEK BEACH, 128.5 m., rimmed by great sand 
dunes, lies at the mouth of Salmon Creek, where a sand bar impounds 
a lagoon below scattered cottages. 

BAY, 130.4 777., a string of frame houses sheltered by a lane of 
eucalyptus trees overlooking a row of small wharves where fishing 
smacks are moored, lies along the curving shore of BODEGA 

Bodega Bay is now a shallow, sand-choked inlet, rimmed by mud 
flats at low tide; its egress to the sea on the south is blocked, except for 
a narrow strait, by a sandspit stretching from the mainland on the east 
to Bodega Head at the tip of the long promontory on the west. The 
bay was named for its discoverer, Lieut. Juan Francisco de la Bodega y 
Cuadra, who anchored his schooner, the Sonora, off Bodega Head Octo- 
ber 3, 1775. In 1809 the Russian-American Fur Company's agent, 
Ivan Kuskof, landed with a party from Sitka. They sowed wheat, and 
in August, with the harvested grain and a catch of 2,000 sea-otter skins, 
returned to Alaska. In 1811 the Russians returned to found the settle- 
ments of Port Roumiantzoff on the bay and Bodega (see below) and 
Kuskof in the hinterland. They cultivated land toward the tip of the 
Bodega peninsula and erected two warehouses. 

First Yankee settlers at Bodega Bay were three sailors. In 1835 
Gen. Mariano G. Vallejo gave them large land grants on condition 
that they settle at the border of the Russian claims to check Russian 
expansion. In 1843 Capt. Stephen Smith was granted the land formerly 
occupied by the Russians. Five years later he erected a small warehouse 
and in 1852 a hotel. By 1860 the port was alive with people and busi- 
ness, its harbor crowded with sails. The warehouses lining the shore 
overflowed with potatoes a variety known as Bodega Reds for the 
bright maroon coat beneath their rough skins raised on great ranches 
roundabout. Regular freight and passenger boats from San Francisco 
anchored in the open roadstead outside the sandspit, where they were 
loaded from small lighters. In the iSyo's the bay began to fill with 
sand. In time, potato raising was supplanted by dairying, the chief in- 
dustry of the region ever since. Vessels no longer call here nor have 
they for a generation past. 

State I winds inland over rolling farm lands where cattle graze 
in fenced pastures, bordered by lanes of eucalyptus trees and patches of 

BODEGA, 136.4 m. (40 alt., 100 pop.), clusters amid cypress 
patches around a red-roofed schoolhouse and two white-spired churches. 

Beside the road (R) at 138.4 m. stands the WATSON DISTRICT 
SCHOOL, built in 1856, a white clapboarded building with a bell tower 
jutting from its peaked red roof. It was named for James Watson, an 
immigrant of 1853, who acquired so many thousand acres of land from 
the yield of bumper crops of the high-priced Bodega Reds that he be- 

TOUR I 325 

came a land baron, entertaining the whole countryside with horse racing 
at his private course. 

VALLEY FORD, 142.3 m. (45 alt., 200 pop.), with old brick 
and frame stores, is among gently rolling pasture lands dotted with 
gracious white farmhouses, roomy barns, and corrals. It lies at the head 
of tidewater on the Estero Americano (American Creek), which emp- 
ties into Bodega Bay; it was named for the "valley ford," where an 
ancient Indian and Spanish trail crossed the Estero. This is a dairying 
town: when the bank was organized in 1893, it was called The Dairy- 
mans Bank. 

TOMALES, 149.3 m. (75 alt., 450 pop.), a trim looking town, 
rambles over the slopes of a hollow. The countryside is noted for its 
butter, cheese, and milk. Tomales' first house was built in 1850 by 
John Keyes, who operated a small schooner between Bodega Bay and 
San Francisco and opened a trading post here in the spring of 1854. 

State i winds through the shallow gully of San Antonio Creek to 
its mouth in a delta of mud flats at TOMALES BAY, 151.9 m., and 
then runs for 13 miles along the shore. (Tomales is a Spanish corrup- 
tion of the Coast Miwok Indian word tamal, bay.) The bay is a long, 
narrow, fingerlike inlet, resembling a firth in the Scottish Highlands. 
On the east bare brown hills slope down to the shore ; on the west, low, 
tumbled peaks densely forested with green. In the shallow water off- 
shore, oyster beds are fenced in by a long file of slender stakes. 

At NICK'S COVE (boats for hire}, 153.2 m. t cottages cluster 
around the store and the wharf, where small dories bob up and down 
with the lapping tide. 

The lower end of Tomales Bay is a dank expanse of mud flats. 

POINT REYES STATION, 166.4 m. (31 alt., 143 pop.), named 
for nearby Point Reyes (see below), faces an abandoned railroad sta- 
tion. The town and surrounding region have had one product but- 
ter since the 1850*8, when a 57,o66-acre tract was acquired by three 
men and leased to dairy farmers who began to ship their butter to San 
Francisco by schooner. 

At 166.7 m. is the junction with a paved road. 

Right on this road, which runs northeastward along the western shore 
of Tomales Bay, to the junction with a dirt road, 1.5 m.; L. here 0.2 m. 
to the MARIN COUNTY FISH HATCHERY, a large plant for hatching rainbow 

The main side route continues to INVERNESS, 3.8 m. (sea level, 200 
pop.), a summer colony, deep among greenery at the edge of a 6-mile 
sandy beach. James Black, a native of Inverness, Scotland, settled here in 
1832, but the town was not founded until 1908. The Inverness Yacht Club 
is a center for yachting on Tomales Bay. 

West of Inverness the road, paved for 0.7 miles beyond the town, winds 
over the thickly wooded hilltops of the ridge paralleling Tomales Bay to 
the headwaters of Drake's Estero (creek). 

At 9.8 m. is the junction with a dirt road; R. here 0.1 m. to the RADIO 
CORPORATION OF AMERICA STATION (open by arrangement at 28 Geary St., 
San Francisco], the receiving station for RCA's San Francisco radio- 
telegraph terminal. The i,5oo-acre station has 21 short-wave directive 
receiving antenna units, which tune in signals from Japan, China, the 


Dutch East Indies, French Indo-China, the Philippine Islands, and Hawaii. 
The Beverage diversity system for receiving short-wave signals, in opera- 
tion here, utilizes a bank of three antennae spaced approximately 1,000 feet 
apart. Each antenna is connected by a separate receiver to a specially 
built combining unit. Besides radio telegrams, the station receives occa- 
sional trans-Pacific programs from the Far East for rebroadcasting in 

Southeast of this point the main side route follows the bleak, wind-swept 
slopes of POINT REYES. The half-mile distant wide beach (R) extends 
north in an unbroken straight line toward the hazy bluffs of Tomales Point 
and Bodega Head. The low-growing vegetation on the hill slopes is bright- 
ened in spring with myriads of tiny red, yellow, and purple flowers. 

At 11 m. is the junction with a dirt road; R. here 0.7 m. to the UNITED 
STATES RADIO COMPASS STATION, which broadcasts compass bearings to ships 
at sea. 

At 15 m. on the main side route, south of a barnyard gate near a farm- 
house, is the junction with a dirt road; L. here 1.3 m. to the UNITED STATES 
in the lee of Point Reyes. The white-faced bluffs fringing the bay in an 
immense crescent-shaped sweep suggested the white cliffs of the English 
coast near Dover to Sir Francis Drake on June 17, 1579, when he took 
refuge here in the Golden Hinde. The Drake company, in the last of the 
five vessels with which it had sailed from England nearly two years earlier, 
was searching southward along the coast for a haven from the wind, the 
fog, and the bitter cold that had plagued them for weeks. In this sheltered 
bay, its waters as smooth as a mill pond, they found a "convenient and 
fit harborough." For nearly six weeks Drake and his men remained, re- 
conditioning their boats and causing wonderment among awe-struck Indian 
visitors from villages for miles around (see INDIANS). 

A small party led by Drake made a journey inland, where they found, 
as chaplain Francis Fletcher wrote, "a goodly country and fruitful soyle, 
stored with many blessings fit for the use of man." Drake named it Nova 
Albion (Lat., New England). On July 23, after religious ceremonies, 
they set sail again while Indians watched from the hilltops. But before 
"we went from thence," wrote Fletcher, "our generall caused to be set up 
a monument of our being there, as also of her majesties and successors 
right and title to that Kingdom; namely, a plate of brasse, fast nailed to 
a greate and firme post, whereon is engrauen her graces name, and the 
day and yeare of our arrival there, and of the free giving up of the 
province and Kingdom, both by King and people, into her maiesties hands ; 
together with her highnesses picture and armes, in a piece of sixpence 
current English monie, shewing itself by a hole made of purpose through 
the plate . . ." 

Late in 1933 a chauffeur, on a hunting expedition with his employer at 
the Laguna Ranch, just east of Drake's Bay, picked up a slab of blackened 
metal near the roadside and wiping it off, uncovered in one corner what 
looked like the word "Drak." He placed the metal in the side pocket of 
itfie car. 

A week later, as he drove past a point near the mouth of Corte Madera 
Creek, where the southern shore of Point San Quentin reaches away from 
jthe mainland (see TOUR 2a), he threw the plate away. On April 6, 1937, 
a motorist, stopped by a flat tire, picked up the plate near the highway. 
For months it lay unnoticed among his effects until one day, using it to 
tinker with his automobile, he noticed its crude engraving and took it to 
the head of the University of California history department. 

Carefully cleaned, the plate revealed the inscription: 

TOUR I 327 

Bee It Knowne Vnto All Men By These Presents 

Ivne 17 1579 

By The Grace Of God And In The Name Of Herr 
Maiesty Queen Elizabeth Of England And Herr 
Successors Forever I Take Possesson Of This 
Kingdome Whose King And People Freely Resigne 
Their Right And Title In The Whole Land Vnto Herr 
Maiesties Keepeing Now Named By Me And To Bee 
Knowne Vnto All Men As Nova Albion 
Francis Drake 

After exhaustive investigation by metallurgists, chemists, museum cura- 
tors, archeologists, and geologists, the plate was finally accepted in America 
as the real "plate of brasse" left by Drake, though British scientists still 
question the authenticity. 

The main side route turns westward to POINT REYES LIGHTHOUSE (open), 
19.9 m., at the verge of a cliff on the tip of a knifelike headland, one of 
the windiest points on the coast. The light was established in 1870. Its 
white pyramidal tower is 294 feet above water. Throughout the summer, 
when dense fog blankets the coast, the fog signal blasts almost constantly. 
Back of the lighthouse are a storm-warning display and telegraph station. 
So many ships have piled up on the treacherous rocks off Point Reyes that 
the San Francisco newspapers are said to keep set up the headline, "Ship 
Aground at Point Reyes." At dawn of November 29, 1938, a Seattle- 
Oakland airliner off its course and hours overdue, landed on the water 
1,000 yards offshore and was battered on the rocks by crashing surf, with 
the loss of 5 lives. 

OLEMA (Ind., Olemaloke: coyote valley), 168.8 m. (67 alt., 150 
pop.), consists of three or four old frame buildings gathered around an 
old-fashioned two-story frame hotel and a little steepled white church. 

The moss-grown, masonry RUINS OF A LIME KILN occupy a 
ravine near the roadside (R) at 172.8 m., where lime from an outcrop 
on Olema Creek was fired in the early iSso's. Against a cut in the 
slope of the ravine tower the kiln's three chimneys two of them still 
standing and a third in ruins resembling giant beehives in shape. 

State I runs southeast to the junction, at 177.5 m., with a paved 

Right on this road, along the western shore of a landlocked lagoon, to 
the head of crescent-shaped Bolinas Bay, in the lee of cliff-edged Bolinas 
Point, probably named for Francisco Bolanos, pilot of the Vizcaino expedi- 
tion in 1602. The SITE OF THE BOLINAS LIGHTER WHARF (L), 0.4 m., is 
marked by a few piles. During the 1850*8 ox-drawn wagons with wooden 
wheels crosscut sections of huge tree trunks hauled lumber to the wharf. 
From this point their loads were carried by flat-bottomed lighters to cargo 
vessels anchored in the bay. 

At 1.7 m. is the junction with a paved road; R. here 2.6 m. to the RADIO 
CORPORATION OF AMERICA STATION on a i,5oo-acre tract on the western 
shore of the Bolinas peninsula. RCA's San Francisco radio-telegraph 
terminal has its sending station here for transmitting short-wave messages 
across the Pacific. The transmitting equipment includes 46 antennae 
about half of them of the high-power short-wave directive type. 

BOLINAS, 2.1 m. (10 alt., 125 pop.), circles the base of the headland. 
A miniature church, parsonage, and houses built a half century ago are 
neighbors of the shingled summer homes of San Franciscans. Low tide 
brings out dozens of rubber-booted clam diggers. First settler here was 
Gregorio Briones, owner of the 8,9ii-acre cattle domain of Baulinas Rancho, 


whose daughter Maria's marriage to Francisco Sebrean, celebrated May 20, 
1850, with feasting on a barbecued fat bullock and dancing on a floor of 
whip-sawed lumber, was Bolinas' first. 

jagged rocks of Duxbury Reef, stretching seaward 100 feet below the cliff- 
edged tableland of Duxbury Point, west of the town, have been the grave- 
yard of many ships. The Panama-San Francisco propeller steamer Lewis 
was battered to pieces here April 9, 1853, with the loss of all its freight and 
baggage and the narrow escape of 400 passengers. 

STINSON BEACH (accommodations; boats, tackle, and bait for 
surf fishing), 182.1 m. (sea level, 130 pop.), a family resort thronged 
on holidays by vacationers, fronts a 3-mile white sand beach curving 
around Bolinas Bay; the surf is warm enough for bathing all year. 
The winters are so mild that swarms of big brown Monarch butterflies 
immigrate from the high Sierra. The settlement has evolved from a 
campground beside a grove of willows and alders near the beach at the 
end of the Dipsea (Lone Tree) Trail ("Dipsea" is an Indian corrup- 
tion of "deep sea") ; from the slopes of Mount Tamalpais (see TOUR 
2a) to the beach, the trail is followed every year by cross-country hikers 
in the Dipsea Trail Race from Mill Valley (see TOUR 2a}. 

At 182.4 m. is the junction with the dirt Mount Tamalpais Road 
(see TOUR&a). 

State I twists upward, high above the crashing breakers. At 187.1 m. 
it winds along the crest of a knifelike ridge overlooking the timbered 
hollows of Muir Woods (see TOUR 2a) on one hand and ocean ex- 
panses on the other. 

At 188.6 777. is the junction with the Muir Woods Road (see TOUR 

At 188.8 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right on this road 0.7 m. to MUIR BEACH (swimming and fishing], a 
sandy strip curving around the shores of Big Lagoon. 

At 194.6 m. is the junction with US 101 (see TOUR 2a), with 
which State I unites into SAN FRANCISCO, 205.4 m. (18 alt., 634,- 
394 pop.) (see SAN FRANCISCO). 

Section b. SAN FRANCISCO to MONTEREY; 133.1 m. State i 

The rugged flanks of the Peninsula ridge south of San Francisco 
crowd State I to the edge of blunt-faced mesas battered by the waves. 
The highway dips to wide, sandy beaches and climbs to tumbled heights 
above the surf. Swinging inland around the great curve of Monterey 
Bay, it crosses the fertile Pajaro Valley's apple orchards. Its way back 
to the shore leads through low, rolling land, fringed with sand dunes. 
Along the whole route the countryside early, but thinly, settled has 
a look of age about it, except where seaside resorts have replaced the 
whaling stations, the old fishing villages, the abandoned schooner land- 

Along this forbidding coast line in the autumn of 1769 struggled the 

TOUR I 329 

first white men to come by land into California "that small company 
of persons, or rather say skeletons, who had been spared by scurvy, 
hunger and thirst," as their commander, Don Caspar de Portola, de- 
scribed them. They were searching for the "fine harbor sheltered from 
all winds" of Monterey, over enthusiastically and misleadingly described 
by Sebastian Vizcaino in 1602 there to found a military port and a 
mission. The expedition included Portola's aides, Capt. Don Fernando 
de Rivera y Moncada, Lt. Don Pedro Fages, and army engineer Ensign 
Miguel Constanso; the two Franciscan friars, Fray Juan Crespi and 
Fray Francisco Gomez; Sgt. Jose Francisco de Ortega, with his 27 
soldiers; and a troop of servants and Christian Indians from Lower 
California. The soldiers wore leather jackets fashioned of seven thick- 
nesses of deerskin and carried bullhide shields, lances and broad-swords, 
and short muskets. At the head of the expedition, with its four pack- 
train divisions of mules each, rode Portola; at the rear, behind the 
spare horses and mules and their guard, Rivera. 

On September 30, two and a half months after leaving San Diego, 
they came to the coast at the mouth of the Salinas River on Monterey 
Bay. The open gulf so little resembled the "fine harbor sheltered from 
all winds" for which they were looking that they went on now with 
17 men on the sick list, n so ill that they had to be carried on litters 
fastened with long poles to the mules. As they continued northward 
in 5- and lo-mile stages, toiling up steep grades and across deep arroyos, 
often cutting their way through brush, they had to ration their rapidly 
diminishing store of food. Finally on October 31 they climbed to the 
heights above San Pedro Point and saw the Gulf of the Farallones and 
Point Reyes far to the north. Forced to the unhappy conclusion that 
they had overshot their mark, they turned eastward and then southward 
down the Peninsula having in the meantime discovered San Fran- 
cisco Bay and retraced their steps to Monterey Bay. Once more fail- 
ing to recognize the object of their search, they went on south to San 
Diego, where Portola reported his expedition a failure. 

West from Van Ness Ave. in SAN FRANCISCO, m., on Hayes 
St. to Franklin St.; R. to Fulton St.; L. to Funston (i3th) Ave.; L. 
through Golden Gate Park into Nineteenth Ave. and south into Juni- 
pero Sena Blvd. 

At 6.1 m. is the junction with Sloat Blvd. 

Right on Sloat Blvd. to the junction with Sunset Blvd., 6.7 m. and L. 
around Lake Merced to the SITE OF THE TERRY-BRODERICK DUEL, 9.6 m., 
at the southern tip of the lake, marked by two granite shafts, one bearing 
the name "Broderick" and the other "Terry" in bronze letters. At dawn on 
September 13, 1859, a United States Senator and a California Supreme 
Court Chief Justice took their positions here with duelling pistols, 30 
paces apart. They represented opposing factions in the struggle on the 
issue of slavery which was tearing the Democratic Party in California 
apart Broderick the anti- and Terry the pro-slavery side. Broderick was 
the son of an Irish stone mason, schooled in politics by Tammany Hall; 
Terry, a Kentucky-born aristocrat, aligned with the "Chivalry" Democrats. 

Terry had publicly attacked Broderick and the Douglas Democrats for 
sailing under "the banner of the black Douglass, whose name is Frederick, 


not Stephen." When Broderick replied in kind, Terry resigned from the 
bench and demanded a retraction; Broderick refused. Broderick was no 
match for his opponent; his shot^ fired first, entered the ground only 9 feet 
from where he stood. Terry's shot entered his breast. He died three 
days later. A crowd of 30,000 people gathered at Portsmouth Square in 
San Francisco to hear the funeral oration. 

State I turns southwest on Alemany Boulevard through neat truck 
gardens toward the ocean. 

At 9.8 m. is the junction with Skyline Boulevard (State 5). 

Left on Skyline Boulevard, up from gently rolling hill country to the 
crest of the forested Sierra Morena and down the ridge of the Peninsula. 
The highway skirts the western shore of long, narrow, fingerlike SAN 
ANDREAS LAKE, 10.3 m., and CRYSTAL SPRINGS LAKE, 14 m., along 
which the Portola expedition traveled November 4 and 5, 1769 on their 
way southward. 

Near the northern end of Crystal Springs Lake is the JEPSON LAUREL, 55 
feet high and 22 feet 4 inches in circumference. It is called the Deathshead 
Tree because of the skull and crossbones carved in its fork in the days 
when the Spanish held barbecues beneath its branches. 

State 5 crosses SKYLINE DAM, 15.4 m., at the head of San Mateo 
Creek, and strikes westward from Crystal Springs Lake. 

At 25 m. is the junction with King's Mountain Road; L. here 5 m. to the 
WOODSIDE STORE, the first opened between San Francisco and Santa Clara. 
It was built in 1854 by Dr. R. O. Tripp. It is a two-story structure with a 
peaked, shingled roof; the posts upholding the wide veranda, where horses 
were once hitched, are well-worn. The wooden sign over the porch was 
put up before the Civil War. Inside are the post office pigeon-holes, the 
old-fashioned counters, the oil lamps with their tin reflectors, the tin signs 
advertising plug chewing tobacco. As many as a thousand lumberjacks 
from the dense redwood forests roundabout where 15 sawmills operated 
in a radius of 5 miles called here for mail, food, and liquor. 

Skyline Boulevard continues to the SKYLINE METHUSELAH REDWOOD (L), 
26.2 m., a lone giant dominating the countryside. More than 1,500 years 
old, it measures 55 feet in circumference. Its trunk is blackened by the 
repeated fires that long since felled its neighbors. 

At 31.1 m. is the junction with the paved La Honda (the deep) Canyon 
road; R. on this road that winds down the slopes in a flicker of sun and 
shadow through clumps of redwoods and madrones 7 m. to LA HONDA 
(403 alt., 150 pop.), a mountain resort center (cabins, campgrounds] in the 
La Honda Grove of redwoods. In the winter of 1861-62, John L. Sears 
settled here and built the LA HONDA STORE, employing two newcomers to 
the vicinity, Jim and Bob Younger. Their stay was brief, for they left 
suddenly to rejoin the James gang in the Midwest for a bank robbery at 
Northfield, Minnesota, that landed them in the penitentiary. 

Left from La Honda on a paved road 1 m. to the junction with a paved 
road; R. here 5 m. to the SAN MATEO COUNTY MEMORIAL RED- 
WOOD PARK, a 3io-acre grove. 

At 38.4 m. on State 5 is the junction with a dirt road; R. here 4 m. and 
L. to ISLAM SHRINE PARK, 7 m., a i,4OO-acre redwood grove. 

State 5 continues down the east slope of the Sierra Morena to its junction 
with State 9 (see TOUR 2b) 45 m. 

State I skirts hills velvety with matted chaparral that slope steeply 
to the water's edge, where flocks of sea birds perch on the crags. 

SHARP PARK, 14.7 m., a resort hamlet facing a wide, sandy 
beach, clusters near the northern edge of SHARP PARK MUNICIPAL 

TOUR I 33 1 

GOLF COURSE, 15.2 m., part of the 48o-acre park given the city of San 
Francisco by Mrs. Honora Sharp. The smooth green links on either 
side of the highway are indented (R) by tule-grown Laguna Salada. 

ROCKAWAY BEACH, 16.4 m. (50 alt.), lies at the edge of a 
hill-sheltered cove. 

The road cuts across the mouth of Pedro Valley to SAN PEDRO 
CREEK, 17.8 m., guarded by lofty SAN PEDRO POINT. Near the 
mouth of the creek, by an Indian village, the Portola expedition camped 
on October 31, 1769 and feasted on mussels pried from the rocks. 
After mass the next morning, Portola sent Sgt. Jose Francisco de 
Ortega with a party to scout eastward. As they climbed to the top 
of the ridge, the vast expanse of San Francisco Bay, never before seen 
by white men, appeared in the distance. Before they could report their 
discovery, however, another party that went out November 2 to hunt 
and returned before nightfall had brought tidings of the "great arm of 
the sea, extending to the southeast farther than the eye could reach." 
On the morning of November 4, the expedition broke camp. Aban- 
doning their trek in search of Monterey Bay, they climbed the ridge to 
the east, looking for the "port and a ship therein" only two days distant 
of which Indians had told Ortega. 

The ragged leaves and green globes of row on row of silvery-green 
artichoke plants carpet fertile Pedro Valley, thriving here and near 
Half Moon Bay as nowhere else. Much of the United States supply 
of artichokes is grown in this fog-moistened coastal strip, where the 
first commercial planting was made in 1900. The plants are trimmed 
to the ground in the spring and watered and cultivated in summer to 
force the buds to mature in the fall and winter, although they mature 
naturally in June and July. The harvest season, beginning in August 
or September, reaches its peak in February, March, and April. About 
half the crop is hauled to market in California by truck and the rest 
shipped to the East in refrigerator cars. The plants, spaced four to six 
feet apart in rows, produce from three to four dozen buds apiece by 
the end of their third year, and up to twice that number in succeeding 
years, until their sixth year, when they are usually replaced. 

On the south bank of San Pedro Creek is the junction with a 
graded road. 

Left on this road 1.3 m. to the decaying old two-story SANCHEZ ADOBE, the 
balconied ranchhouse of Rancho San Pedro, built by Don Francisco Sanchez 
in 1842. It stands on the site of an older house, which is said to have been 
rebuilt in 1817 with timbers from a ship wrecked on San Pedro Point. 

State i climbs over the hump of MONTARA MOUNTAIN; on 
the summit above San Pedro Point, Portola's men at noon of October 
31, 1769, sick and hungry and exhausted from the tortuous climb 
through matted brush up the southern slope, looked out over a vast 
sweep of sea and land Twin Peaks and Mount Tamalpais rising to 
the north, Point Reyes curving out to sea far beyond, and the rocky 
Farallon Islands jutting from the misty horizon. The road dips to 


the spot where the Portola party stopped the night of October 30, 1769, 
in despair, their way northward blocked by the steep slopes. 

The rolling land east of MONTARA, 22 m. (300 pop.), is check- 
ered with fields that supply large quantities of everlasting-flowers. The 
blossoms are cut from their stems, mounted on fine wire, and dried for 
about 36 hours. The industry, begun in 1925, has achieved a produc- 
tion of 20,000,000 or more blossoms in recent years. 

As State I continues past plots of artichokes and brussels sprouts, 
the stout tower of POINT MONTARA LIGHT and the wire-webbed steel 
(R) at 22.7 m. on Point Montara, near a half-submerged circle of up- 
standing rocks. 

MOSS BEACH, 23.3 m. (75 alt., 300 pop.), is a tiny cluster of 
weather-beaten houses sheltered by wind-battered cypresses. From the 
rocks along the shore delicate sea mosses can be gathered. The strangely 
beautiful marine gardens offshore are famous for their flora. 

The highway rounds gently curving HALF MOON BAY, 25.5 m., 
whose blue waters stretch southward, breaking in hissing foam on a 
long white beach guarded by the rocky headland of PILLAR POINT, 
which navigator Francisco de Gali sighted from his galleon in 1585. 
He reported : ". . . we passed by a very high and fair land with many 
trees, wholly without snow; there likewise we found great store of 
seals; whereby it is to be presumed and certainly to be believed, that 
there are many rivers, bays and havens along by those coasts . . ." The 
harbor, protected by a submerged reef off the point, became a port of 
call for whalers and traders and, more recently, for rum runners. 

The town of HALF MOON BAY, 30.3 m. (10 alt., 1,000 pop.), 
now populated largely by Italians and Portuguese, is a quiet farm vil- 
lage surrounded by neatly laid out fields of artichokes and brussels 
sprouts. The weary men of the Portola expedition pitched camp near 
the mouth of Pilarcitos Creek, at the northern edge of town, on the 
rainy night of October 28, 1769, and spent a wet and miserable week- 
end their medicine gone and their food running low before they 
could gather enough strength to move on. The creek, extending up 
Pilarcitos Valley, was later the boundary between Tiburcio Vasquez' 
(no relative of the bandit) part of Rancho El Corral de Tierra (the 
enclosure of earth) and Candelario Miramontes' Rancho Miramontes. 
The two rancheros built their low-roofed, rambling adobe houses on 
opposite banks of the creek in the 1 840*5, affording each other company 
at a time when the region was a wilderness roamed by grizzly bears. 
Around their houses grew up a settlement that went by the name 
Spanishtown for 40 years or more after it was platted in 1863. 

State i continues past small farms where large whitewashed barns 
and small weather-beaten farmhouses are sheltered from the wind by 
lines of dark, ragged cypresses. The rising hills curve gently, splotched 
in the hollows with dusky chaparral. 

The village of PURISIMA (purest), 34.5 m. (46 alt.), once a 
lively town on Jose Maria Alviso's Rancho Canada de Verde y Arroyo 

TOUR i 333 

de la Purisima, is ghostly and deserted now. Its weathered gray build- 
ings stand among mosshung cypresses and eucalyptus trees, their win- 
dows broken, their stairs falling in, their facades rudely stuck with gay 
circus posters. 

From a VIEWPOINT at 38.6 m., tawny bluffs bordered by surf 
stretch south. The highway descends to the beach at TUNITAS 
GLEN, 38.8 m. (25$ a car for camping}. 

The farm hamlet of SAN GREGORIO (St. Gregory), 42.1 m. 
(100 alt., 107 pop.), in a valley where suave hills sweep up to the 
Sierra Morena crest, is near the mouth of San Gregorio Creek. The 
place so enchanted Fray Crespi of the Portola expedition that he pro- 
posed it for a mission site, naming it Santo Domingo but others called 
it the Valley of the Curses of the Soldiers, for "they were sick and tired 
and hungry," as diarist Miguel Costanso wrote. They stayed two days 
to rest. 

Although PESCADERO (fishing place), 49.5 m. (56 alt., 979 
pop.), was named for Pescadero Creek's once plentiful supply of spec- 
kled trout, the town's predominantly Portuguese inhabitants neither 
catch nor sell fish. Pescadero's cluster of prim white buildings give it 
the appearance of a New England village. It was long the whitest 
town in the State; when the S.S. Columbia was wrecked near Pigeon 
Point, most of her cargo of white paint drifted ashore and, salvaged 
by the inhabitants, was used lavishly. 

At 50.5 m. is the junction with a dirt road. 

Right here 2 m. to PEBBLE BEACH, famous for its polished pebbles- 
small agates, jaspers, opals, moonstones, moss agates, and water-drops 
(white pebbles with drops of water in their centers). 

South of Pescadero State I crosses low mesas that break off abruptly 
in bluffs, jagged with deep caves and gulches created by the waves. 
The PIGEON POINT LIGHTHOUSE, 55.8 m. (open 2-4 Tues., Fri., Sat.), 
overlooks a rock-bound coast, on whose headland the Boston clipper 
Carrier Pigeon was wrecked May 6, 1853. The tower was built in 
1872. The powerful lens was used first on the New England and later 
on the South Atlantic coast, where it was buried in the sand during the 
Civil War according to one story, to keep it from falling into Con- 
federate hands. 

The road curves inland from PUNTA DEL ANO NUEVO 
(New Year's Point), stretching out to sea at 63.5 ra., the NEW YEAR'S 
POINT LIGHTHOUSE at its tip. This was the first important spot 
sighted by Sebastian Vizcaino's crew when they sailed from Monterey 
January 3, 1602; they named it for the season of the year. 

The pine-forested mountainsides slope steeply to the sea, crowding 
the highway to the edge of a narrow bench. Then State I drops to a 
cove to travel along a roadway carved from the cliffs. The wide beach 
here, where the long rollers arch in transparent blue-green hues and 
crash in a welter of foam, was once the greatest hazard on the Santa 
Cruz to Pescadero stage line. Since the coaches could travel along 


the hard-packed, sandy strip only at low tide, a delay in schedule was 
apt to prove disastrous. The more adventurous drivers enjoyed timing 
the trip down to the last second so that they could race the tide to 
safety, much to the consternation of their passengers. 

At the mouth of Waddell Creek, 65.5 ra., "a very deep stream that 
flowed out from between very high hills of the mountain chain," the 
Portola expedition camped for three nights, beginning October 20, 
1769. On October 22 "the day dawned, overcast and gloomy; the 
men were wet and wearied for want of sleep, as they had no tents, 
and it was necessary to let them rest. . . . What excited our wonder 
on this occasion was that all the sick, for whom we feared the wetting 
might prove exceedingly harmful, suddenly found their pains very much 
relieved. This was the reason for giving the canyon the name of La 
Salud" (health). 

The highway swings inland, climbing in hairpin twists up a moun- 
tain spur, with excellent views of the coast to north and south. From 
the heights it descends to a forested canyon, traverses a narrow, logged- 
over valley, reaches seaside terraces once more, and cuts through alter- 
nating dairy farms and fields of artichokes and brussels sprouts. 

The countryside around DAVENPORT, 75.5 m. (90 alt., 600 
pop.), a company town near a large cement plant, is liberally pow- 
dered with lime dust. In the 1850*8 Davenport Landing was the site 
of whaling operations, directed by Capt. John P. Davenport, who de- 
vised a stay-at-home method of hunting. The whalers lived in cabins 
on the shore, from which they sallied forth in whaling boats when a 
whale was sighted. They towed their catch to the beach and there 
tried the blubber in huge pots. The Portuguese who came from the 
Azores to settle hereabout built lookouts with bells and stationed 
watchmen there to sound a warning when they sighted whales to sum- 
mon the others from their farms to their boats. The heyday of whaling 
lasted until the i88o's, when the mammals began to disappear. 

State i continues along the coast, crossing the mouths of one stream- 
hollowed gully after another, which the Portola expedition crossed with 
infinite difficulty in October, 1769. At the mouth of Coja Creek, 
79 m., their camp site on the i8th, they had to build a bridge of poles 
and earth. The next day they encountered seven ravines in all, clam- 
bering down one side and up another. One had such steep sides that 
the mule bearing the olla (cooking pot) fell to the bottom. 

SANTA CRUZ, 86.8 m. (15 alt., 14,395 pop.), faces south across 
Monterey Bay from its perch beside a broad, curving beach at the edge 
of the timbered Santa Cruz Mountains. When the Portola party 
planted a cross on the bank of the river which they named the San 
Lorenzo, on October 17, 1769, they noticed redwoods and "roses of 
Castille" but to Fray Crespi's disappointment no Indians. Only 22 
years later, however, a fellow Franciscan, Fray Fermin Francisco de 
Lasuen, said mass in the presence of a great gathering of Indians and 
raised another cross to consecrate the site of a mission. Mision la 
Exaltacion de la Santa Cruz (the elevation of the holy cross) was 

TOUR i 335 

formally founded two months later, September 25, 1791, when Don 
Hermenegildo Sal, comandante of the Presidio of San Francisco, took 
the name of King Carlos IV. Fathers Alonzo Salazar and Baldomero 
Lopez began their work, equipped with an image of Our Father Saint 
Francis, a painting of Our Lady of Sorrows, and gifts from nearby 
missions including barley for seed, cows, sheep, oxen, horses and mules. 
For more than two years they baptized the heathen without even the 
roof of a church above their heads, for the first church was not com- 
pleted and dedicated until March 10, 1794. 

On May 12, 1797, the schooner Conception anchored in the bay 
with a boatload of colonists for the Villa de Branciforte, the Spanish 
Government's third, last, and least successful experiment in pueblo 
founding. The instructions of Governor Diego de Borica for the 
pueblo, named in honor of the Mexican Viceroy, the Marquis de Bran- 
ciforte, had been sensible and to the point: "An adobe house to be built 
for each settler so that the prevalent state of things at San Jose and 
Los Angeles, where the settlers still live in tule huts, being unable to 
build better buildings without neglecting their fields, may be avoided; 
the houses not to cost over $200." The government had promised each 
colonist a musket, a plow, a few animals, and a loan of 116 pesos. 
Unfortunately, the farmers, mechanics, artisans, and sailors for whom 
Borica had called proved to be a tatterdemalion crew of vagabonds and 
ex-convicts. Futhermore, none of the houses was ready when they ar- 
rived. Don Alberto Cordoba, a Spanish Army engineer, arrived in 
August to supervise digging an irrigation canal, erecting public build- 
ings, and building houses all according to plans laid out in Mexico 
but he got little further than submitting estimates for the work, since 
funds failed to arrive. 

The model village across the river was a sore trial for the mission 
padres, who regarded it with suspicious anxiety justifiably, as it turned 
out. When the Buenos Aires privateersman Hippolyte de Bouchard 
sacked Monterey in November, 1818, the padres retired in haste to 
Mission Santa Clara, leaving the mission in the hands of Branciforte's 
inhabitants for safekeeping. The protectors found the stock of aguar- 
diente in the padres' cellar pleasantly useful for bolstering their morale. 
The damage to the church and its furnishings was considerable. Un- 
fortunately, since Bouchard never appeared for his scheduled raid, they 
could not blame him for the depredations as they had planned. 

The mission, secularized in 1834, fell mt o decay, while Branciforte 
survived. By 1840, when twenty ranchos had been granted in the 
vicinity, whalers were finding it a good place to buy fresh vegetables for 
scurvy-ridden crews. A new town grew up around the mission plaza, 
borrowing the mission's name. Under the Yankee regime it developed 
a fine trade, shipping lumber from the redwood-forested hinterland. 
One of its first industrial plants was Elihu Anthony's foundry, which 
in 1848 was turning out light-weight iron picks for the mines and cast- 
iron plows, the first made in California. In 1866 the city of Santa Cruz 
was granted a charter by the State. Meanwhile neighboring Bran- 


ciforte preserved the easy-going ways of old. As late as July, 1867, the 
bull ring was gay with red flags and noisy with firecrackers on bull 
fight days "Admission and seats $1.00. Standing room on the sunny 
side 50 cents." Finally in 1907 Branciforte, now a mere suburb of 
its former rival, was incorporated in Santa Cruz. 

A reproduction of MISSION SANTA CRUZ (adm. 25$), on Emmet 
St. facing the Upper Plaza, was built in 1931 about 75 yards from the 
old site. The original structure built in 1793 suddenly collapsed with 
a loud crash a month after an earthquake had weakened its walls on 
January 9, 1857. About one-half the size of the original but identical 
in proportions, the mission has a square bell-tower topped with a dome, 
overlooking one-story porticoed living quarters at one side and a rear 
garden court. It houses old relics richly ornamented vestments, a 
candle chandelier, and a statue of Our Lady of Sorrows brought from 
Monterey on muleback. The brick CHURCH OF THE HOLY CROSS, 
facing the Plaza, was built in 1858 and rebuilt in 1889. Back of the 
mission, on the brow of the hill, the ancient headstones of the euca- 
lyptus-shaded graveyard are half hidden by tangled myrtles. The adobe 
NEARY HOUSE, R. from the mission on School St., was formerly the 
headquarters of the corporal of the mission guard. The adobe ROD- 
RIGUEZ HOUSE, joined to it by a 5-foot adobe wall, has been in the 
possession of descendants of Jose Antonio Rodriguez ever since 1838. 

The SANTA CRUZ MUNICIPAL PIER, at the foot of Pacific Ave., 
projects into the surf from the half-mile strip of smooth white sand 
bordering the bay. At the western end of the boardwalk is the Casino, 
and nearby are a bathing pavilion and pleasure pier. 

Right from Pacific Ave. into 2.8-mile West Cliff Dr. On the 
drive are the SANTA CRUZ LIGHT STATION (open 2-4 Tues., Thurs.) ; 
the 565-acre expanse of the municipal recreation ground, LAVEAGA 
PARK, still in its natural state; and SWANTON NATURAL BRIDGES 
BEACH STATE PARK, in a sandy, cliff-edged cove where jutting rocks 
have been carved into natural bridges by the waves. 

Santa Cruz is at the junctions with State 9 (see TOUR 2b] and 
State 17 (see TOUR 2b). 

East of Santa Cruz State I passes through farms and nurseries to 
SOQUEL, 91.1 m. f in a canyon on Soquel Creek, now among bulb 
gardens, orchards, and vineyards, but a booming lumber town in the 
days when the hills roundabout were forested with redwoods. March- 
ing toward Soquel Creek October 10, 1769, Portola and his men saw 
"low hills well forested with high trees of a red color, not known to 
us. They have a very different leaf from cedars, and although the 
wood resembles cedar somewhat in color, it is very different, and has not 
the same odor; moreover, the wood of the trees that we found is very 
brittle. In this region there is a great abundance of these trees and 
because none of the expedition recognizes them, they are named red- 
woods from their color." Awe-struck Pedro Fages wrote: "Here are 
trees of girth so great that eight men placed side by side with extended 
arms are unable to embrace them." 

TOUR i 337 

Right from Soquel on a paved road to CAPITOLA, 1.5 m., a long-estab- 
lished resort facing NEW BRIGHTON BEACH STATE PARK in 
sheltered Soquel Cove. 

Over the route of State I on their way to Santa Cruz by way of 
San Juan (see TOUR 2b} ran the mail stages from San Jose. The 
most daring driver on the line in the i86o's was swaggering "Cock- 
eyed Charley" Parkhurst, outstanding even among teamsters for his 
profanity. A naturally truculent expression, enhanced by a black patch 
over a missing eye and tobacco-juice stains on mouth and chin, made 
Charley the toughest looking fellow in the region. Not until Charley's 
death in 1879 was it discovered that "he" was a woman. Born Char- 
lotte Parkhurst in New Hampshire in 1806, "Charley" had turned up 
in California in 1848. More than 50 years before introduction of 
woman suffrage, this enterprising Amazon had voted, "his" name ap- 
pearing on the Santa Cruz Great Register for 1866. 

At 94.2 m. on State I is the junction with a paved road. 

Right on this road 0.5 m. to SEACLIFF STATE PARK, where the beach 
affords fine surf bathing and clamming. At the end of a pier stands an 
old hulk, one of the concrete ships built during the World War, anchored 
here by an enterprising night club owner as a dance hall. Although a 
large crack yawns in the hull and signs reading "DANGER" are numer- 
ous fishermen cast their lines from the prow (lo$ charge) in serene 

APTOS (Ind., the meeting of the streams), 94.6 m. (100 pop.), 
at the base of oak- and chaparral-clad hills, was long a fashionable 
resort, but its OCEAN VIEW HOTEL (L) is deserted today. Late in the 
nineteenth century Claus Spreckels, founder of the State's first sugar 
dynasty, who built a great sugar beet refinery near Watsonville, bought 
up most of Don Rafael Castro's Rancho Aptos. His estate with its 
race track and its mansion containing an elevator, the first south of San 
Francisco became the wonder of the countryside, especially when 
Spreckels welcomed as a visitor the King of the Hawaiian Islands. 

From the hill country east of Aptos, State I descends across the 
broad, level Pajaro Valley, watered by the river that the Portola ex- 
pedition named the Rio del Pajaro (river of the bird) because they 
found on its banks a great eagle stuffed with straw by the Indians. 
The Pajaro Valley is a vast sweep of apple orchards in springtime 
snowy with blossoms, whose petals eddy in fragrant showers on the 
breeze. In the summer, when the orchards are luxuriantly green, the 
trees bellflowers and pippins drooping under their burden of fruit, 
are propped up to prevent their branches breaking. Along the way are 
stands selling cold cider. 

The orchard hamlet of FREEDOM, 104.4 m. (115 alt., 350 pop.), 
went by the name of Whiskey Hill up until the era of sobriety in- 
augurated by prohibition. 

The brisk modern trade center of the apple country, WATSON- 
VILLE, 106.4 m. (25 alt., 8,344 PP-)> n both sides of the Pajaro 
River (which has often overflowed its banks and flooded the town), 


was laid out in 1852 by Judge John H. Watson and D. S. Gregory on 
land purchased from Don Sebastian Rodriguez' Rancho Bolsa del 
Pajaro. Many other settlers dispensed with the formality of purchase, 
squatting on the rest of Rodriguez' land before his numerous heirs 
could claim it after his death in 1855. Jesse D. Carr's success with 
his apple orchard in 1853 led others to plant trees. Today Watsonville 
ships as many as 6,500,000 boxes of apples in a year as well as vast 
quantities of strawberries, apricots, lettuce, and garden crops. The 
town has more than 75 packing houses and numerous evaporating plants, 
canneries, and cider and vinegar factories. 

Watsonville's Plaza, in the center of town was the scene of bull 
and bear fights and horse races were held on its main street in the days 
when the townsmen spent their Sundays after dutiful attendance at 
early mass gambling, dancing, and racing. The small cannon in the 
square is the one fired from the Pacific Mail steamship Oregon as it 
steamed into San Francisco Bay in October, 1850, announcing Cali- 
fornia's admission into the Union. 

Watsonville is at the junction with State 152 (see TOUR 2b) . 

Right from Watsonville on paved Beach Road 5 m. to SUNSET BEACH 
STATE PARK, a broad sandy strip bordering Monterey Bay. 

At the foot of the hill on the stretch of road south of Watsonville 
the stages from Natividad and Monterey used to meet and race into 
town the drivers hunched forward, whipping their four-horse teams 
to a gallop, the lumbering coaches swaying and careening while the 
cheering male passengers made bets and the ladies fainted quietly away. 

On the edge of a bluff overlooking the Pajaro Valley (R), 109.3 m., 
stands the rapidly disintegrating HOUSE OF GLASS, the Casa Materna 
(mother house) of the history-making Vallejo family, once the wonder 
and envy of the countryside because of its glass windows. The mansion 
was built, supposedly about 1824, by Don Ignacio Vincente Ferrer 
Vallejo, on the Rancho Bolsa de San Cayetano (pocket of St. Gaetan). 
The two-story structure has walls 20 inches thick, joists and window 
frames of hewn redwood, and a shingle roof upheld by a single beam; 
the floor of its two downstairs rooms is of hard-packed earth. Accord- 
ing to legend, the upper veranda was glassed-in at a time when glass 
windows were all but unknown in California because Vallejo received 
a shipment of twelve dozen windows instead of the one dozen he had 
ordered. The Vallejo family consisted of eight daughters and five 
sons of whom the most distinguished was Mariano, the founder of 

From the Vallejo ranch the young rebels, Juan Bautista Alvarado 
and Jose Castro, led an army of 75 armed with antiquated muskets on 
Monterey in November, 1835, bound to overthrow Gov. Nicolas Gu- 
tierrez and proclaim the "free and sovereign State" of Alta California. 
The army set out to the martial strains of a fife and drum corps re- 
cruited from San Juan. On the way they were joined by 50 daredevil 
Yankee riflemen, led by the reckless Tennesseean, Isaac Graham, who 

TOUR i 339 

had turned from trapping and hunting to the more profitable business 
of operating a whisky distillery in the Pajaro Valley. A single shot was 
enough to capture Monterey one cannon ball, fired by a lawyer who 
had to consult a book to learn how to fire it; it struck the Governor's 
house, reducing him to such abject terror that he surrendered forth- 
with. Young Alvarado wrote to Vallejo: "It is wonderful, Uncle, 
with what order our expedition has been conducted. Everybody shouts 
vivas, for California is free." 

The rancho of 1847 was described by young Lt. William T. Sher- 
man, who called early one morning on one of the sons, Juan Antonio: 
"It was on a high point of the plateau, overlooking the plain of the 
Pajaro, on which were grazing numbers of horses and cattle. The 
house was of adobe, with a long range of adobe huts occupied by semi- 
civilized Indians, who at that time did all the labor of a ranch, the 
herding and marking of cattle, the breaking of horses, and cultivating 
the little patches of wheat and vegetables which constituted all the 
farming of that day. Everything about the house looked deserted, and, 
seeing a small Indian boy leaning up against a post, I approached him 
and asked him in Spanish, 'Where is the master?' 'Gone to the Pre- 
sidio.' 'Is anybody in the house?' 'No.' 'Is it locked up?' 'Yes.' 
'Is no one about who can get in?' 'No.' 'Have you any meat?' 'No.' 
'Any flour or grain?' 'No.' 'Any chickens?' 'No.' 'Any eggs?' 'No.' 
'What do you live on?' "Nada' (nothing)." 

As the forested hills retreat to the foot of distant mountains, the 
way lies through rolling fields and pastures where white-faced cattle 

The warm-colored marsh grasses of ELKHORN SLOUGH, 
114.6 m., crossed by a concrete bridge usually lined with fishermen 
(tackle, bait, boats for rent), are the haunt of wild fowl. A peculiar 
form of marine algae colors the water red. 

At 115.1 m. is the junction with an oiled road. 

Right on this road is MOSS LANDING, 0.1 m. (10 alt., 100 pop.), a 
whaling station and schooner landing established about 1865 by Capt. 
Charles Moss. So large was its shipping business that at times wagons 
from the Salinas Valley farms were lined up for 5 miles, waiting their 
turn to unload. Up until 1920 as many as five whales a week were 
handled here, despite the complaints of inhabitants for miles around when 
the wind blew its odors inland; the Board of Health finally declared it a 
public menace. The fish reduction plant that took its place was scarcely an 
improvement in an olfactory sense. 

CASTROVILLE, 117.7 m. (819 pop.), was founded in 1864 by 
Juan B. Castro on his father's rancho, which bore the curious name of 
Bolsa Nueva y Morro Coyo (new pocket and lame Moor) in ref- 
erence, according to one conjecture, to a lame black horse, and accord- 
ing to another, to the black soil (since the Spaniards used the word 
morro to mean anything black). Once predominantly Portuguese in 
population, it is today mostly Swiss-Italian. 

State i, turning seaward, crosses the SALINAS RIVER, 120.7 m., 
which the Portola expedition followed to the coast in its search for 


Monterey Bay. Arriving near its mouth on September 30, the men 
spent a week exploring the shores of the bay, but as Sgt. Ortega wrote 
"not rinding the shelter and protection ascribed ... to the port 
caused us doubt, since we saw a gulf . . . large enough to hold thou- 
sands of vessels, but with little protection from some winds." After 
consultation, they resumed their weary journey northward. As the 
highway skirts sand dunes along the shore, the hazy blue Santa Lucia 
Mountains loom ahead above Monterey on its curved sweep of bay, 
gleaming in the sun. 

The entrance to HOTEL DEL MONTE, 132.1 m., leads to a woodland 
maze of terraces, courts, gardens, promenades and road ways, surround- 
ing the large white hostelry. The hotel is faintly reminiscent of the 
Spanish Colonial regime. It is California's oldest large resort hotel; 
it plays such a part in the life of the region that it has come to be 
regarded almost as a public institution. Its prestige value makes it 
particularly popular with honeymooners who yearn to have a glimpse 
of the haute monde. It is also popular with businessmen who like to 
temper the rigor of their conventions with luxurious comfort. In the 
surrounding forest are bridle trails, a racetrack, steeplechasing and cross- 
country racing courses, skeet and trapshooting grounds, archery and 
badminton courts, and swimming pools, golf courses, and polo fields 
where championship matches are played. The first hotel was erected 
in 1880; the second in 1887; the present one in 1924. The Art Gal- 
lery (open 2-5) exhibits works of local artists. 

MONTEREY, 133.1 m. (0-600 alt., 9,141 pop.) (see MON- 

Section c. MONTEREY to LAS CRUCES, 217 m. State 1. 

In 1897 young Dr. John Roberts tended the sick on the isolated 
ranches south of Monterey, riding long, slow miles on horseback over 
the narrow wagon road that twisted in and out of the -foothills and 
canyons of the Santa Lucia Range. Later he traveled along the coast 
from San Luis Obispo to Monterey on foot, sketching planning the 
road in which he tried for years to arouse interest. Roberts estimated 
that $50,000 would pay for its construction. When he could raise 
only half that sum, he carried his fight to the State Legislature. One 
ardent legislator Senator James Rigdon was largely responsible for 
the passage of the bill in 1919 that authorized construction of the road. 
In 1920 the first surveys were made and the work was begun. Hun- 
dreds of men free and convict labored for 18 years; not $50,000 but 
$10,000,000 was spent; lives and equipment were lost in the sea; and 
in June 1937, tne section of State I, known as the Carmel-San Simeon 
Highway, was opened to the public. 

In MONTEREY, m. is the junction of Del Monte Avenue and 
Washington St. 

Right from Monterey on Washington St.; R. on Lighthouse Avenue; R. 
on First Street; and L. on Ocean View Avenue along the shore to HOPKINS 

TOUR I 341 

founded by Timothy Hopkins in 1892. Its studies of oceanic biology include 
a hydrobiological survey of Monterey Bay. It has a collection of marine 
life for the observation of students and visitors. 

In a .pine forest by Monterey Bay is PACIFIC GROVE, 2.3 m. (47 alt., 
5>558 pop.), a family recreation and residential community. The site of 
the first Chautauqua in the West, it was founded by Methodist Episcopal 
Church members in 1874, as a center for conferences, meetings, and out- 
ings; it still, by deed restriction, forbids the sale of liquor within its boun- 
daries. The MUNICIPAL MUSEUM (open 2-5 daily except Mon.; free], on 
Forest Ave., displays collections of California butterflies and Monterey Bay 
marine life among other exhibits. The salt-water MUNICIPAL PLUNGE 
(adm. children 15$, adults 30$; suit rental 15$) is near the bathing beach, 
fishing pier, and bath house. Glass-bottom boats (10-4 daily; fare 25$} 
afford a view of underwater plant and animal life in the MARINE GARDENS 

Left from Pacific Grove on Asilomar Boulevard 0.5 m. to the BUTTERFLY 
TREES, two pines that serve as the refuge every fall for thousands of 
huge brown, red, and white butterflies (amosiae plexippus) from east of 
the Rocky Mountains. One year they settle on one tree, the next year on 
the other to the amazement of scientists. 

As the road continues westward round POINT PINOS at the south- 
western extremity of Monterey Bay, the rocky coastline, lashed by foaming 
breakers, grows more and more rugged. 

At 3.5 m. is the junction with a paved road; L. here 0.3 m. to POINT 
PINOS LIGHTHOUSE (open 1-4. Tues., Thurs.), built in 1872, which guards the 
coast with a white oscillating light and an electric fog siren. 

The snowy crests of sand dunes fringe the beach at ASILOMAR (Ind., 
a place of retreat